Yıl: 2007 Cilt: 37 Sayı: 6 Sayfa Aralığı: 359 - 365 Metin Dili: Türkçe İndeks Tarihi: 29-07-2022

The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce

Öz:
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı sağlıklı okul çocuklarında (6-14 yaş) solunum yolu patojenlerinin nazofaringeal kolonizasyonu ile nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) taşıyıcılığının araştırılmasıdır. Yöntem ve Gereç: Bu çalışma Düzce Üniversitesi tarafından Konuralp ilköğretim okulunda 484 sağlıklı çocukta yapılmıştır. Kültürlerden elde edilen izolatlar klasik mikrobiyolojik yöntemler ve Api 20 strep, NH ile tiplendirildi. Bulgular: Sağlıklı okul çocuklarının %56,6’sında en az bir potansiyel nazofaringeal bakteriyel patojen saptandı. ‹zole edilen bakterilerin %6’sı grup A streptococcus (GAS), %5,0’i S. pneumoniae, %33,1’i M. catarrhalis ve %34,9’u H. inşuenzae idi. İzole edilen GAS türlerinin tamamı penisiline duyarlıydı. S. pneumoniae izolatlarının %8,3’ü penisiline orta düzeyde dirençliydi. Beta-laktamaz testi M. catarrhalis ve H. inşuenzae için sırasıyla, %90,3 ve %8,3 pozitif bulundu. M. catarrhalis’in nazofaringeal kolonizasyonu ile son 6 ay içinde antibiyotik kullanımı (P=0.018) ve H. inşuenzae’nın nazofaringeal kolonizasyonu ile ev içinde antibiyotik kullanımı (P=0.001) arasında anlamlı bir ilişki saptandı. Nazal MRSA taşıyıcılığı sağlıklı çocuklarda %5 bulundu. Bu oran 6-10 yaş grubunda 11-14 yaş grubuna göre daha yüksekti (P=0.012). Sonuç: Okul çocuklarında potansiyel solunum yolu patojenlerinin nazofaringeal taşıyıcılığını göz ardı edilmemelidir ve bu konuda daha gerçekçi bilgilerin elde edilebilmesi için daha kapsamlı sürveyans çalışmaları yapılmalıdır.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Cerrahi

Düzce’de bir ilköğretim okulunda nasal MRSA taşıyıcılığı ve nazofaringeal patojenlerin kolonizasyonunun Araştırılması

Öz:
The aim of the study was to investigate nasopharyngeal colonization of respiratory tract pathogens and nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthy schoolchildren (6-14 years old).Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at Konuralp Primary School by Düzce University and 484 healthy children were included. Isolates obtained from nasal and nasopharyngeal cultures were identified by conventional microbiological procedures and Api 20 strep, NH.Results: 56.6% of healthy schoolchildren had at least one nasopharyngeal potential bacterial pathogen. Isolated bacteria species were as follows: 6% group A streptococcus (GAS), 5.0% S. pneumoniae, 33.1% M. catarrhalis, and 34.9% H. influenzae. All of the isolated GAS species were susceptible to penicillin. 8.3% of S. pneumoniae isolates were intermediately resistant to penicillin. Beta-lactamase test was found positive for M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae in 90.3 and 8.3%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between nasopharyngeal colonization of M. catarrhalis and antibiotic usage in the past six months (P=0.018) and nasopharyngeal colonization of H. influenzae and antibiotic usage in the household (P=0.001). The rate of nasal MRSA carriage in healthy children was 5%. This rate was found higher in the 6-10 age group compared to the 11-14 age group (P=0.012).Conclusions: Our data showed that nasopharyngeal carriage of potential respiratory pathogens in schoolchildren should not be underestimated. More comprehensive surveillance studies should be performed to obtain correct information about the carriage.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Cerrahi
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • 1. Eisenstein BI, Schaechter M. Normal microbial flora. In: Schaechter M, Medoff G, Eisenstein BI, editors. Mechanisms of Microbial Disease, 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins Co; 1993. p. 212.
  • 2. Granato PA. Pathogenic and indigenous microorganisms of humans. In: Murray PR, Baron JE, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Yolken RH, editors. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology; 2003. pp. 44-54.
  • 3. Millar MR, Walsh TR, Linton CJ, Zhang S, Leeming JP, Bennett PM. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by healthy children. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001; 47: 605-10.
  • 4. Vaneechoutte M, Verschragen G, Claeys G, van den Abeele AM. Selective medium for Branhamella catarrhalis with acetazolamide as a specific inhibitor of Neisseria spp. J Clin Microbiol 1988; 26: 2544-8.
  • 5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; fifteenth informational supplement. Approved standard M100-S15. Wayne PA: NCCLS; 2005.
  • 6. Rapola S, Salo E, Kiiski P, Leinonen M, Takala AK. Comparison of four different sampling methods for detecting pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in children. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 1077-9.
  • 7. Ruoff KL, Whiley RA, Beighton D. Streptococcus. In: Murray PR, Baron JE, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Yolken RH, editors. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology; 2003. pp. 405-21.
  • 8. Liassine N, Gervaix A, Hegi R, Strautman G, Suter S, Auckenthaler R. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx of healthy children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999; 18: 217-20.
  • 9. Masuda K, Masuda R, Nishi J, Tokuda K, Yoshinaga M, Miyata K. Incidences of nasopharyngeal colonization of respiratory bacterial pathogens in Japanese children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Int 2002; 44: 376-80.
  • 10. Principi N, Marchisio P, Schito GC, Mannelli S. Risk factors for carriage of respiratory pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Ascanius Project Collaborative Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999; 18: 517-23.
  • 11. Pettigrew MM, Foxman B, Mars CF, Gilsdorf JR. Identification of the lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis gene lic2B as a putative virulence factor in strains of non typeable Haemophilus influenzae that cause otitis media. Infect Immun. 2002; 70: 3551-6.
  • 12. Millar MR, Walsh TR, Linton CJ, Zhang S, Leeming JP, Bennett PM. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by healthy children. J Antimicrobiol Chemother. 2001; 47: 605-10.
  • 13. Murphy TF. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis and other gramnegative cocci. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2005. pp. 2529-36.
  • 14. Sehgal SC, Al Shaimy I. Moraxella catarrhalis in upper respiratory tract of healthy Yemeni children/adults and paediatric patients: detection and significance. Infection 1994; 22: 193-6.
  • 15. Faden H, Harabuchi Y, Hong JJ. Epidemiology of Moraxella catarrhalis in children during the first 2 years of life: relationship to otitis media. J Infect Dis. 1994; 169: 1312-7.
  • 16. Aniansson G, Alm B, Andersson B, Larsson P, Nylen O, Peterson H et al. Nasopharyngeal colonization during the first year of life. J Infect Dis. 1992; 165: 38-42.
  • 17. Bisno AL, Stevens DL. Streptococcus pyogenes (including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2005. pp. 2362-79.
  • 18. Limura T, Amano Y, Matsue T, Onogawa T, Endo M, Okuno R et al. Epidemiological survey for hemolytic streptococci isolated from children in Tokyo. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2001; 75: 314- 25.
  • 19. Begovac J, Bobinac E, Benic B, Desnica B, Maretic T, Basnec A et al. Asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage of beta-haemolytic streptococci and streptococcal pharyngitis among patients at an urban hospital in Croatia. Eur J Epidemiol. 1993; 9: 405-10.
  • 20. Jacobs MR. Worldwide trends in antimicrobial resistance among common respiratory tract pathogens in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003; 22: 109-19.
  • 21. Inoue M, Kaneko K, Akizawa K, Fujita S, Kaku M, Igari J et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens in Japan during PROTEKT years 1-3 (1999-2002). J Infect Chemother 2006; 12: 9-21.
  • 22. Wertheim HF, Melles DC, Vos MC, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, Verbrugh HA et al. The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005; 5: 751-62.
  • 23. Regev-Yochay G, Dagan R, Raz M, Carmeli Y, Shainberg B, Derazne E et al. Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in children. JAMA. 2004; 292: 716-20.
  • 24. Vlack S, Cox L, Peleg AY, Canuto C, Stewart C, Conlon A et al. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Queensland indigenous community. Med J Aust. 2006; 184: 556- 9.
  • 25. Harputluoglu U, Egeli E, Sahin I, Oghan F, Ozturk O. Nasopharyngeal aerobic bacterial flora and Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in deaf children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005; 69: 69-74.
  • 26. Creech CB 2nd, Kernodle DS, Alsentzer A, Wilson C, Edwards KM. Increasing rates of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005; 24: 617-21.
  • 27. Huang YC, Su LH, Chen CJ, Lin TY. Nasal carriage of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in school children without identifiable risk factors in northern Taiwan. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005; 24: 276-8.
  • 28. O’Donnell JA, Tunkel AR. Topical antibacterials. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2005. pp. 478-89.
  • 29. Miller MA, Dascal A, Portnoy J, Mendelson J. Development of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after widespread use of nasal mupirocin ointment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996; 17: 811-3.
  • 30. Dos Santos KRN, de Souza L, Filho PPG. Emergence of high-level mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Brazilian university hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996; 17: 813-6.
APA yıldırım m, Şahin İ, BAŞAK S, ÖKSÜZ Ş, ÖZAYDIN Ç, ACAR S, Şencan İ, KARABAY O (2007). The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. , 359 - 365.
Chicago yıldırım mustafa,Şahin İdris,BAŞAK Semra,ÖKSÜZ Şükrü,ÖZAYDIN Çiğdem,ACAR Selda,Şencan İrfan,KARABAY OĞUZ The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. (2007): 359 - 365.
MLA yıldırım mustafa,Şahin İdris,BAŞAK Semra,ÖKSÜZ Şükrü,ÖZAYDIN Çiğdem,ACAR Selda,Şencan İrfan,KARABAY OĞUZ The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. , 2007, ss.359 - 365.
AMA yıldırım m,Şahin İ,BAŞAK S,ÖKSÜZ Ş,ÖZAYDIN Ç,ACAR S,Şencan İ,KARABAY O The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. . 2007; 359 - 365.
Vancouver yıldırım m,Şahin İ,BAŞAK S,ÖKSÜZ Ş,ÖZAYDIN Ç,ACAR S,Şencan İ,KARABAY O The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. . 2007; 359 - 365.
IEEE yıldırım m,Şahin İ,BAŞAK S,ÖKSÜZ Ş,ÖZAYDIN Ç,ACAR S,Şencan İ,KARABAY O "The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce." , ss.359 - 365, 2007.
ISNAD yıldırım, mustafa vd. "The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce". (2007), 359-365.
APA yıldırım m, Şahin İ, BAŞAK S, ÖKSÜZ Ş, ÖZAYDIN Ç, ACAR S, Şencan İ, KARABAY O (2007). The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(6), 359 - 365.
Chicago yıldırım mustafa,Şahin İdris,BAŞAK Semra,ÖKSÜZ Şükrü,ÖZAYDIN Çiğdem,ACAR Selda,Şencan İrfan,KARABAY OĞUZ The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 37, no.6 (2007): 359 - 365.
MLA yıldırım mustafa,Şahin İdris,BAŞAK Semra,ÖKSÜZ Şükrü,ÖZAYDIN Çiğdem,ACAR Selda,Şencan İrfan,KARABAY OĞUZ The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol.37, no.6, 2007, ss.359 - 365.
AMA yıldırım m,Şahin İ,BAŞAK S,ÖKSÜZ Ş,ÖZAYDIN Ç,ACAR S,Şencan İ,KARABAY O The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007; 37(6): 359 - 365.
Vancouver yıldırım m,Şahin İ,BAŞAK S,ÖKSÜZ Ş,ÖZAYDIN Ç,ACAR S,Şencan İ,KARABAY O The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007; 37(6): 359 - 365.
IEEE yıldırım m,Şahin İ,BAŞAK S,ÖKSÜZ Ş,ÖZAYDIN Ç,ACAR S,Şencan İ,KARABAY O "The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce." Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 37, ss.359 - 365, 2007.
ISNAD yıldırım, mustafa vd. "The investigation of nasal MRSA carriage and colonization of nasopharyngeal pathogens at a primary school in Düzce". Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 37/6 (2007), 359-365.