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Disasters and crisis situations are unforeseen events. When a disaster occurs, the most critical step after the intervention at the scene is the health and treatment services provided in hospitals. Since it is of vital importance that hospitals, where health services are provided, are accessible and operational when faced with natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes, fires, epidemics, CBRN events, wars, and crises such as cyber-attacks, economic problems, hospitals must protect themselves against a disaster hazard and plan what to do during and after the disaster. This review was written to emphasize the importance of hospitals and their resilience in times of crisis and disaster.Hospitals can enhance their resilience by strengthening both their physical and social aspects. It is essential to create resistance in hospitals not against specific dangers such as fire and earthquake, but against all crises that may occur in the system. A hospital must first identify its structural and non-structural risks to enhance its physical resilience. To enhance social resilience, a hospital should plan its organisations and human resources, establish accurate information communication, and engage in logistics and financial planning. It is crucial to guarantee uninterrupted patient care and all supportive services. Measures should be taken for decontamination and evacuation of patients when necessary while also ensuring the overall security of the hospital. As a result, hospital resilience plays a critical role in maintaining healthcare services, effectively managing emergencies, and generally protecting public health. Further studies are needed to strengthen this resistance.
Urbanization is increasing all around the world due to population growth and big cities receive a high volume of migrants due to economic and social reasons. However, rapid population growth should be prevented in big cities in order to provide comfortable living conditions to the population. When urban planning practices do not catch the speed of urbanization; the tendency towards vertical architecture increases, the amount of green space decreases and problems related to unplanned urbanization come to the fore. These important problems, which have considerably increased recently in Türkiye, may lead greater problems in many respects. The parallel and self-sufficient development of urban and rural areas, which is defined as urban sustainability, is considered as the best-case scenario in urban planning practices. This aim is adopted nowadays by most of the countries in the world as it prevents rapid population growth in cities and depopulation in rural areas. Decisions which are taken to ensure urban sustainability are important for all countries. However, these decisions become even more important in regions with disaster risk. As the majority of Türkiye’s land area is under seismic risk, the problems which may arise due to rapid urbanization during an earthquake should be prevented. The damage and losses which could occur during an earthquake and the security, health, education problems which will arise after the earthquake can be solved by preventing dense housing and uncontrolled migration in urban areas. The connection between urban and rural areas should be strengthened. Besides, the social and economic sustainability of the rural area should be ensured. Settlements should be designed away from fault lines with a holistic approach as “living spaces” which consist components such as; transportation, infrastructure, green spaces and educational spaces. Additionally; the use of appropriate construction techniques and materials should be accepted as a priority. In this context, it can be mentioned that traditional building techniques, which have been developed over centuries and whose deficiencies have been improved during this period, should be preferred especially in rural areas. In this study, the criteria that gain importance in the construction of earthquake resistant and sustainable settlements are evaluated on Türkiye case. The precautions which should be taken to ensure rural sustainability and to prevent the depopulation of rural areas are emphasized. Within this scope, the importance of protecting the architectural texture and regenerating traditional building culture was discussed in constructing earthquake resistant settlements.
Crises that occur after natural disasters are real and serious issues that can cause serious depression. A crisis is a situation in which a smooth process suddenly turns into a depression with negative, dangerous consequences. Since our country is in an earthquake-prone region and has experienced earthquakes with great losses, it has a very traumatic history. The concept of crisis, which spreads over a wide area, is a phenomenon that needs to be talked about by drawing boundaries. Natural disasters cause crises, and crises cause trauma. Resilience is the most effective way to deal with natural disasters and the traumas that follow. Resilience can be considered as the ability to adapt to the adverse conditions caused by external factors causing the crisis for disaster management. Psychological resilience is defined as the ability to cope with the negative consequences that may follow a natural disaster and adaptation to a negative situation. The phenomenon of resilience is important for both the individual and the society in societies where major natural disasters such as earthquakes are experienced. This definition of psychological resilience points to an approach that leaves the individual on his/her own in the face of disaster, crisis, and trauma by placing a great responsibility on the individual. However, individuals who have been exposed to natural disasters should not be left on their own and all opportunities should be mobilised to help them. Passive exposure to the wounds caused by natural disasters decays both the individual and the society. Instead, engaging in emotional, mental, social, and artistic investments and taking part in new and multiple fields will benefit the individual and the society in order to tackle the wounds.
Along with other causes of migration, earthquakes have displaced millions of people worldwide over the last few decades, forcing them to move to other settlements within the country. As an "earthquake country", Turkey, where approximately 70% of its territory is located in the seismic zone, has faced a variety of environmentally forced migration that refers to a variety of demographic movements like evacuation, flight, displacement, resettlement, as well as forced migration. Disasters and disaster-related forced migrations as an aspect of survival anxiety have severe and irreversible consequences for the existence of physical security, human dignity, health, livelihoods, shelter, and social, economic, and cultural structures and processes of societies or their subunits. Therefore, disasters and disaster-induced migration, which can be defined as a process of significant vulnerability, are considered widespread and severe threats to the enjoyment and realisation of fundamental rights. Earthquake-related forced migration phenomenon is a widespread and high-risk factor, and this risk corresponds to a closer and more destructive possibility for the province of Istanbul. Therefore becomes vital to take preventive measures to mitigate the possible destructive effects as well as to eliminate the risks as much as possible. This study aims to determine whether relevant legislation is adequate to provide an effective and sufficient protection mechanism for environmental displacement that may occur in Istanbul after a significant earthquake for the purpose of “building resilience in crisis” in the view of international standards. Thus, it also emphasises the importance of the human rights approach and legal mechanisms in establishing resilience during crises. This study has been prepared by content analysing the disaster and emergency preparedness plans, policy texts, and relevant legal and regulatory provisions related to understanding and managing the earthquake-induced migration scenario in Istanbul.
Extreme heat represents one of the most challenging climate change impacts of the Anthropocene, exerting influence not only on the economy and built environment but also on daily human life, posing threats to health. Within the existing literature, heatwaves and extreme heat phenomena have predominantly been examined at the urban scale, emphasizing the vulnerabilities inherent in urban areas. Conversely, rural areas are often highlighted for their advantages related to the natural environment. However, a broader perspective reveals that rural areas have their unique vulnerabilities that warrant careful consideration. This paper seeks to comparatively assess the vulnerabilities of urban and rural areas. Through an extensive literature review, the paper explores the divergent resilience of urban and rural areas across economic, social, environmental, structural, and governmental factors. The study concludes that both rural and urban areas exhibit distinct advantages and disadvantages, influencing their levels of vulnerability and resilience. This research is instrumental in providing a comprehensive outlook on resilience studies related to extreme heat.
In the past three years, there has been no crisis more "unexpected" than the COVID-19 epidemic, which was deemed as pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Indeed, urban planning must play a significant role in resolving the pandemic dilemma. So, given that pandemics are natural disasters and environmental factors are their primary cause, how is it possible we are still experiencing this outbreak even though “resilience” and “sustainability” principles are ingrained in urban planning paradigms? Accordingly, it is essential to grasp how to incorporate “sustainability” and “resilience” ideas into urban planning processes and to develop the institutional capability to manage and monitor these procedures. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to clarify how sustainability and resilience principles might help to define the essential elements of the "post-pandemic" urban planning paradigm through conceptual analysis and a thorough assessment as the methodology. The first section discusses the necessity of the two most relevant concepts of urban planning paradigms; “sustainability” and “resilience” to tackle with pandemics, followed by the discussion of the “pandemic city” and “post-pandemic city” concepts. Finally, the last chapter explores how the attributes of resilience and sustainability can contribute to “post-pandemic urban planning” paradigm.
Resilience in the face of crises is crucial for minimizing the impact of disasters and enabling rapid recovery. This study delves into the interlinked consequences of two seismic events that significantly impacted Türkiye in 1999 and 2023. Using an impact chain analysis, the aim is to provide a thorough understanding of the extensive effects on structures, infrastructure, and socio-economic dynamics. The research also examines the evolution of disaster management practices from the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake to the more recent seismic events in 2023, highlighting advancements in risk management and resilience. Structurally, both seismic events revealed vulnerabilities in building design, emphasizing seismic shortcomings that led to widespread damage. Earthquakes exert a profound impact on critical infrastructure, affecting transportation, communication, and energy systems, with cascading effects that extend to the broader socio-economic landscape. The effectiveness of the methodology, particularly, the Impact Chain analysis, is emphasized as it reveals complex causal relationships. Visual representations support effective communication and collaboration among stakeholders, offering a holistic perspective on systemic risks. In conclusion, this study contributes to understanding disaster resilience and provides a foundation for subsequent research, policy formulation, and pragmatic strategies for disaster preparedness and response.
Within the Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector we see movements toward greater use of industrial robots, machine learning, algorithms, and other artificial intelligence (AI) tools. Yet, the AEC industry, despite being one of the largest fields on a global scale, is known for being the slowest to digitalize and innovate. Factors such as unrecognizing the value of digitalization by the decision-makers and making safety-related decisions under high levels of uncertainty, appear to be critical in preventing successful large-scale digitalization. This situation raises multiple questions from a risk science perspective. How, among other things, might the expansion of AI and more specifically AI algorithms usage in the AEC field affect uncertainties, and could AI be considered a tool for preventing crises? To obtain responses to these questions, we conducted 21 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with AEC employees who are currently using AI and AI algorithms or will soon be doing so in their everyday work. Our findings show potential for wider use within the AEC field, subject to overcoming knowledge gaps. Moreover, although having the potential to reduce some uncertainties, the increased use of AI and AI algorithms appears to be introducing an entirely new set of uncertainties. As a result, although AI may effectively prevent certain crises and be regarded as crisis prevention tool, its inadequate implementation could potentially create new risks.
This study explores the collective learning process that evolved in the cities, towns, and districts damaged in the February 6, 2023, Kahramanmaraş earthquakes in Türkiye. Employing a multi-methods approach and a dataset comprising a review of relevant documents, semi-structured interviews, and field observations, we examine four fundamental stages of collective learning – knowledge acquisition, information distribution, interpretation, and organizational memory – in assessing the learning process in communities exposed to the devastation and trauma of the earthquakes. The study highlights the importance of adaptation, change, and collective growth as communities struggle to cope with the demands incurred by the disaster, and identifies factors that inhibit such growth in practice. In the aftermath of the Kahramanmaraş earthquakes, individuals and organizations sought to adapt their existing knowledge and practices to meet the challenges posed by recovery from this disaster and to build a consensual understanding of changes needed to achieve sustainable reduction of continuing seismic risk. The study underscores the vital Importance of timely and accurate Information In enabling Individuals and organizations to make informed decisions during and after the chaos engendered by the earthquakes. It highlights the pivotal role of technology in bridging communication gaps and facilitating the flow of critical information. The study concludes by identifying inaccurate information as the most harmful characteristic inhibiting collective learning, and by emphasizing the importance of aligning collective learning processes simultaneously among diverse groups within the community and across jurisdictional levels of operation. This study offers valuable insights into how to translate collective learning from traumatic events into sustained measures to reduce the risk of future disasters, going beyond resilience to achieve sustainable risk reduction. By understanding the factors that drive collective learning and the challenges that can arise, policymakers and practitioners can develop more effective strategies for supporting collective learning in the aftermath of extreme events.
This photo essay and accompanying text visualize and represent the work that was based in London, UK of a collective project called Land Body Ecologies (LBE), a global transdisciplinary network exploring the deep interconnections of mental health and ecosystem health. LBE's research and action work combined science, art, and public engagement to understand and redress the ongoing crisis of land trauma among land-dependent and Indigenous peoples who nonetheless display remarkable resilience. The research and action have been rooted within communities seeking resilience for their interlinked culture, environment, and land rights, so that they could comprehend, document, and overcome the crises and traumas endured when their land suffers. LBE's London-based work is presented through photos of the arts-science-community space that anchored the work around the world.
The study of systems' ability to self-organize, internal structural balance, and space partitioning is the focus of a larger body of theories produced by mathematicians in the second half of the twenty-first century, which includes fractal theory and analysis. These theories focus on how the distribution of forms and urban functions within an urban agglomeration, the sequencing of the settlement system, the choice of a specific style of localization, or the evolution of urban sprawl is influenced by a region with inhomogeneous characteristics. The study's objective is to quantify how urban macro-forms reflect urban space. It is aimed to use fractal analysis, one of the methods that examine the structure of urban areas, as a measurement technique and to increase the recognition of this method in the community. When performing fractal analysis, the study area is generally evaluated holistically. Determining the place of the parts that make up this whole within the analysis is another aim of the study. The most basic method used in the study is the Fractal Analysis method. In order to make a relevant evaluation, Fractalyse 3.0 program was used. Two bases were created for the urban spots to be used in the program. While one of these bases is the parcels of Elazığ city center, the other one is buildings. In order to measure the parts of the whole mentioned as one of the aims of the study, three different regions of the city were identified and fractal analyzes were carried out separately for those regions. The study field covers all the central 42 neighborhoods where Elazığ city develops. According to the results obtained from the analysis, the Fractal dimension value of the city was 1.62. This value is a very interesting result as it is considered a transition criterion for cities to be fringed and compact. Accordingly, Elazığ city is a fringed city in the process of becoming compact. In the analysis of three different sections containing the parts that make up the whole, the fractal value of Doğukent neighborhood, located in the easternmost part of Elazığ city, was calculated as 1.70. This area, which has a compact structure, presents a positive response against the urban sprawl. The sample taken from the central part of the city, called the Center, showed a high value of 1.89 in fractal dimension. The fractal dimension value of the sample selected from the south of the city showed a high fringed result of 1.32.
This paper examines placemaking and the outcomes of urban design issues in a waterfront area. The fine-grained urban fabric has played an important role in waterfront regeneration schemes globally. Acting towards environmental challenges to provide green spaces has increasingly become a favourable approach since the 2010s. An ideas competition was held in 2020 to address the issues on the waterfront of the Haliç area. The seven semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the competing discourses on each project created by the teams who attempted to deal with the unsolved urban fabric. Making use of a series of semi-structured interviews, this research paper investigates the existence of the urban fabric as a place-shaping continuum in the Halic area.
This study aims to illustrate the formation of the urban tissue over the Roman theatre in the walled core of Zaragoza. Within the scope of the study, the typological plan of the city was prepared using the building surveys taken in 1911, and the plan was interpreted as a historical organism. The basic types in the city are determined, and methods of the process-based typology are used to reveal the formation process of a selected urban tissue that is an example of the rebasification of a specialized building. In this example, a Roman theatre was repurposed as a foundation for constructing residential buildings and affected the formation process of the urban block until its discovery.
The predicted rise in global temperature by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC appeals for a review of the methods and materials used for building construction for reduced emissions and comfort in buildings. Buildings account for the most carbon emissions in the globe. This study presents the impact of temperature change across the 36 state capitals in Nigeria, and the Federal Capital Territory, FCT, based on Representative Concentration Pathways, RCPs 4.5 for 2020 and 8.5 for 2090. A simple studio apartment with optimised alternatives for retrofits and new builds was simulated using EnergyPlus for both climate scenarios to determine the strategies for improving the energy performance of future buildings. The result of the study shows a significant increase in mean monthly outdoor temperature of about 5⁰c across the states, with potential heat stress affecting buildings in future climates. Moreover, about one-third of the locations experience a shift in climatic zones to hotter ones. The impact of this climate drift will be more severe in the Northcentral and Southwest regions of the country. The design strategies recommended to mitigate the effects of a changing climate focused on building envelope insulation, thermal mass, and solar shading. The performance of the optimised models under future scenarios accounts for up to 25% and 73% savings in cooling energy for retrofits and new builds, respectively. To protect existing buildings from the impact of future climates, developers must make massive investments in solar shading of buildings. In contrast, a combination of envelope insulation and solar shading strategies proves effective for new builds.
This paper aims to explore the concept and applications of smart urban green spaces within the context of sustainable cities. It emphasizes the importance of urban green spaces in providing ecological, social, and economic benefits, such as carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and improved well-being. The paper delves into integrating advanced technologies, including the Internet of Things (IoT), sensor networks, and data analytics, to create smart urban green spaces that optimize resource efficiency and enhance maintenance and operations. Sustainable practices, such as water conservation and biodiversity preservation, are examined for their role in ensuring the long-term viability and resilience of green spaces. The challenges and potential barriers to implementing smart urban green spaces, such as funding and governance issues, are discussed, as well as strategies for overcoming them. Additionally, the paper presents case studies and examples from around the world to showcase successful initiatives in creating smart urban green spaces. By exploring these concepts and applications, this paper contributes to the understanding and advancement of smart urban management of green spaces for sustainable cities.
Use of stone in architecture has been an enduring and timeless tradition throughout history, withstanding the test of time from ancient civilizations to today’s architecture. The durability, versatility and aesthetic appeal of stone make it an exceptional material for creating striking architectural designs. Stone has been used for centuries, as an integral part of architecture since ancient times and its importance still holds true in contemporary architecture being a popular building material today. In this context, this study examines the key features of stone that make it such a vital material for architectural design by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of using stone for architecture. The paper examines the role of stone in architecture and explores how contemporary projects have utilized stone in innovative and creative ways also delves into the significance and beauty of stone architecture, highlighting its history, durability and aesthetic appeal. The research methodology includes the analysis of case studies of contemporary projects crafted from stone, examining the design process, materials and techniques used. The case studies analyzed in this paper demonstrate the versatility of stone in contemporary architecture. The projects showcase how stone can be used in innovative ways, including the creation of sculptural forms, the incorporation of technology and the utilization of sustainable materials. The paper argues that stone's timeless qualities, durability and versatility make it an ideal material for contemporary architecture, particularly in achieving sustainability and aesthetic appeal. The study concludes that the use of stone in architecture remains crucial in creating robust, sustainable and attractive structures that stand the test of time.
This article presents a three-step process of collecting, deconstructing and reconstructing family photos in ethnographic research investigating the sociocultural aspects of behaviour patterns in family apartment buildings. The first author conducted the study for her Ph.D. thesis in architectural design, supervised by the second and third authors. As an architect, the first author created a photo collage sketchbook, combining various representational techniques of her profession with family photographs. While observing the family apartment building and trying to understand the “gecekondu” where the participants lived before the family apartment building, the researcher realised that the interviews were insufficient, and this problem forced the use of a photo collage sketchbook. To synthesise ethnographic knowledge, research started with obtaining family photos. After extracting and grouping, the deconstruction process began. Deconstructed layers are then reconstructed by using various architectural representation techniques and text. This photo collage sketchbook has helped us understand various aspects of the family apartment buildings related to architecture and culture. While doing this, the sketchbook prepared with visual contents combined with short notes represents the data collecting, organising, analysing, interpretation, knowledge-making, and presentation stages. In working with a photo collage sketchbook, obtaining family photographs and overlapping the photographs and interviews’ narratives appear challenging. Therefore, collective interviews have been a critical move to compare and verify the memories recalled by the participants. While interviewing, it is vital to show the photos to every participant from a particular age group because they contribute differently to the photo components because of the place experience. So, this study is not about a set of instructions or tools but experiences about the process or approach to constructing ethnographic knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to comprehend how the artistic spaces developed by designer Hassan Ragab using Midjourney, one of the artificial intelligence technologies whose significance is growing every day, fit into the intersection of architecture and art. Using the random sampling method, six space modellings with three distinct forms and functions were selected for the study from the artistic spaces made by Hassan Ragab via Midjourney. People who have received or are undergoing design training were surveyed to analyze their perception of creative design principles in selected works. A total of 200 participants from two distinct design sub-professional groups were subjected to the research. According to the study, artificial intelligence offers a way for people without artistic ability to access art. Midjourney is an AI research lab with its own program and online platform that generates artwork from provided text. By using Midjourney, architectural designs can be turned into artistic works. Experts have found that most spatial designers have yet to try Midjourney and that the program has a significant impact on creative design principles like fluency, flexibility, elaboration, originality and freedom.
Efforts to increase the quality of this environment have been going on since the beginning of the concern for shelter in the history of humanity. The main targets of the user, designers, practitioners, and decision-makers are to carry the quality of life, health, safety, and welfare of individuals and other living things to the next level. Problems have been identified to increase the function and quality of the space, spatial requirements have been determined, and researched, and some design factors have been determined to reach the most appropriate solution. The researchers focused on the proposition that the effectiveness of these factors before and during the design process would increase the quality of the space. However, since research generally focuses on indoor quality, the outdoor quality factors that are part of urban design are not clear. This work, was designed to evaluate the usability of these factors, which were determined and measured especially to deal with the interior, in designs at larger scales (street, neighborhood, city…) and to improve the existing. In designs outside the spatial scale, where almost all factors can be controlled by the relevant stakeholders of the process, the subject is approached through changeable and unchangeable parameters and their balancing. Studies on the factors determined during the process were compiled and their effects on different scales were evaluated as a result of these compilations. As a result of the evaluation, some suggestions were given. In the process of redesigning the space, selecting feasible suggestions, and incorporating them into the creation of the future physical space, using the suggestions as urban rehabilitation tools, and considering these interventions to be flexible and suitable for various factors are of great importance for the psychology of the users.
Studio courses in architectural education are undoubtedly among the most important courses that prepare students for professional design life. A given project should be guided with the support of the instructors and should include a simulation of the process in professional business life. Despite this, research shows that there is a disconnect between academia and the professional process. In addition to the fact that the educational process tries to add a different understanding to the student, professional life cannot find the middle point with academic education due to the constant changes in regulations due to rent and similar reasons. In such an environment, giving meaning to projects with an idealistic understanding, offering a thematic experience and producing holistic buildings with identity increases the importance of alternative approaches in project studios in educational processes. Although it is not possible to prevent the emergence of identity-less and rent-oriented products in the market only through architectural education, approaches that will increase productivity in this education will also increase students' expectations from the profession. The conceptual approach, which is one of these alternatives, can be defined as creating a network of relationships based on a basic idea. This network of relationships allows the concept to be transformed into a concrete structure by distributing it to all project processes without moving away from the context and with an inclusive approach. In this study, first of all, the conceptual approach in design education will be emphasized and general definitions will be made, and Studio-2, Studio-3, and Studio-4 courses in Konya Technical University Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Architecture in 2021-2022 will be evaluated with a conceptual approach. With this approach, it has been concluded that the student's design perception and thinking technique can be developed by creating concept-based, original, and holistic, and focusing on the missing aspects of professional life in project courses.

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