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This article engages with the role of what one might tentatively call “secondary” urban spaces, in that while they are public, they are not the most vibrant, populated, or active places. These are not the spaces envisioned in many project illustrations. They are not full of people and activity. They are however a crucial part of a wider texture of urban situations, and important to extending our understanding of seclusion, solitude, and tranquility beyond distant parks and recreation areas. My aim here is to understand the emergence of these spaces in-between; those that are close to the vibrant streets and are embedded in city centers yet which offer a respite from the most bustling urbanity. These spaces, I will argue, more easily allow for the kinds of interactions that can lead to bridging and bonding with the unknown, in addition to the important everyday encounters that occur on central streets and squares. Using qualitative methods which build on Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis, the discussion will draw on observations of the syntactic properties that condition, enable, and characterize such spaces, and address a series of concepts, including capacity, insulation, sequencing, and interface. A better understanding of such places, it is argued, not only allows a richer set of tools for working with urban design and planning, but offers possibilities for more resilient planning in terms of generating social relations, the emergence of communities, and for cities to manage and withstand extraordinary conditions.
The design for the Superquadra Norte 109 [North Superblock 109] of the Brasília Pilot Plan, Brazil’s Federal Capital, has started from a critical appraisal of the existent superblocks and makes a proposal that intends to: 1) establish clear relations of the block with the surroundings, stressing the importance of elements as the entrance for vehicles, the bus stop and the connections with the local shopping and the club, through the dimension and form of places, the localization of facilities, public lighting and vegetation; 2) improve internal legibility of the block, by creating places clearly defined by the buildings, to which entrance doors open; 3) create a street system in rings, not in a tree-like one, which are common in the existing superblocks, to improve internal circulation; 4) locate facilities internal to the superblock accessible to its entrance, by recognising (against what was predicted) that non-locals use them; 5) establish a continuous system of sidewalks that privileges the pedestrian, not the vehicle, as is traditional; 6) use vegetation and illumination to reinforce the identities of places in the superblock; 7) implement a configuration that explores a clear variation in forms, dimensions and uses, which favour the identity and orientability of the block; 8) configure open spaces and localise facilities of the superblock to favour co-presence and co-awareness among the inhabitants and between the latter and those passing by.
Physical environment has long been recognized within occupational therapy as a key factor contributing to residents’ functional abilities. However, the specific aspects of the physical environment that matter and the extent to which they do so remain less understood. This paper reports a quantitative study of the relationship between a characteristic of the physical home environment—the degree of interconnectedness of its rooms—and the cognitive ability of adults. Working with demographic, health, and home layout data collected from a sample of community-dwelling older adults in Atlanta, Georgia (N=72, Mage=69.5), we found that the cognitive functioning determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score was significantly associated with the average connectivity and mean depth of the homes while controlling participants’ age and education. Regression analysis suggested home connectivity independently explained a little more than 4% of the variance in the MoCA scores. The results further revealed that the relationship may be better modeled using non-linear models, and that the increase in the numbers of circulation rings as average room connectivity rises may be partly, but not entirely, responsible for its association with cognitive ability. The study points to directions for further work, including causal modeling, based on recommendations that could be developed for homes to support older adults’ abilities to continue to reside in their own homes as they grow older.
Over a half-century, space syntax has proven resilient as a theory and method for describing and analyzing the built environment from dwellings and complex buildings to cities. The paper briefly discusses resilience as a concept in the built environment and the foundations of space syntax itself. We summarize the body of the theoretical thinking in space syntax – laws of the urban object, generic function, principles of centrality and linearity, the design method of spatio-formal processes, and laws of spatial emergence-convergence – before offering a new hypothesis about laws of spatial conservation and spatial optimization at work in the built environment. The latter builds on Conroy-Dalton’s (2001) ideas about angularity and the conservation of linearity in movement. Both could provide an essential bridge with Carvalho and Penn’s (2004) concept of self-similarity in settlements, which relates to Batty and Longley’s (1994) notions of fractal cities. We argue the hypothesis of conservation-optimization defines the conceptual framework for the progressive and regressive practice of urban planning in settlements. We illustrate this theoretical discussion by demonstrating the resilience or replication of previous space syntax findings, and by drawing on new research about the history, spatial structure, and neighborhood logic of Metropolitan Doha.
The relationship between location and context, design, and usage gains importance in architectural structures. The interrelated patterns of different syntactic and semantic layers compose the built space especially museums or exhibition spaces. The museum spaces have a considerable part of everyday life in terms of social interaction. The accessibility, visibility, and circularity of the museum spaces are affecting the integration of the human-space activity. The museums by the sea are recognized with the silhouette of the city. These museums are accessible from the seaway and overland routes. It is important that the museums as an exhibition space in the city are visible from both the sea and the land and provide two different accesses. For this reason, the study investigates two naval museums which emphasize the importance of location belonging and the type of the museum. Within the scope of the study, Genova Galata Museo Del Mare in Italy and the Istanbul Deniz Müzesi in Turkey with a similar location and function are examined. The museums are close to the seaway and visible from the sea. However, Istanbul Deniz Müzesi’s access is provided from the motorway due to the actual usage. On the other hand, in the case of Galata, the situation is the opposite. Thus, the museum structure is passed through in it and creates the connection space between the sea and land. The aim of the study is not only a representation of the maritime structure of the museum in a city that is the sea but also to highlight the importance of access from both sides. Furthermore, with the examination of the visibility, accessibility and circularity affect, the usage and time-related changes in the museum to be focused. For this purpose, use from the sea and the land, the relationship between the land and the sea will be evaluated as a bridge of the ground floor. In this study, the space syntax analysis method is applied. Space syntax provides an analytical analysis of human-environment relations, accessibility, and movement values. (Hillier et al., 1987). The relevant results will create a research base for further use and change over time. In conclusion, in two different sea countries’ naval museums are evaluated with the context of location and usage comparatively. The accesses of the museums and exhibitions areas are also evaluated by the visibility, accessibility, circularity analyses. A scientific base has been created to examine past, present, and future usage.
The focus of this paper is the redevelopment of the squatter settlements in Ankara Turkey. Most of the articles focus on gentrification and changing neighbourhood social structures but the redevelopment of the squatter settlements also aims the production of formal low-income housing as well as the integration of previous non-formal housing into formal urban space. Therefore, this article suggests that the contemporary redevelopment project of squatters in Ankara, Turkey is a part of a broader strategy of integrating low-income into the formal housing system by cooperating with a part of low-income groups. The research was made in Altındağ, Ankara by using a deep semi-structured interview, and document analyses method. The researcher conducted 25 interviews with residents and 2 interviews with officials.
In the restructuring of the cities today, economic growth and its reflective trend multi-centred, urban development pattern made business enterprises shifted its locational choice in a decentralized way. As the focus of this paper, construction firms expended their market areas as well. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of construction firms according to the variables of socio-economic characteristics of districts and total construction sizes within the concept of multi-centre development in Istanbul. The paper describes the growth of the city and the construction firms through time according to the concentric zones and districts, firstly. Then descriptive figures and results of regression analysis are given by taking the number of construction firms as dependent variable and population, income per capita, average household size and amount of construction activity as the independent variables. Main hypothesis of this paper is that socio-economic indicators and total size of construction in building permits can explain the variance of number of construction firms in Istanbul district. Overall results from the multiple regression model indicate that the role of socio-economic indicators and total size of construction in building permits on the distribution of construction firms is proved on a large scale in the study. The spatial distribution of the construction firms has been figured out that the sub-central, peripheral districts of Istanbul have sustained the significant role in a way that responds to the construction supply, and housing sub-markets. However, the intense construction trends in the periphery reveal a fact that these firms preserve the location of their management offices in the sub-centre with relatively higher economic attraction, in central districts.
Historic cultural landscapes consist of pattern of layers reflecting mutual interaction of the local people with the land through time. They have material and immaterial traces of collective practices of the initial inhabitants and a local culture. Traditional determinist approach has a tendency to split material and immaterial, natural and cultural values and evaluate them separately. However, the concept of cultural landscape has been arisen as a criticism against this duality and distinction and thereafter landscapes started to be regarded as cultural representations that are shaped by both natural and cultural values. This article explores the historic cultural landscape of Karabağlar Yaylası in a rural-urban continuum in search of preservation strategies regarding changing relations with modernization and urbanization. Karabağlar Yaylası is a semi-urban and semi-rural settlement close to Muğla city centre. The seasonal migration and socio-economical interdependency have been two significant facts that sustain the settlement. However, the historic cultural landscape of Karabağlar is under threat of urban sprawl and increasing development pressures with urbanization. Modernization tools and implementations have fragmented and transformed the distinct socio-spatial pattern of Karabağlar and destroyed its character defining features over the last five decades. In order to reveal socio-spatial transformations in Karabağlar, a survey analysis was conducted. Two similar face-to-face questionnaires carried out in 2006 and 2020 are evaluated comparatively. The questionnaires have been structured over how the inhabitants of Karabağlar perceive the space, how they develop land use and the symbolic meaning they attribute to the space. Findings related to field research and the empirical results of the questionnaires are evaluated holistically and changing social, economic and environmental relations are elaborated. To combat with the problems arising due to socio-spatial transformations, the article proposes some preservation strategies that care cultural values as far as natural values, perception of residents, collective memory, sense of community and their interaction with the land. This study has a potential to set up a research agenda in terms of preservation strategies for similar geographical settings.
Armed conflict is considered a major risk for cultural heritage since the Second World War and guidelines are prepared by international organizations such as UNESCO and ICCROM on risk management and protection of cultural heritage in conflict-affected areas. However, the main concerns are reducing risks prior to the armed conflict by identifying, analyzing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risks and managing them before the risk occurs. The literature is quite narrow in respect to the ways of protecting cultural heritage and sustaining life for both buildings and people in intentionally destroyed historic settlements. Within this context, this study aims to raise the question on how to manage change in the intentionally destroyed historic settlements and how to strengthen resilience in conflict-affected areas. In order to achieve this aim, an examination on two case studies, Kirkuk Citadel and the Old Town of Van, which were both intentionally destroyed as a result of armed conflict is made using comparative analysis method. The cases are chosen to represent different time periods, scales and types of destruction. Depending on the international law and guidelines, the study tries to understand the impact of armed conflict on the historic settlements embracing tangible and intangible cultural heritage, types of risks that threaten them and the ways to strengthen resilience in such areas. It is revealed as a result of the study that for both case study areas, being in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage is seen a primary step to be internationally recognized and to claim help for future actions aiming to reduce risks. Nevertheless, it can be argued that strategies have to be developed depending on the size and level of destruction, and the level of intervention to preserve and to rehabilitate life in such historic settlements, as each intentionally destroyed historic settlement has unique cultural, political and economic characteristics.
According to the World Health Organization, disasters are the unexpected consequences of occurrences that cause a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community. Available records indicate that natural, technological and man-made disasters -by causing loss of lives and property- affected more than 4 billion people worldwide in the last 20 years. People with disabilities are among those who are highly fragile and physically vulnerable to the dangers and risks posed by disasters. The actual reason behind why people with disabilities are rather vulnerable to the adverse effects of natural and man-made disasters is the fact that they have no access to social, spatial and civil resources. According to the United Nations Inclusive Disaster Risk Management Report, in the event of disasters and emergencies, individuals with disabilities are affected disproportionately due to the inaccessibility of the evacuation, response, and rescue efforts. The 7th Millennium Development Goal (1990-2015) emphasizes that improvements in humans’ lives and in the environment are critical to ensure environmental sustainability, and it highlights the need to ‘build a disaster-resilient community.’ Resilience to urban disasters shows a community’s ability to adapt to natural and man-made disasters and hazards, to keep any potential threats away, and to evaluate the consequences and modify existing conditions. This study focuses on accessibility in disaster-resilient cities, and it aims to evaluate the components of urban resilience, which helps to eliminate the damages of disasters and to recover, with a particular focus on the accessibility of individuals with disabilities. Based on the available literature, the study evaluates the outcomes of a workshop that was conducted with 40 participants in August-September 2021 as one of the events in preparation for MARUF21. The participants were local officials who are in charge of and accountable for disaster and emergency management, and individuals who are vulnerable to disasters and emergencies. The findings and results of the study are presented under four headings: (i) Accessibility of Urban Spaces in Disaster and Emergency Management, (ii) Risk Management and Accessibility in Cultural Heritage Areas, (iii) Social Policies and Accessibility in Disaster and Emergency Management, and (iv) Accessibility to Communication, Technology and Innovations. The study highlights that accessibility in disaster and emergency management extends beyond spatial organization, and it is a prerequisite for social harmony and disaster resilience.
In this study, the issue of the accident frequency/occurrence in local residential streets where vehicle counts are not obtained is discussed. The accident reports received from the Ministry of Interior include fatal and injury accidents. But since the number of deadly accidents is minor, a binomial regression was not employed in the statistical analysis. This study investigates the role of morphological characteristics of the street network where main arterials are excluded in the safety of residential neighborhoods of Mersin, Turkey. Results showed that commercial and industrial uses generate more traffic than residential neighborhoods, therefore, responsible for higher rates of accidents. The number of vehicles, employment, and population increase the accident rate. Empirical model results showed that population density, street length per capita (meters), and number of intersections significantly affect accident occurrence. Number of intersections increases accident frequencies while street length per capita reduces. In contrast, the number of links, street density, link to node ratio, and average link length have no significant effect on accident occurrence. Traffic safety cannot be achieved if the street length is not proportional to the number of vehicles. In addition, street design is also a matter of efficient use of urban space.
Transportation planning and design had been a major concern from the urban planning perspective. Various means of transportation have shaped our cities and landscapes for ages and by looking at transportation buildings from an architectural perspective one can see that existing studies focus on the building performance of the transportation buildings or the history of them. Consequently, transportation building design is an important concern that should be addressed from multiple perspectives. Starting from 2019-2020 Fall Semester, Abdullah Gül University Department of Architecture started a new elective course ARCD 110 Transit Architecture, focusing on this issue. While the main intention of the course is to develop a critical view on the existing prescriptive design methods related to the transportation buildings and their environment, students are expected challenge these discussions at their final projects. In order to develop a critical view on the existing design methods, a considerable part of the class focuses on the design guidelines and typologies of the buildings along with the history of the selected building types. In parallel, student presentations showing different examples throughout the world to inspect different design approaches as well as to start debates regarding various debates around design, global world, awards in architecture, and symbolism in architecture. Afterwards, the class turns into a discussion environment focusing on design issues not only related to transportation buildings but also to the rest of the design environment which they might encounter in the future. these discussions start from multimodal and micro mobile transportation possibilities followed by the personal space as a design parameter. These arguments are followed by sustainability from triple bottom line perspective and the possibilities of different technologies and their effect on the transportation related buildings. Meanwhile, they also experiment with simulation tools to test their design cases in different conditions. After the discussions and the debates students are tasked to design a subway station in front of their campus for a final project. After four semesters, this paper will present the aim of the course, the class structure, projects and the findings of the course with selected examples from the course students to its readers.
At a glance, architectural space or architectural product is the name given to the artificial shell of actions arising from human needs. These needs range from basic expectations, such as protection, shelter, and production which are necessary for human life, to expectations which require more complex intellectual infrastructure such as culture, belief, and lifestyle. In this study, possible intellectual, architectural approach and design method preferences in Village Institute buildings as architectural products are examined and their contributions to architectural project education are discussed through project work examples. Within the scope of the study, the understanding of education and architecture of the village institutes were examined and possible inferences and concepts which would form the basis of the design were tried to be determined with the help of publications in the literature focused on these subjects. Further, it is aimed to question the relationship of these concepts with those produced in the architectural project studio. The design study subject of the article was carried out in the 2018-2019 Fall Semester at the Department of Architecture at KTU. The first step in the process is turning the inferences and concepts obtained by the executives into a set of information which shall be, eventually, compared with the student project work. This set is retained by the executives for discussion in the article. The second step is the literature research of the students about the project topic and location. Each student reached some concepts from the field and Village Institutes where Trabzon/Beşikdüzü Village Institute was located in the past and advanced his/her design studies through these concepts. Within the scope of this article, the concept sets obtained by the executives and students were compared and discussions were made on overlaps and divergences by associating the aforementioned two steps, and a theoretical framework was formed which was graphically formed.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected all levels of education all over the World. In Turkey, on March 16, 2020, the decision of distance education was taken in higher education sharply. This necessity had caused urgent adaptation to the distance education process, which resulted in changing the courses’ curriculums in parallel with the emergence of new teaching and learning strategies especially in applied programs such as interior architecture. This process has tested the ‘resilience’ of the education system explicitly. Resilience means an ability of a community, system, or individual to ‘adapt’ and ‘transform’ in the case of varied facts causing any disruptive situation in the existing system. The pandemic has taught the education community about ‘adaptation’ and ‘transformation’ through implementing diverse learning tools and responses to complex circumstances, especially in applied courses. With the end of the pandemic, the instructors experiencing the face-to-face education environment anew will sustain it with the lessons from the pandemic undoubtedly. This study aims to discuss the concept of ‘resilience’ with its basic dimensions, ‘adaptation’ and ‘transformation’, in interior architecture education by focusing on the experiences, limitations, and potentials experienced in the distance education process. It specifically dwells on teaching and learning experiences of Universal Design (UD) course conducted in the Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, Atılım University, Ankara in the 2020 Spring term when the first and urgent adaptation to distance education had been experienced. The evaluation process is supported with the obtained qualitative data, with results suggesting that all students gained useful insights by experiencing multiple dialogue environments in various ways of learning into how they can incorporate inclusivity into future designs. This study displays that it is crucial that the distance UD learning process open to interactive dialogue among students, experts, instructors, and users to design inclusive spaces welcoming all people without discrimination. It argues that there have been potential improvements about adaptation and transformations of educational approaches within the pandemic, but in interior architecture education as applied design education, the importance and necessity of experiential learning in bodily and collective communication has been deeply proven.
How to move from tradition to modernity and how to combine or control them in a society has a direct relationship with the culture and the culture, as the main tool of architecture, needs a transition. This transition was started to be appeared in Iran during first Pahlavi era, while the government was planning to develop this process. This research is a qualitative-descriptive one and it has a deductive style and the significance and aim of this research is to study the tradition and modernity in architecture and to see how the contemporary architecture of Iran tried to transit from tradition to modernity during first Pahlavi Era. In this paper, first we will have a quick review on Iran during first Pahlavi era and its contemporary social and political history and tradition and modernity in its architecture and then by studying the architecture of two famous foreign architects, Nikolai Markov and Andre Godard who were invited to the country by the government for reformation and modernization of architecture of the country, their modern architectural styles facing with traditional and national needs of the country and their solutions will be studied.
In many countries, urban policies and urban planning increasingly favor urban renewal more than new urban development. However, the urban renewal processes are challenging because of ‘land assembly’, ‘recovery of urban infrastructure’, and ‘social sustainability. The success of the urban renewal processes is closely related to these three key issues because they can affect directly social, economic, and political costs and time periods. The aim of the article analyzes approaches and their outcomes for three keys issues faced in urban renewal processes in the Turkish case. Such an analysis offers insight into policies that can help to overcome three key issues faced in urban renewal and to promote sustainable urban renewal.
Flexible design in architecture is the ability of buildings to adapt to changing situations in their use, functioning, or context. The ability of the users to change the space and control it according to their requirements and demands is the strongest aspect of flexible design. Flexible design, integrated into design practice with modern architecture, plays a key role in the solution of many design problems. This study, which focuses on housing flexibility, aims to determine the demands of the users regarding the flexible use of housing and to understand the internal dynamics of the process that determine the housing flexibility in this context. Within the scope of the study, it is thought that the housing flexibility is formed by evaluating the changing demands of the users within the framework of the sustainability of the goals and values and realizing them according to the existing capabilities. This process has been attempted to be conceptualized by defining it with sub-elements belonging to three components that are involved in the process defined as change, goals-values, opportunities. In the conceptual model, at the first stage, sustainability works as a control mechanism to ensure the realization of change demands arising from various factors. While sustainability checks the suitability and validity of the demands, the opportunities organize these demands to be accomplished. According to the model, the goals and values must be suitable for sustainability to the demands for change to be realized. However, to realize the demands and achieve a flexible solution, the existing opportunities must be suitable. Within the scope of the conceptual model, the effect of the process components on housing flexibility is attempted to be determined through questioning the flexibility demands of the users. In line with these aims, a questionnaire survey was conducted. 450 subjects were reached via email and 322 of them replied. The findings of the study allowed us to understand that the expectations of the users in terms of the demands, goals, and values, sustainability, and opportunities regarding the change in providing housing flexibility. The results point out that the users demand flexible housing, which enables spaces enlarged and narrowed or divided and combined. In this context, it has been determined that the flexibility of the spaces should provide long-term use in accordance with the lifestyle within the scope of goals and values. For this purpose, the necessity of technological opportunities that provide modification of spaces is understood.
In the field of urban morphology, different scholars have developed different approaches. The pioneering approaches are the procedural-typological approach of G. Caniggia and G.L. Maffei and the historico-evolutionary approach of M.R.G. Conzen, which are the focus of this paper. However, it is also worth mentioning J.W.R. Whitehand (1981), who integrated the analysis of changes to the built fabric with the study of the individuals and organizations involved in the various aspects of property development, users, planners, and architects. As well, Kropf (2009) named four distinct approaches – spatial analytical, configurational, process typological, and historico-geographical – for the purpose of determining more explicitly which aspects are included in the different approaches to urban morphology. Based on the theoretical approaches of the above-mentioned scholars, in the scope of this article, the architectural and planning dimensions of urban morphology will be discussed for Ludlow and Famagusta, which carry similar morphological characteristics on the planning level and different typological characteristics on the architectural level. Ludlow is a small market town in the south of Shropshire, England; it is a few miles east of the Welsh border. Famagusta, with its Old Town, is a small market town in the eastern part of Cyprus. This article explores urban morphology based on the two pioneering morphological approaches, and then it sets up a typo-morphological basis for Ludlow and Famagusta through an integrated approach. The belief is that such an integrated approach will drive future interventions, design, and planning policies towards their conservation.
Architecture is most often defined as the art and technique of creating space. The understanding and use of space in a society is the most important means that concretely reflects the cultural system and way of life, which is the sum of all the experiences, talents and values of that society. While the physical environment created by people in history is mostly shaped according to local values, the spaces designed by architects have been the scene of conflict among universal and regional values, especially after the Industrial Revolution, with the development of Modern Architecture. This study which evaluates the architectural approaches adopted after Modern Architecture, within the framework of economic, technological and socio-cultural developments in the world and discusses them with their reflections in Turkey, emphasizes the validity of striving for lasting values instead of fashions in architecture. In this context, the issue of culture and identity comes to the fore. Cities have their own unique appearance, physical structure and way of life, as well as a "spirit" that makes them distinctive. The characteristics of the city which make it different from the others constitute "urban identity". Especially in developing countries, many cities face the risk of losing their identity in the process of urban development, which consists of the expansion of the streets and the demolition of buildings that can actually be evaluated. The cultural and natural heritage that makes cities different is also the foundation of urban identity. These values are also a prerequisite for the sustainability of cities. Cultural heritage can be considered not only as a trace of the past, but as a wealth for the future of people. When properly managed, there are many opportunities to create a strong relationship between identity, culture and heritage. Since these opportunities vary in each settlement, different solutions need to be developed. However, it is important that different solutions are produced in a consistent and meaningful integrity, and not as independent initiatives of cities that share the same geography and culture in regional scale. In this process, it is necessary for central administrative bodies, local governments and civil society to work together for an effective and sustainable urban structure.
Resilience and resilient cities are heavily used terms in the current architecture and planning discourse. Given the mixed interpretations of the concept of “Resilient Cities”, this paper calls for a more holistic understanding of the concept and its impact on the way cities are designed, planned and developed. By labelled as resilient, cities should transcend the current limited definition of the resilient cities concept which focuses merely on facing environmental challenges and readiness for climate change impact and other forms of natural disasters. Resilience as an attribute for cities and as will be shown in the case of Doha, the capital city of Qatar, should be holistic and inclusive to embrace all aspects of city development including economical base, cultural assets, social structure and urban development. Using the case of Doha, the paper illustrates a new conceptual understanding of cities’ resilience. The paper analyses the contemporary evolution in Doha and highlights the milestones in structuring the new vision for Doha’s development as a resilient city holistically. In the last decade, the city was subjected to several radical transformations started from winning the bid to host the 2022 FIFA world cup, decrease in oil prices and finally the sea, air and land blockade imposed on Qatar by its adjacent neighbors. The paper illustrates Doha’s model in providing a worthy case of resilience which allows the city to successfully cope with the consequences of all the major shocks, stress and unforeseen challenges, the city have faced in the last decade.

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