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Disasters and crisis situations are unforeseen events. When a disaster occurs, the most critical step after the intervention at the scene is the health and treatment services provided in hospitals. Since it is of vital importance that hospitals, where health services are provided, are accessible and operational when faced with natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes, fires, epidemics, CBRN events, wars, and crises such as cyber-attacks, economic problems, hospitals must protect themselves against a disaster hazard and plan what to do during and after the disaster. This review was written to emphasize the importance of hospitals and their resilience in times of crisis and disaster.Hospitals can enhance their resilience by strengthening both their physical and social aspects. It is essential to create resistance in hospitals not against specific dangers such as fire and earthquake, but against all crises that may occur in the system. A hospital must first identify its structural and non-structural risks to enhance its physical resilience. To enhance social resilience, a hospital should plan its organisations and human resources, establish accurate information communication, and engage in logistics and financial planning. It is crucial to guarantee uninterrupted patient care and all supportive services. Measures should be taken for decontamination and evacuation of patients when necessary while also ensuring the overall security of the hospital. As a result, hospital resilience plays a critical role in maintaining healthcare services, effectively managing emergencies, and generally protecting public health. Further studies are needed to strengthen this resistance.
Urbanization is increasing all around the world due to population growth and big cities receive a high volume of migrants due to economic and social reasons. However, rapid population growth should be prevented in big cities in order to provide comfortable living conditions to the population. When urban planning practices do not catch the speed of urbanization; the tendency towards vertical architecture increases, the amount of green space decreases and problems related to unplanned urbanization come to the fore. These important problems, which have considerably increased recently in Türkiye, may lead greater problems in many respects. The parallel and self-sufficient development of urban and rural areas, which is defined as urban sustainability, is considered as the best-case scenario in urban planning practices. This aim is adopted nowadays by most of the countries in the world as it prevents rapid population growth in cities and depopulation in rural areas. Decisions which are taken to ensure urban sustainability are important for all countries. However, these decisions become even more important in regions with disaster risk. As the majority of Türkiye’s land area is under seismic risk, the problems which may arise due to rapid urbanization during an earthquake should be prevented. The damage and losses which could occur during an earthquake and the security, health, education problems which will arise after the earthquake can be solved by preventing dense housing and uncontrolled migration in urban areas. The connection between urban and rural areas should be strengthened. Besides, the social and economic sustainability of the rural area should be ensured. Settlements should be designed away from fault lines with a holistic approach as “living spaces” which consist components such as; transportation, infrastructure, green spaces and educational spaces. Additionally; the use of appropriate construction techniques and materials should be accepted as a priority. In this context, it can be mentioned that traditional building techniques, which have been developed over centuries and whose deficiencies have been improved during this period, should be preferred especially in rural areas. In this study, the criteria that gain importance in the construction of earthquake resistant and sustainable settlements are evaluated on Türkiye case. The precautions which should be taken to ensure rural sustainability and to prevent the depopulation of rural areas are emphasized. Within this scope, the importance of protecting the architectural texture and regenerating traditional building culture was discussed in constructing earthquake resistant settlements.
Crises that occur after natural disasters are real and serious issues that can cause serious depression. A crisis is a situation in which a smooth process suddenly turns into a depression with negative, dangerous consequences. Since our country is in an earthquake-prone region and has experienced earthquakes with great losses, it has a very traumatic history. The concept of crisis, which spreads over a wide area, is a phenomenon that needs to be talked about by drawing boundaries. Natural disasters cause crises, and crises cause trauma. Resilience is the most effective way to deal with natural disasters and the traumas that follow. Resilience can be considered as the ability to adapt to the adverse conditions caused by external factors causing the crisis for disaster management. Psychological resilience is defined as the ability to cope with the negative consequences that may follow a natural disaster and adaptation to a negative situation. The phenomenon of resilience is important for both the individual and the society in societies where major natural disasters such as earthquakes are experienced. This definition of psychological resilience points to an approach that leaves the individual on his/her own in the face of disaster, crisis, and trauma by placing a great responsibility on the individual. However, individuals who have been exposed to natural disasters should not be left on their own and all opportunities should be mobilised to help them. Passive exposure to the wounds caused by natural disasters decays both the individual and the society. Instead, engaging in emotional, mental, social, and artistic investments and taking part in new and multiple fields will benefit the individual and the society in order to tackle the wounds.
Along with other causes of migration, earthquakes have displaced millions of people worldwide over the last few decades, forcing them to move to other settlements within the country. As an "earthquake country", Turkey, where approximately 70% of its territory is located in the seismic zone, has faced a variety of environmentally forced migration that refers to a variety of demographic movements like evacuation, flight, displacement, resettlement, as well as forced migration. Disasters and disaster-related forced migrations as an aspect of survival anxiety have severe and irreversible consequences for the existence of physical security, human dignity, health, livelihoods, shelter, and social, economic, and cultural structures and processes of societies or their subunits. Therefore, disasters and disaster-induced migration, which can be defined as a process of significant vulnerability, are considered widespread and severe threats to the enjoyment and realisation of fundamental rights. Earthquake-related forced migration phenomenon is a widespread and high-risk factor, and this risk corresponds to a closer and more destructive possibility for the province of Istanbul. Therefore becomes vital to take preventive measures to mitigate the possible destructive effects as well as to eliminate the risks as much as possible. This study aims to determine whether relevant legislation is adequate to provide an effective and sufficient protection mechanism for environmental displacement that may occur in Istanbul after a significant earthquake for the purpose of “building resilience in crisis” in the view of international standards. Thus, it also emphasises the importance of the human rights approach and legal mechanisms in establishing resilience during crises. This study has been prepared by content analysing the disaster and emergency preparedness plans, policy texts, and relevant legal and regulatory provisions related to understanding and managing the earthquake-induced migration scenario in Istanbul.
Extreme heat represents one of the most challenging climate change impacts of the Anthropocene, exerting influence not only on the economy and built environment but also on daily human life, posing threats to health. Within the existing literature, heatwaves and extreme heat phenomena have predominantly been examined at the urban scale, emphasizing the vulnerabilities inherent in urban areas. Conversely, rural areas are often highlighted for their advantages related to the natural environment. However, a broader perspective reveals that rural areas have their unique vulnerabilities that warrant careful consideration. This paper seeks to comparatively assess the vulnerabilities of urban and rural areas. Through an extensive literature review, the paper explores the divergent resilience of urban and rural areas across economic, social, environmental, structural, and governmental factors. The study concludes that both rural and urban areas exhibit distinct advantages and disadvantages, influencing their levels of vulnerability and resilience. This research is instrumental in providing a comprehensive outlook on resilience studies related to extreme heat.
In the past three years, there has been no crisis more "unexpected" than the COVID-19 epidemic, which was deemed as pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Indeed, urban planning must play a significant role in resolving the pandemic dilemma. So, given that pandemics are natural disasters and environmental factors are their primary cause, how is it possible we are still experiencing this outbreak even though “resilience” and “sustainability” principles are ingrained in urban planning paradigms? Accordingly, it is essential to grasp how to incorporate “sustainability” and “resilience” ideas into urban planning processes and to develop the institutional capability to manage and monitor these procedures. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to clarify how sustainability and resilience principles might help to define the essential elements of the "post-pandemic" urban planning paradigm through conceptual analysis and a thorough assessment as the methodology. The first section discusses the necessity of the two most relevant concepts of urban planning paradigms; “sustainability” and “resilience” to tackle with pandemics, followed by the discussion of the “pandemic city” and “post-pandemic city” concepts. Finally, the last chapter explores how the attributes of resilience and sustainability can contribute to “post-pandemic urban planning” paradigm.
Resilience in the face of crises is crucial for minimizing the impact of disasters and enabling rapid recovery. This study delves into the interlinked consequences of two seismic events that significantly impacted Türkiye in 1999 and 2023. Using an impact chain analysis, the aim is to provide a thorough understanding of the extensive effects on structures, infrastructure, and socio-economic dynamics. The research also examines the evolution of disaster management practices from the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake to the more recent seismic events in 2023, highlighting advancements in risk management and resilience. Structurally, both seismic events revealed vulnerabilities in building design, emphasizing seismic shortcomings that led to widespread damage. Earthquakes exert a profound impact on critical infrastructure, affecting transportation, communication, and energy systems, with cascading effects that extend to the broader socio-economic landscape. The effectiveness of the methodology, particularly, the Impact Chain analysis, is emphasized as it reveals complex causal relationships. Visual representations support effective communication and collaboration among stakeholders, offering a holistic perspective on systemic risks. In conclusion, this study contributes to understanding disaster resilience and provides a foundation for subsequent research, policy formulation, and pragmatic strategies for disaster preparedness and response.
Within the Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector we see movements toward greater use of industrial robots, machine learning, algorithms, and other artificial intelligence (AI) tools. Yet, the AEC industry, despite being one of the largest fields on a global scale, is known for being the slowest to digitalize and innovate. Factors such as unrecognizing the value of digitalization by the decision-makers and making safety-related decisions under high levels of uncertainty, appear to be critical in preventing successful large-scale digitalization. This situation raises multiple questions from a risk science perspective. How, among other things, might the expansion of AI and more specifically AI algorithms usage in the AEC field affect uncertainties, and could AI be considered a tool for preventing crises? To obtain responses to these questions, we conducted 21 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with AEC employees who are currently using AI and AI algorithms or will soon be doing so in their everyday work. Our findings show potential for wider use within the AEC field, subject to overcoming knowledge gaps. Moreover, although having the potential to reduce some uncertainties, the increased use of AI and AI algorithms appears to be introducing an entirely new set of uncertainties. As a result, although AI may effectively prevent certain crises and be regarded as crisis prevention tool, its inadequate implementation could potentially create new risks.
This study explores the collective learning process that evolved in the cities, towns, and districts damaged in the February 6, 2023, Kahramanmaraş earthquakes in Türkiye. Employing a multi-methods approach and a dataset comprising a review of relevant documents, semi-structured interviews, and field observations, we examine four fundamental stages of collective learning – knowledge acquisition, information distribution, interpretation, and organizational memory – in assessing the learning process in communities exposed to the devastation and trauma of the earthquakes. The study highlights the importance of adaptation, change, and collective growth as communities struggle to cope with the demands incurred by the disaster, and identifies factors that inhibit such growth in practice. In the aftermath of the Kahramanmaraş earthquakes, individuals and organizations sought to adapt their existing knowledge and practices to meet the challenges posed by recovery from this disaster and to build a consensual understanding of changes needed to achieve sustainable reduction of continuing seismic risk. The study underscores the vital Importance of timely and accurate Information In enabling Individuals and organizations to make informed decisions during and after the chaos engendered by the earthquakes. It highlights the pivotal role of technology in bridging communication gaps and facilitating the flow of critical information. The study concludes by identifying inaccurate information as the most harmful characteristic inhibiting collective learning, and by emphasizing the importance of aligning collective learning processes simultaneously among diverse groups within the community and across jurisdictional levels of operation. This study offers valuable insights into how to translate collective learning from traumatic events into sustained measures to reduce the risk of future disasters, going beyond resilience to achieve sustainable risk reduction. By understanding the factors that drive collective learning and the challenges that can arise, policymakers and practitioners can develop more effective strategies for supporting collective learning in the aftermath of extreme events.
This photo essay and accompanying text visualize and represent the work that was based in London, UK of a collective project called Land Body Ecologies (LBE), a global transdisciplinary network exploring the deep interconnections of mental health and ecosystem health. LBE's research and action work combined science, art, and public engagement to understand and redress the ongoing crisis of land trauma among land-dependent and Indigenous peoples who nonetheless display remarkable resilience. The research and action have been rooted within communities seeking resilience for their interlinked culture, environment, and land rights, so that they could comprehend, document, and overcome the crises and traumas endured when their land suffers. LBE's London-based work is presented through photos of the arts-science-community space that anchored the work around the world.
The study of systems' ability to self-organize, internal structural balance, and space partitioning is the focus of a larger body of theories produced by mathematicians in the second half of the twenty-first century, which includes fractal theory and analysis. These theories focus on how the distribution of forms and urban functions within an urban agglomeration, the sequencing of the settlement system, the choice of a specific style of localization, or the evolution of urban sprawl is influenced by a region with inhomogeneous characteristics. The study's objective is to quantify how urban macro-forms reflect urban space. It is aimed to use fractal analysis, one of the methods that examine the structure of urban areas, as a measurement technique and to increase the recognition of this method in the community. When performing fractal analysis, the study area is generally evaluated holistically. Determining the place of the parts that make up this whole within the analysis is another aim of the study. The most basic method used in the study is the Fractal Analysis method. In order to make a relevant evaluation, Fractalyse 3.0 program was used. Two bases were created for the urban spots to be used in the program. While one of these bases is the parcels of Elazığ city center, the other one is buildings. In order to measure the parts of the whole mentioned as one of the aims of the study, three different regions of the city were identified and fractal analyzes were carried out separately for those regions. The study field covers all the central 42 neighborhoods where Elazığ city develops. According to the results obtained from the analysis, the Fractal dimension value of the city was 1.62. This value is a very interesting result as it is considered a transition criterion for cities to be fringed and compact. Accordingly, Elazığ city is a fringed city in the process of becoming compact. In the analysis of three different sections containing the parts that make up the whole, the fractal value of Doğukent neighborhood, located in the easternmost part of Elazığ city, was calculated as 1.70. This area, which has a compact structure, presents a positive response against the urban sprawl. The sample taken from the central part of the city, called the Center, showed a high value of 1.89 in fractal dimension. The fractal dimension value of the sample selected from the south of the city showed a high fringed result of 1.32.
This paper examines placemaking and the outcomes of urban design issues in a waterfront area. The fine-grained urban fabric has played an important role in waterfront regeneration schemes globally. Acting towards environmental challenges to provide green spaces has increasingly become a favourable approach since the 2010s. An ideas competition was held in 2020 to address the issues on the waterfront of the Haliç area. The seven semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the competing discourses on each project created by the teams who attempted to deal with the unsolved urban fabric. Making use of a series of semi-structured interviews, this research paper investigates the existence of the urban fabric as a place-shaping continuum in the Halic area.
This study aims to illustrate the formation of the urban tissue over the Roman theatre in the walled core of Zaragoza. Within the scope of the study, the typological plan of the city was prepared using the building surveys taken in 1911, and the plan was interpreted as a historical organism. The basic types in the city are determined, and methods of the process-based typology are used to reveal the formation process of a selected urban tissue that is an example of the rebasification of a specialized building. In this example, a Roman theatre was repurposed as a foundation for constructing residential buildings and affected the formation process of the urban block until its discovery.
The predicted rise in global temperature by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC appeals for a review of the methods and materials used for building construction for reduced emissions and comfort in buildings. Buildings account for the most carbon emissions in the globe. This study presents the impact of temperature change across the 36 state capitals in Nigeria, and the Federal Capital Territory, FCT, based on Representative Concentration Pathways, RCPs 4.5 for 2020 and 8.5 for 2090. A simple studio apartment with optimised alternatives for retrofits and new builds was simulated using EnergyPlus for both climate scenarios to determine the strategies for improving the energy performance of future buildings. The result of the study shows a significant increase in mean monthly outdoor temperature of about 5⁰c across the states, with potential heat stress affecting buildings in future climates. Moreover, about one-third of the locations experience a shift in climatic zones to hotter ones. The impact of this climate drift will be more severe in the Northcentral and Southwest regions of the country. The design strategies recommended to mitigate the effects of a changing climate focused on building envelope insulation, thermal mass, and solar shading. The performance of the optimised models under future scenarios accounts for up to 25% and 73% savings in cooling energy for retrofits and new builds, respectively. To protect existing buildings from the impact of future climates, developers must make massive investments in solar shading of buildings. In contrast, a combination of envelope insulation and solar shading strategies proves effective for new builds.
This paper aims to explore the concept and applications of smart urban green spaces within the context of sustainable cities. It emphasizes the importance of urban green spaces in providing ecological, social, and economic benefits, such as carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and improved well-being. The paper delves into integrating advanced technologies, including the Internet of Things (IoT), sensor networks, and data analytics, to create smart urban green spaces that optimize resource efficiency and enhance maintenance and operations. Sustainable practices, such as water conservation and biodiversity preservation, are examined for their role in ensuring the long-term viability and resilience of green spaces. The challenges and potential barriers to implementing smart urban green spaces, such as funding and governance issues, are discussed, as well as strategies for overcoming them. Additionally, the paper presents case studies and examples from around the world to showcase successful initiatives in creating smart urban green spaces. By exploring these concepts and applications, this paper contributes to the understanding and advancement of smart urban management of green spaces for sustainable cities.
Use of stone in architecture has been an enduring and timeless tradition throughout history, withstanding the test of time from ancient civilizations to today’s architecture. The durability, versatility and aesthetic appeal of stone make it an exceptional material for creating striking architectural designs. Stone has been used for centuries, as an integral part of architecture since ancient times and its importance still holds true in contemporary architecture being a popular building material today. In this context, this study examines the key features of stone that make it such a vital material for architectural design by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of using stone for architecture. The paper examines the role of stone in architecture and explores how contemporary projects have utilized stone in innovative and creative ways also delves into the significance and beauty of stone architecture, highlighting its history, durability and aesthetic appeal. The research methodology includes the analysis of case studies of contemporary projects crafted from stone, examining the design process, materials and techniques used. The case studies analyzed in this paper demonstrate the versatility of stone in contemporary architecture. The projects showcase how stone can be used in innovative ways, including the creation of sculptural forms, the incorporation of technology and the utilization of sustainable materials. The paper argues that stone's timeless qualities, durability and versatility make it an ideal material for contemporary architecture, particularly in achieving sustainability and aesthetic appeal. The study concludes that the use of stone in architecture remains crucial in creating robust, sustainable and attractive structures that stand the test of time.
This article presents a three-step process of collecting, deconstructing and reconstructing family photos in ethnographic research investigating the sociocultural aspects of behaviour patterns in family apartment buildings. The first author conducted the study for her Ph.D. thesis in architectural design, supervised by the second and third authors. As an architect, the first author created a photo collage sketchbook, combining various representational techniques of her profession with family photographs. While observing the family apartment building and trying to understand the “gecekondu” where the participants lived before the family apartment building, the researcher realised that the interviews were insufficient, and this problem forced the use of a photo collage sketchbook. To synthesise ethnographic knowledge, research started with obtaining family photos. After extracting and grouping, the deconstruction process began. Deconstructed layers are then reconstructed by using various architectural representation techniques and text. This photo collage sketchbook has helped us understand various aspects of the family apartment buildings related to architecture and culture. While doing this, the sketchbook prepared with visual contents combined with short notes represents the data collecting, organising, analysing, interpretation, knowledge-making, and presentation stages. In working with a photo collage sketchbook, obtaining family photographs and overlapping the photographs and interviews’ narratives appear challenging. Therefore, collective interviews have been a critical move to compare and verify the memories recalled by the participants. While interviewing, it is vital to show the photos to every participant from a particular age group because they contribute differently to the photo components because of the place experience. So, this study is not about a set of instructions or tools but experiences about the process or approach to constructing ethnographic knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to comprehend how the artistic spaces developed by designer Hassan Ragab using Midjourney, one of the artificial intelligence technologies whose significance is growing every day, fit into the intersection of architecture and art. Using the random sampling method, six space modellings with three distinct forms and functions were selected for the study from the artistic spaces made by Hassan Ragab via Midjourney. People who have received or are undergoing design training were surveyed to analyze their perception of creative design principles in selected works. A total of 200 participants from two distinct design sub-professional groups were subjected to the research. According to the study, artificial intelligence offers a way for people without artistic ability to access art. Midjourney is an AI research lab with its own program and online platform that generates artwork from provided text. By using Midjourney, architectural designs can be turned into artistic works. Experts have found that most spatial designers have yet to try Midjourney and that the program has a significant impact on creative design principles like fluency, flexibility, elaboration, originality and freedom.
Efforts to increase the quality of this environment have been going on since the beginning of the concern for shelter in the history of humanity. The main targets of the user, designers, practitioners, and decision-makers are to carry the quality of life, health, safety, and welfare of individuals and other living things to the next level. Problems have been identified to increase the function and quality of the space, spatial requirements have been determined, and researched, and some design factors have been determined to reach the most appropriate solution. The researchers focused on the proposition that the effectiveness of these factors before and during the design process would increase the quality of the space. However, since research generally focuses on indoor quality, the outdoor quality factors that are part of urban design are not clear. This work, was designed to evaluate the usability of these factors, which were determined and measured especially to deal with the interior, in designs at larger scales (street, neighborhood, city…) and to improve the existing. In designs outside the spatial scale, where almost all factors can be controlled by the relevant stakeholders of the process, the subject is approached through changeable and unchangeable parameters and their balancing. Studies on the factors determined during the process were compiled and their effects on different scales were evaluated as a result of these compilations. As a result of the evaluation, some suggestions were given. In the process of redesigning the space, selecting feasible suggestions, and incorporating them into the creation of the future physical space, using the suggestions as urban rehabilitation tools, and considering these interventions to be flexible and suitable for various factors are of great importance for the psychology of the users.
Studio courses in architectural education are undoubtedly among the most important courses that prepare students for professional design life. A given project should be guided with the support of the instructors and should include a simulation of the process in professional business life. Despite this, research shows that there is a disconnect between academia and the professional process. In addition to the fact that the educational process tries to add a different understanding to the student, professional life cannot find the middle point with academic education due to the constant changes in regulations due to rent and similar reasons. In such an environment, giving meaning to projects with an idealistic understanding, offering a thematic experience and producing holistic buildings with identity increases the importance of alternative approaches in project studios in educational processes. Although it is not possible to prevent the emergence of identity-less and rent-oriented products in the market only through architectural education, approaches that will increase productivity in this education will also increase students' expectations from the profession. The conceptual approach, which is one of these alternatives, can be defined as creating a network of relationships based on a basic idea. This network of relationships allows the concept to be transformed into a concrete structure by distributing it to all project processes without moving away from the context and with an inclusive approach. In this study, first of all, the conceptual approach in design education will be emphasized and general definitions will be made, and Studio-2, Studio-3, and Studio-4 courses in Konya Technical University Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Architecture in 2021-2022 will be evaluated with a conceptual approach. With this approach, it has been concluded that the student's design perception and thinking technique can be developed by creating concept-based, original, and holistic, and focusing on the missing aspects of professional life in project courses.
The place and characteristics of architectural structures in the developing production, industry and energy fields are important at the point of architecture being a versatile and interdisciplinary practice. Industrial-energy facilities are buildings that are mostly established in areas outside the city and designed to be protected against environmental factors, where energy and industrial activities are carried out. Since it is a production-oriented system, it includes many different operational processes. These buildings are used for a wide range of purposes such as manufacturing, storage, and distribution. The design of an industrial building plays an important role in determining the productivity, efficiency and safety of the facility. In this view, material selection has been evaluated as a critical factor in architectural design of industrial-energy facilities. It affects the environmental sustainability, structural performance, and aesthetic appeal of the built environment. The materials used in the construction of an industrial building should also be carefully selected. These buildings experience heavy wear and tear, and therefore need to be durable and long-lasting. Steel and concrete are popular materials because of their strength and durability, while also being flexible in accommodating the changing needs of the business. This paper presents a scientific approach to material selection that considers sustainability, performance, and aesthetics criteria. Studies on the structure and other characteristics of industrial-energy facilities, which constitute the main problematic of the study, has been examined, and it has been aimed to reveal the theory and knowledge at the point of the experience of the authors. In this context, the aim of the study is to reveal the architectural features, commonly used materials and material selection criteria of industrial-energy facilities by determining them through theoretical knowledge, analysis, observation and professional experience.
Healthcare facilities have evolved from strictly functional to therapeutic places, integrating spiritual and psychological components of health. Design issues must be given specific attention to establish a therapeutic atmosphere that promotes successful therapy and stress alleviation. Color and light have a tremendous influence on the human mind and body, according to extensive studies, making them critical aspects of healthcare facility design. This study’s approach is to contribute to the construction of more effective therapeutic settings by investigating the effects of color and light on human wellness and providing design alternatives. So, it tries to provide a complete design paradigm that combines the strategic use of color and light in healthcare facility interior design. Because healthcare institutions play an important role in improving general well-being, this approach can help to create more effective healing settings. To provide the theoretical framework and collect data, this study uses a combination of library studies and descriptive research. The research initially investigates the notion of color and light, then explains their impact on physical and mental health disorders, as well as their use in therapeutic settings. The study concludes with the creation of a conceptual model and recommended design solutions for healthcare facilities.
Vineyard (Turkish: bağ) culture is a common urban phenomenon in Çukurova region communities, which have strong ties with the land, due to the favorable climate and soil conditions. Adana's historic city center and some of the vineyard settlements to the north of this area lost their rural settlement characteristic and started to be built up as a result of Hermann Jansen's planning studies that started in the 1930s, and the city continued its development as planned towards the vineyard settlements (Turkish: bağlar) to the north. Although Gazipaşa, Ziyapaşa, and Namık Kemal Neighborhoods, which were examined within the scope of the study, were planned as a result of these planning studies, they were not built according to the plan. Thus, the implemented part of the Jansen Plan was defined by the railway line located to the south of these three neighborhoods. As a result, these three neighborhoods turned into an area where vineyards began on the periphery of the planned built-up areas and became known as Bağlarbaşı (starts of vineyard area). The aim of the study is to make a morphological analysis of the transformation of the three neighborhoods formed in the area where the vineyards, which previously had a rural settlement texture, disappeared as a result of the urbanization pressure that started in the 1950s, starting from 1950 to the present day, and to examine the process dynamics and to determine the general characteristics of the vineyard culture and houses in the study area. In the study area, morphological analyses were carried out by comparing aerial photographs from 1950, 1954, 1961, current maps from 1985 and 2019, zoning plans dated 1940, 1969 and current data. In addition, the transformation was documented with photographs from various archives and oral history research was utilized. Two vineyard houses in the area were surveyed to determine their spatial characteristics. The data obtained through the studies coincide with Marcel Poëte's assertion that "the memory of a city survives in the physical structure of that city". It has been determined that today's parcel boundaries, main roads, and streets, physical formations such as thresholds and reinforcements of the three neighborhoods bear traces of the period when the neighborhoods were vineyards and gardens. In the area, a small number of vineyard houses (cottages), which are in parallel with the typological characteristics of the traditional Turkish House, have survived to the present day, albeit in ruins.
Nature-based Solutions (NbS) were introduced by the IUCN for the first time, but today have different definitions in the literature. NbS are deemed the key to urban sustainability and aim to enhance the built environment through ecological and environmental interventions to support the built environment for future extremes of climate change and related hazards. NbS include blue and green infrastructures, ecological engineering, ecosystem services and ecosystem-based adaptation. Various frameworks defined different key considerations and the literature suggests plenty of frameworks towards successful NbS applications. Current debates critique the extent to which innovative and adaptive the solutions are, whether they are implemented by considering social values and social equity, and the financial burden they often bring which strengthens the disparities between the world cities. Uncontrolled urbanization often causes cities to become an environmental problem. This paper conducts a literature review to lay out the current debates and to highlight the multidimensionality of NbS. It focuses on the potential of NbS in disaster risk reduction and so the paper draws a framework to successfully implement and provide improvements for NbS based on the theoretical ground. NbS are investments in the life quality of the residents and preventive tools in the risk management of cities. The paper attempted to frame the NbS clearer for scholars interested in the subject.
Today, livable urban spaces are very important in terms of the healthy conduct of both individual and social life. Shaped in line with human needs such as education, housing, economy, cultural and social life, the city and the livability of the city is one of the current discussion topics with its variable and dynamic structure in addition to the factors it contains. From this point of view, the concept of "livability" has been questioned in the context of urban planning. Considering the temporal resilience of cities, the semantic dimension - qualitative studies - and therefore concepts are very powerful tools. Concepts are the basis of interpretation or theorizing. The aim of the study is to develop a different perspective by revealing the measurability of more livable and happier cities and the criteria they contain through discussions and discourses on this subject. In this context, the TED platform, which is easily accessible by large masses today and popular in terms of social awareness, has been used. The content of 65 texts focusing on urban research in TED Talks between 2007 and 2023 has been analyzed and a conceptual analysis has been made through NVivo, a qualitative analysis program. The content analysis method has been used in the evaluation of the texts, and discussions and interpretations have been made based on frequency frequencies. In light of the data obtained, it has been seen that more livable cities have been associated with the codes "architectural design", "technology", "energy" and "climate" respectively. As a result; it can be said that the concept of urban livability cannot be independent of the climate crisis, ecology discussions, and energy efficiency discourses as a solution to this crisis, and architectural designs that follow the technological level of the age, and the parameters discussed in the face of changing needs and situations over time can also change.
The fringe belt phenomenon, which was conceptually put forth by Herbert Luis in 1936, developed by M.R.G. Conzen starting from 1960, and placed on a historico-geographical basis in the context of urban rent theories by J.W.R. Whitehand, has been studied by researchers with different perspectives in cities developed with distinct socio-economic and cultural dynamics in various parts of the world. This paper aims to reveal how the fringe belt concept, which emerged within the Conzenian tradition of urban morphology turn into a phenomenon, has been handled from the time it first appeared to the present, to examine the contribution of different perspectives to the fringe belt literature and to present suggestions for the development of the concept. Selected from peer-viewed journals and academic conferences, 53 different fringe belt studies were examined according to their publication periods, within the framework of spatial, economic, social, and planning perspectives previously discussed by Ünlü (2013) as well as the ecological perspective. In this context, the selected studies are examined based on the case areas, methodology, and main findings on fringe belt formation and change. Property perspective is discussed as a hybrid approach in fringe belt studies. Finally, further research proposals are emphasized in order to realize the fringe belt phenomenon as durable and sustainable urban spaces.
Today's cities are dynamic nodes where copious urban flows intersect. These flows have distinguished characteristics: the flow of money, the flow of vehicles, the flow of people who migrate, and the flow of information. The flows' amalgamation, intersection, and conflict form contemporary urban configuration and space. Many methods, such as historico-geographical, process typological, and space syntax in urban morphology studies, aspire to analyze, discuss, and design these flows. These, which have been practiced in English, Italian and French schools in Europe since the 1960s, have allowed the development of different research methodologies in the search for urban form. The article examines the postmodernist urban topo-morphological approaches, which developed in parallel with the French typo-morphological method influenced by the Italian school and the urban space perception studies of Gordon Cullen and Kevin Lynch through the Oblique Function Theory. In order to go beyond the Cartesian urban plan analysis of typo-morphological methodologies, topo-morphological approaches reexamine flows with paradigms of urban topological surface, fluid and dynamic morphologies, and architecture-landscape-infrastructure integrity. The Oblique Function Theory was theorized by architect Claude Parent and philosopher and urban theorist Paul Virilio in 1963 under the Architecture Principe group as an example of these approaches. Parent and Virilio use and utilize inclined surfaces, rejecting archetypal spatial components such as columns, walls, and roofs. The duo with inclined surfaces extrapolates the concepts of habitable circulation, mediated structure, fluid, and dynamic form in their projects with a topological perspective. Through urban sections rather than urban plans, form a topological and oblique urban order dominated and ushered by flows. The paper discusses Parent's oblique projects: Les Inclisites in 1968; Les Ponts Urbains in 1971; and Incision Urbaine in the 2000s, obtained from slightly researched archival materials and drawings to argue whether contemporary urban dynamics and flows would possibly create a contemporary urban morphology methodology and sui generis tropes with topo-morphological approaches.
This article presents the basic design course applications based on the design education of first-year interior architecture students. This study aims to emphasize the importance of education in the design-oriented thinking process with practice through the content of the basic design course. Within the scope of the study, art-based research in interior architecture education was carried out and the intersections of its results are described. In the studio, basic design elements and principles were conveyed with the techniques commonly taught in schools and architectural movements were given to students as term papers for research. The study directs the student to create 2D and 3D compositions by combining the studies he/she has done during the term and the research assignment. The findings show that students can reflect on their research on architectural movements to new three-dimensional abstract spaces by combining them with basic design education. While grounding this reflection, design process of the students is based on form and elements without color. The results also show a significant correlation between students’ practices and Gestalt Principles. This article emphasizes the importance of applying basic elements and principles of design and being integrated with field-specific studies to achieve better results in design education. This study is an experimental and original studio product. With the basic design education given only in the first semester, the students were given examples to determine and understand forms and approaches without color knowledge, especially through basic principles, using architectural movements instead of abstract expression.
Energy simulation model of the building of Eskişehir Technical University Industrial Engineering Department Academic and Administrative Staff rooms were created in this study carried in the scope of energy efficiency and performance of buildings. In the aforementioned energy simulation mode, in line with the International Measurement, Verification and Energy Needs Standards and Protocol (IPMVP) “energy consumption verification”; heating energy, indoor-outdoor environment and climate data were defined, energy consumption verification was carried out and a realistic model was achieved. Using the realistic model achieved, alternative directions were applied to alternative window wall ratios thereby calculating “reference energy consumptions” in “reference building models”. Energy consumptions, calculated by applying alternative glass types to reference models, were then compared with reference energy consumptions
Architects and planners typically rely on past experiences and exclusive methods to determine the allocation of space and planning costs. However, the actual space allocations and physical attributes of laboratory and workplace environments require further exploration, highlighting the need for more research. To address this knowledge gap, this study compared three medical research facilities' architectural, casework, and module properties to identify essential space allocations, physical attributes, and future research directions. The study utilized REVIT models to collect floor plans of three medical research facilities within the last twelve years, with variables of interest including room classification size, Building Gross Footage (BGSF), Departmental Gross Footage (DGSF), laboratory module size, and module quantity per laboratory. Space Syntax analysis was used to compare connectivity measures across the three buildings. The findings demonstrated a trend towards laboratory spaces that maximize collaboration, flexibility, and efficiency while balancing open and private workspaces. Laboratory support spaces per laboratory room increased, potentially due to a demand for greater flexibility and spatial needs. Lab workstations were relocated outside laboratory areas to enhance safety and reduce costs. The analysis also revealed a shift towards smaller lab modules with larger widths to reduce redundancy, support safer distances, reduce travel distances, and increase the number of modules per lab. Furthermore, contemporary lab workspaces had higher connectivity values, indicating a trend towards more connected, collaborative spaces that encourage meetings and spontaneous interactions. This study highlights the importance of continuously evaluating and optimizing laboratory space allocation and design to promote productivity, efficiency, and collaboration in medical research facilities. Future research should conduct longitudinal studies using empirical data to address the limitations of current research.
Since the advent and usage of artificial intelligence approaches in architecture, a significant number of studies have focused on integrating technological solutions to architectural issues. Artificial intelligence applications in architectural design range from intelligent material design to architectural plan solutions. The ubiquity and distribution of research in this field, as well as the rising use of artificial intelligence techniques to solve design challenges, require an analytical classification of the essential literature review. This article presents a descriptive and analytical review of the work on artificial intelligence applications in architecture. A strong review has been made that identifies and addresses the gaps in artificial intelligence and architecture; and the literature review is transformed into statistical plots. The study's findings indicate a growing interest in artificial intelligence in the field of architecture. There is a need for novel research to be conducted in these areas using advanced technology and techniques.
Individual residential investors are influenced by the media and their environment in their investment preferences, as they lack the experience of property investors and professional residential investors. Concerns about regret, fears of further property price rises and social circumstances put pressure on investors. Under these conditions, are individual housing investors seeing all the opportunities in the housing market? What types of buyers are taking advantage of these opportunities? This study aims to create tools to help individual residential investors identify opportunity periods in the market, analyse such opportunities retrospectively and test consumer behaviours in response to these opportunities. We analysed the opportunity for access to housing, the opportunity of lower loan interest rates and the opportunity of lower housing prices in Türkiye in the 120 months between 2013 and 2022 using the income-housing price scale. We analysed residential sales (total, credit and cash) in the opportunity periods resulting from the equations set up for the opportunity periods. We tested the criteria for selecting opportunity periods using the analysis of variation (ANOVA) method. We analysed changes in consumer preferences for credit and cash home purchases during periods of opportunity. We found that residential investors did not use the opportunity of accessing residential properties, and that cash home buyers used the opportunities of residential loan interest rates and residential price declines.
The common thread to urban movements happening worldwide in recent years is the fact that urban public space is used as a significant setting by city dwellers for expressing their “objections”. What has been experienced throughout urban movements when public spaces have been occupied enables us to grasp the meaning of occupied spaces in the city thus allowing us to get to know societies and cities. Therefore, this research has investigated the impact of urban public space on the consciousness, interaction and gathering of city dwellers as well as urban movements. Within the scope of the research, eight “rebel cities” have been analyzed, and have interviews with participants of urban movements from these cities. These are Tunis, Cairo, Barcelona, London, New York, Dublin, Paris, and Hamburg, respectively. The places where urban movements were visible in urban space and their surroundings have been analyzed using the Space Syntax method, and the gathering/unification/integration potential of public space has been spatially investigated by determining the characteristics of urban patterns. Accordingly, the city affects the formation of urban movements with its spatial pattern. In the case of Merida city, which constitutes the control sample and which was not affected by the urban movements that spread to the whole world, this finding is also supported. With the results obtained in the research, the significance of public space, as an essential element contributing to the formation of urban movements, has been proven. This study further reveals the possibility of urban spaces allowing social encounters and its importance in terms of democracy.
In this study, the spatial distribution of pharmacies is investigated in Istanbul by taking into consideration their important role for the health care delivery system. First, the growth of the number of pharmacies is compared with the growth rate of population at the city level during the last two decades within perspective of changes in health care delivery policies. Then, the growth of the number of pharmacies is compared with respect to the population growth rate of the core, intermediate and peripheral zones. The second, the changes in the pharmacy market areas are compared at the city level and in the core, intermediate and peripheral zones within the same period. Third, the regression analysis is used to show the relationships between the number of pharmacies in the districts and the population, number of hospital beds and number of physicians during the same period of time. Suggestions are made for more balanced distribution of pharmacies in order to prevent bankruptcies while sufficient accessibility provided for the customers, and for future research.
The term "citizen science" refers to scientific activity done entirely or in part by members of the public, frequently in cooperation with or under the guidance of licensed scientists. To better manage natural resources, monitor endangered species, and maintain protected areas, decision-makers, and non-governmental organizations increasingly turn to citizen science-based programs. A broad field, citizen science, offers numerous strategies for involving volunteers in research in various ways while including a whole range of research methodologies. Thus far, citizen science initiatives have been successful in advancing scientific understanding, and the advancements made by citizen scientists give a significant amount of data globally. The subject of citizen science is spreading rapidly, and its legitimacy is increasing. It also involves enhancing scientific research by utilizing a variety of subjects and data sources. Citizen science has the potential to increase stakeholder engagement, bring in new perspectives, and foster new forms of participation. Also, many initiatives are being developed in cutting-edge scientific fields. These programs now aim to solve an urgent issue or provide an answer to a research question while simultaneously enhancing community participation in science and influencing long-term policy implementation. The study utilizes to examine the citizen science projects in Izmir, Turkey according to the concepts and categorizations in the literature review in a systematic way to understand their participation levels and their potential.
As production and economic activities shaped the growth of cities during the pre-industrial era, they are still the most important factors explaining modern urbanization. Economic restructuring is being reshaped with agglomeration economies, bringing spatial restructuring with it. Regional economic growth, emergence of new centers and production foci are formed in the equilibria of positive and negative externalities of agglomeration. Positive externalities do not arise solely from internal economies of scale related to factors of production such as easy accessibility in the region. It also results from external economies of scale, including economies of localization and urbanization. On the other hand, as cities grow the attractiveness of large agglomeration and advantages of economies of scale decrease. Negative externalities in the larger agglomerations may eventually lead to decreasing returns to scale in cities. Economic view of regional science and geography considers cities maintaining equilibrium between two competing forces, i.e., centripetal forces (agglomeration) and centrifugal forces (dispersion). This study examines recent agglomeration and dispersion processes in the settlement pattern from the relationship between urbanization and economic growth. To do so, we take Izmir as a case and use general explanatory variables such as population and employment. Specifically, we investigate spatial agglomeration in the Izmir city region and metropolitan area by using population and employment data of 2009 and 2019. Based on empirical results, we discuss new sub-regions, urban centers, and clustering that emerged due to economies of scale as well as positive and negative externalities of agglomeration.
Systemic risks possess a high level of complexity and uncertainty that can be latent behind the veil of initial stress of possible disasters. They refer to, on the one hand, the functionality of interconnected systems and, on the other hand, the probability of indirect losses which can propagate through larger territories. Once considering the solid definition of resilience by the United Nations, the emphasis tends on systems’ ability to different facets of disturbance rather than the performance of the sum of each singular entity confronting the main shock. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective and a systematic review focusing on the commons of resilience and systemic risks in the frame of risk mitigation. The outcomes highlight the urgency of multidisciplinary actions, which have not been achieved yet since the 1999s earthquakes.
Starting from Gilles Deleuze's (1989, p.59) concepts of "worldization" or/and "world-image" we should consider the intersection of cinema, architecture and storytelling as an act of thinking about "world-building". Because only such action takes us through creative and political stories that will enable us to understand why the cities of the future are migrant camps. Flashdrive doesn't just give us a refugee camp story; also maps the spatio-temporal distinctions of the survival journey. It presents a migration story shaped by media dispositifs and spatial dispositifs in which power and knowledge are articulated.
Encounters with interior spaces are influenced by past experiences and state of mind. Much of how architecture is experienced therefore is not readily apparent and is sensed rather than seen. Psyche impacts this experience of lived space, from an individual’s awareness of themselves within it, to the perception of space itself. Film offers a distinctive representation of this subjective experience through its narrative form and command of visual, audio and temporal language. The emotive and visceral power of film render it an accessible and immersive medium, and as such make it uniquely placed to communicate less tangible qualities of space and character. This paper analyses the use of interior space in the film Joker (Todd Phillips, 2019). The acutely intimate discernment of the protagonist’s interior environment is the result of environmental and psychological disruption, where boundaries break down between the real and imaginary, and the surreal intrudes upon the tangible depiction of the interior. The exposition of the character’s damaged psyche within space is analysed at key points within the narrative, using collage as an exploratory, visual methodology to analyse and experiment with, to potentially reveal the less perceivable, yet invasive intangible layers of lived space. This article addresses the frequent oversight of psychological qualities of the interior in architectural discourse, through an analytical and experimental method rendering the psychological content of space visible. Defining this intangible nature of architecture as the psychosphere (or the psychological atmosphere), I term this technique the ‘psychospheric collage method’. The process consists of interrogating expressive film language and content through an architectural lens documented through sketching, storyboarding and textual enquiry. From these fragmented components I compose a new visual language capable of signifying the layered psychological atmosphere in which a character resides, thus facilitating its consideration within architectural design and enabling articulation of our intimate encounter with the interior.
The French Philosopher Michel Foucault argues that power extends to all areas at the micro level in Bentham's Panopticon theory, which was inspired by the architectural design of the Panopticon. He extends this metaphor to speak of Panoptisism as a social phenomenon used to discipline workforces through implicit strategies. Like Bentham, he does not limit his panoptic rhetoric to a mere prison setting, but instead applies it to schools, mental hospitals, hospitals and factories. The panopticon basically ensures the ubiquity of power by seeing it unseen. This article aims to reveal how panoptiism, a particular mode of disciplinary power used by Foucault, is normalized in superhero films. When surveillance and gaze practices are approached from the point of view of cinema; the question of how the gaze is positioned through the camera, where and through whose eyes the audience is looking, arises. The narrator of The Batman (2022) is Batman, and the narrative begins with the superhero reading his diary. In the film, it is determined that Gotham city has been transformed into a panoptic universe and Batman, who watches over this universe, is in the position of a guard.
In this article Andrei Tarkovsky’s films are studied through the lens of existential philosophical traditions. At the heart of Tarkovsky’s narratives lies a yearning for authenticity, a need for freedom and an intention to communicate with otherness in its various manifestations. Whereas spirituality is clearly an important factor in Tarkovsky’s aesthetic explorations, we focus on materiality and corporeality: a violent sensuality, associated to what Albert Camus perceives as a revolt of the flesh, plays a crucial part in Tarkovsky’s seven films. A desire to escape oppressive aspects of everyday reality in order to approach an ideal location (mostly related to memories of childhood) gives rise to the urgent need for transcendence described in Tarkovsky’s body of work. The two key terms, the notions of transcendence and space, are closely related to one another. The importance of poetry, not as a literary term, but as a way to interpret and challenge everyday reality, will be a key factor in the reading of this process.
Abstract The 1960 Italian film Rocco and His Brothers (Rocco e i suoi Fratelli) is one of the greatest exemplars of Italian post-war cinema. The film depicts the disintegration and deterritorialization of an immigrant family from Lucania, a southern Italian village in Basilicata, and their relocation to Milan. The director of the film, Luchino Visconti, continuously alludes to the protagonist’s fascination with their hometown (paese). This nostalgic and wholesome image of paese contrasts the ubiquitous alienation and exploitation in the industrial North. The film is replete with signs and metaphors which explicitly and implicitly reinforce the evident tension between the immigrant family and an industrialized metropolis. Based on an interview with Mario Licari, Visconti’s assistant who accompanied him on location visits, this article offers an opportunity to revisit significant locations of the film such as Quartiere Fabio Filzi, the Alfa Romeo Factory, Milan Duomo, Ponte Della Ghisolfa, Parco Sempione, Stazione Centrale and Circolo Arci Bellezza. Underpinned by the theories of Giorgio Agamben, Antonio Gramsci and Andre Bazin this essay creates a theoretical framework that works in parallel with a detailed analysis of the scenes, original archival material, dialogues, places, and history of architecture of the locations. The article demonstrates how urban and architectural spaces not only accommodated the narrative of the film but shaped, twisted and structured the story of the masterpiece. The paper shows how Visconti succeeded in visualizing a ‘hidden’ Milan that was never appeared on the silver screen before Rocco and His Brothers.
This essay will examine a place and community in the city of Haifa, Israel, that no longer exists - a resilient community that survived destruction for decades, until it gave in to the attempts of destruction and evacuation by the municipality of Haifa. The essay will review the history of the urban planning of the place as appears in surveys, maps and planning schemes, in parallel, the essay will explore the history of the place as narrated through a series of essay-form documentary films. The paper will explore the potential for a variegated, full and rich history of the resilient Wadi Rushmia and its inhabitants. It will describe the formal history of Wadi Rushmia as it appears in historical documents and planning materials such as maps and plans, and then examine its history through documentary films that use self-narrated stories of inhabitants and poetic point of view of the film maker, to challenge conventional top down planning practices. It will be argued that the destruction of the community and nature of the Wadi and its replacement by a network of roads, has turned it from what Augé (1995) refers to as a 'place', in which people have lived their everyday life, accumulating memories, time spent together, and collective history, into a 'non-place' a space of transience, in which the time of living and social communication is replaced by an accelerated temporality. The paper will then refer to film, to demonstrate the immense generative potentials presented by the filmmaking medium to research of the built environment and that using particular filming methodologies may contribute to the accumulation of multi-media knowledge of place. Film, it will be argued, works against these processes of destruction of the place, as it captures the spatial and temporal experience of the daily lives of the Wadi's community, in its final years. It will be argued that films form an alternative archive of the everyday lives of ordinary people, an archive which will not only guard the past, but also project into the future, to the imagination of a more ethical and sustainable urban reality.
Space settlement as a science fiction theme has been very popular in the last 70 years in cinema and television. Gaining its roots from scientific and technological developments, the topic evolved throughout decades to become much more comprehensive nowadays. The evolution that started with physical models to depict the space station as a pure geometric form continues today with much more complex structures that express the infrastructure, features, and appearance of a space settlement. Through developments in space technologies, together with the progress in computer generated imaging methods, contemporary movies represent space stations and settlements in a much detailed way. Therefore, the architecture of the space settlement in cinema and TV becomes a remarkable theme. Consequently, the role of architects in the design of space settlements in cinema and TV increases. This paper presents an analysis of the architectural evolution of space stations and settlements in cinema and TV through examples with a chronological order from 1950s to 2000s. The analysis is based on the relationship of scientific requirements of a space settlement and existing scientific studies on the design of space settlements with their reflections on the cinema and television industries. The outcomes of the analysis put forth that the detail level, functionality, and architectural style of space settlements in movies evolved through time. Therefore, architects’ role in movies and the design of space settlements shall increase thanks to the developments in representation, production, and construction technologies
Modern architecture, a reaction to the industrialization of the 19th-century, is characterized by a lack of applied decoration, exposed structural members, materials kept in their natural state and “flat” roofs. It developed in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly in Germany, the Netherlands and France, and spread to the rest of the world after World War II. Depending on your point of view, Modern architecture can either be exciting and exhilarating or inhuman and oppressive. This article surveys these two opposite representations of Modern architecture in the cinema, beginning from its first appearance in the 1920s until today. Films directed by Marcel L’Herbier (The Inhuman Woman, 1924), Alfred Hitchcock (North by Northwest, 1959), Jacques Tati (Mon Oncle, 1958, and Playtime, 1967), Jean-Luc Godard (Contempt, 1963, Alphaville, 1965, and Two or Three Things I Know About Her, 1967), as well as several from the James Bond series (Dr. No [Terence Young, 1962], Goldfinger [Guy Hamilton, 1964], and Diamonds are Forever [Guy Hamilton, 1971]) are highlighted. Culminating in a survey of like-minded films since the 1980s, the article concludes that Modern architecture in the cinema is here to stay and will continue to play an integral role in the making of films.
Developments in computer and communication technologies, which constitute the starting point of concepts such as decentralization, virtuality, simulation, augmented reality and metaverse, have also brought new forms of expression and designs in art to the agenda. In addition to the decentralized data architecture and metaverse areas that emerged in parallel with the development of network technologies, applications that increase the user's interaction and beleaguered experience such as virtual reality, augmented reality and mixed reality have increased their effectiveness in this field. The metaverse spaces that emerge with the cooperation of software, art and architecture offer their users a more similar life simulation of natural life through augmented reality vehicles or screens. Here, users can perform new experiences for artistic production and consumption as well as daily life practices such as socialization and communication. Metaverse spaces, which include the design of a three-dimensional virtual universe that can be supported by augmented reality, are free from all the constraints of the real world as a cinematic plateau. It is seen as a great advantage that the real film set can create a cinematic work without expensive equipment such as cameras, lights, and sound away from all the negativities of the natural shooting conditions. The fact that the production, distribution and screening of cinema works can be realized within this field brings a new understanding of decentralized cinema to the agenda. Decentralized cinema, which has begun to rise in the expanding virtual geography of the metaverse virtual space with its advantages such as virtual characters and scenes and creative space fictions, is an art form worth examining. This study focuses on the possible future transformations of cinema in terms of production and representation in the context of the relationship of virtual and augmented reality technologies with developing metaverse areas. The emergence of a new cinematic ecology; The opportunities and obstacles it provides to producers are examined with the philosophical criticism method through concepts such as virtual and augmented reality, web 3.0, metaverse in terms of audience experiences it offers for screening. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the metaverse area has many advantages in terms of the production of cinema works, democratization of the production and distribution of works, digital privacy and security for metaverse artists, and recognition of ownership for digital works of art.
This paper explores the idea of film as a medium that has been used to celebrate, develop and ultimately sustain cultural traditions in an age of globalization and technological and cultural change. It borrows ideas from the sector of heritage, namely intangible cultural heritage, and uses this to offer a framework for understanding the work of two key mid 20th century film directors, Jean Renoir and Yasujiro Ozu. Through a detailed analysis of the cinematography employed by both directors, their use of architectural space and the cultural traditions that they drew heavily upon, it explores examples how both directors used film as a medium for the reutilization of their particular cultural artistic traditions in a contemporary setting.
The Light and its Disappearance in the Darkness; The chapter begins with the question of what can be found in the integration of architecture and cinema and continues exploring light in the context of cinematic architecture theory. This is followed by a discussion of the illusions of light that emerge in spaces where cinema and architecture meet. The thought then reaches Paul Virilio's conception of the aesthetics of architecture as a metaphor for cinema from the experience of space, the image of disappearance. It suggested I make a film work, 'Hiroshima Through Light', in the AA. The Experimentation in the AA Diploma Unit 3; This chapter describes the exploration of cinematic architecture under the tutelage of Pascal Schöning, a unit master of the AA, which includes philosophy, aesthetics, and challenges to urban and social issues, along with his unique methodology. He explains to his former students the importance of a more philosophical approach to the notion at the end of Diploma Unit 3. That is when I see Juhani Pallasmaa's description of the need for architects to look at people's daily lives and society through a phenomenological approach, like filmmakers. My awareness moves on to a study of the architects depicted by filmmakers. Image of Architects Depicted in Film; The images of architects in the films of Michelangelo Antonioni, Terrence Malick and Hirokazu Kore-eda are discussed. It indicates that they are entrusted with a role of building human relationships. Cinématic Architecture Tokyo; This chapter outlines activities in Japan that are being rolled out in the form of workshops, lectures and exhibitions to develop the theory of cinematic architecture. The theme of the workshops held in the Hokuriku region was the revitalisation of declining local urban communities, which is also related to the previous chapter on “building human relationships”. This year, the projection attempted to embody poetic images to illuminate memories that are being lost. Conclusion; In addition to reflecting on essential elements such as the aesthetics of disappearing light, memory, history, poetic imagery, narrative and social issues, adding a focus on the significance of communication design, fields of sense and spatial quality, could bring new perspectives to the integration of architecture.
François Penz, in his essay titled as "What I saw in Venice – biennale 2021" shared his experiences about workshop in Venice – VENICINEMA, Understanding Cities Through Film – in September 2022 at the European Cultural Academy. To get to know a city though cinema is always an enjoyable and informative task, which varies depending on whether one has a prior knowledge of the city or not. But a prior knowledge of a city through film can only provide a ‘theoretical’ insight that only gets ‘realised’ while actually being physically present in time and place. In other words, ‘watching a city film can be a three-way process: we see a film and gain a knowledge of a city; we then visit this city and experience a form of déja vu; we then watch the film again and the experience of having seen the place acts as a memory recall that gives a much stronger emotional connection to both the film and the city. Venice offers a layered richness of experience through cinema as a place to be discovered not only for foreigners but even for Italians. The aim of this workshop was to engage the participants’ interest in the various facets of the relationship between cinema and Venice, the opportunity to reflect on its characterisation in the movies. The study of Venetian narrative films not only opened the path to an innovative reflection on the complexity of the city as experience but also provide a basic understanding of screen language that equipped participants to make their own short films.
Studio studies can easily be defined as the cornerstone of the discipline in departments giving architectural education. Although the educational process differs in educational institutions and among the educators, its main purpose is always to give the best experience on design process to the students and to bring together different space designs and functions with certain criteria. Although it is often stated to the contrary, it is generally difficult to get the necessary support from the social sciences in studio work. For students, considering the design with sociological data and creating a concept can be perceived as a waste of time, since the user experience cannot be observed in a project that will not be implemented in the real life and it will often create differences that cannot be measured. Dealing with form, color, and material instead can help impress teachers and other students in the studio much more easily. Students often act pragmatically and choose the method that promises them a higher score in a shorter way, as creating a charming product in studio will seem more powerful while a deep research on the sociologic and ecologic background cannot reflect themselves easily on a render. Although very different user profiles were determined for the same area at the beginning of the design process, it may cause that the resulting products cannot create enough characteristic differences in the end. The aim of this research is to examine whether the projects differ in terms of functionality regarding their different user profiles determined by the students, based on the studio work of Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Landscape Architecture within the scope of Environmental Design and Project II course. As a result of the examination, it has been determined that although the designer and customer profile are different, the morphological differences in designs are not perceived very easily, which means the methodology in the studios should be examined again.
Threshold values for climate elements have been determined and some indices have been developed, especially with studies on human comfort. It is a fact that the feeling of comfort is subjective and there are different psychological and physical factors affecting this feeling. However, the presentation of threshold values and indices is very interesting in determining the current state of the climate conditions of the environment in terms of average and optimal values and the extent of deviation from the most appropriate values. The values of the climate elements that need to be looked at in order to provide bioclimatic comfort; it as a combination of 21-27.5 °C temperature, 30-65% relative humidity and wind speed up to 5 m/s in open area. These values have been used in many bioclimatic assessments. In addition to being an effective factor in almost every aspect of people's lives, bio comfort is also important in the periods when tourism activities are carried out. Thus, it is extremely important to determine the regions that are not suitable for bio comfort in the season of tourism in the regions that tourism activities are carried out. The aim of this research is to determine the suitable and unsuitable areas in terms of bio comfort in summer by using New Summer Index throughout Ordu province via GIS. As a conclusion, it has been determined that the area covering approximately 57.62% of the southern part of the province is cold, and the most comfortable part of the province is the part covering approximately 11.12% of the province and located by the sea in the north of the province.
This study exemplifies the practical application of the Discrete Event Simulation (DES) approach for evaluating the effectiveness of suggested processes and design modifications in improving the existing bottlenecks of an Emergency Department. EDs are under escalating pressure to deliver efficient care while handling considerable challenges, such as overcrowding, delays, length of stay, safety risks, or staffing. Many ED appointments are non-urgent and can be treated in an alternative outpatient setting. Suitable demand-capacity matching and adjusted admission protocols reduce ED patients' Length of Stay (LOS) and improve boarding times. Alternatively, new design suggestions include applying results-pending areas where lower acuity patients wait for their pending lab or imaging results. In this study, DES assesses underlying conditions and existing bottlenecks in an existing ED. The current ED flow involved a "pull-until-full" for exam room boarding and bedside registration after triage fulfillment. Nonetheless, the ED experienced boarding delays for patients waiting to be admitted into the hospital. This study explored two scenarios in DES as potential alternatives for reducing LOS: the implication of a "rapid-admit" protocol and a "results-pending" area. Findings showed that the Rapid-Admit process reduced the admitted patient's LOS by 16%. On average, the results-pending implication reduced the admit LOS by an average of 32% across all ESI levels. These findings suggest the importance of process, staffing, and spatial modifications to achieve ED operational improvements. DES enabled a data-driven approach to evaluate bottlenecks, enhance architect-owner communication, and optimize the system for future design and process improvement alternatives.
Daylight is an integral part of our lives as the most important element in places. Efficient and appropriate use of daylight reduces the need for adequate illumination of the volumes and artificial lighting. Today, windows that are not designed correctly cause energy waste by increasing the use of artificial lighting instead of natural lighting. The seriousness of this situation is increasing today and regulations and standards regarding daylight use are published. The disappearance of this traditional Turkish architecture has also reduced the effective use of natural light. Study is focused on daylight penetration in traditional Turkish houses in the context of EN-17037 and a traditional Turkish house evaluated as case study. Natural lighting measurements of the selected building were calculated using the daylight simulation program, at 09:00, 12:00 and 15:00 for the months of March 21, June 21, September 21, and December 21 under average sky conditions. In line with the results obtained from the simulation program, the illumination levels (Lux), daylight factor (DF) and daylight performance classification (%) of the spaces are presented. As a result of the evaluation made in the context of EN 17037 standard, attention was drawn to the importance of openings as windows in traditional Turkish houses. And additionaly, architectural similarities and differences with the contemporary building is highlighted in results.
The functions, values, and meanings of cities, which have been in constant change and transformation throughout history, are changing in response to rapidly changing conditions, particularly in recent times. The areas where this change can be observed most concretely are generally urban spaces. Some places in the city, which cannot keep up with this speed, may lose their structural or functional use over time and remain idle when they are not fed or equipped with suitable activities that will integrate with the environmental character and bring vitality. Therefore, within the very valuable urban land, they may become lost spaces for the city. It seems very important to regain such spaces in the rhythm of daily urban life, considering that they have strong economic, social, and physical potential, as well as being lost. From this point of view, the aim of the study is to identify the lost spaces in the historical city center of Konya, which was chosen as the sample area, and to identify the urban space(s) that should be intervened in with priority among the identified lost spaces. The Trancik method was used to find the lost spaces in the area using detailed analysis. With the help of figure-ground, linkage, and place theories in Roger Trancik's book titled "Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design" (1986), both morphological analyses (figure-ground and linkage analyses) and questionnaires and cognitive maps were used to understand "place" and measure its perceptibility. The research to understand the "place" was carried out with a total of 50 people using the random sampling technique. Then, within the scope of the study, all the findings obtained from figure-ground, linkage, and place analyses were synthesized, and all lost spaces within the sample area were determined. Among these identified lost spaces, Kılıçarslan Square and its environs were determined to be the most undetected, unused, disliked, and first intervention requested by the participants. This result underlines the necessity of saving an important public space in the heart of the city from its current transition space and using it more effectively through scientific evidence. This result underlines the necessity of saving an important public space in the heart of the city from its current transition space and using it more effectively through scientific evidence. With its effective use, the area will be reintroduced to the city.
Rural areas have generous variety that combines local geographical features, buildings planned according to climatic conditions and the tradition of using local building materials, social relations and habits of the local people in their daily life. The purpose of this study is to determine the rural architectural heritage that is about to disappear; evaluate conservation proposals and developing policies to increase the interest in rural. In this study, the rural architectural heritage and conservation problems of Gölpazarı and its villages were evaluated as a representative area which has been an important settlement from prehistoric times until today in Central Anatolia. The architectural features have been examined with the settlement characteristics, analyzes, building typologies, construction techniques and materials. Rural areas have conservation problems such as immigration, socio-economic changes, and improper architectural interventions at the settlement and building scale. These problems have been analyzed through Gölpazarı, which is in danger of losing its original identity with structurally as well as socially. Based on the findings, conservation proposals for the building and settlement scale were interpreted. The cultural, social, economic and tourism potential of the settlement were evaluated to ensure the protection and sustainability. There has not been noteworthy research in this context in Gölpazarı and its surroundings. This study has potentials to be an example for developing rural heritage management in Anatolia.
In light of the studies related to the theory of interpretation of cultural heritage sites, the holistic interpretation approach of heritage areas has developed, and a new interpretation culture has emerged. It includes new approaches, local and regional interpretation strategies, new policies and comprehensive analysis and evaluations. The new interpretation culture is important not only to produce interpretation themes, but also to the transfer and sustainability of the values of heritage sites that need to be preserved to the society. In this context, studies are being brought up in order to find the most appropriate ways to understand and transfer living urban heritage sites; tangible and intangible values, existing or non-existent urban structures, ongoing or non-existent social and cultural practices, used or ongoing structures and all cultural and historical layers of areas. Beyond the current interpretation studies carried out for the heritage sites, it is important to develop interpretation strategies including the historical importance of the areas for living urban heritage sites and therefore complex cultural heritage areas, the connections to the places, cultural and social relations networks, urban memory, and the spirit of the place. For this purpose, the study focuses primarily on the critical viewpoint of theoretical content of the interpretation of cultural heritage sites. In the light of theoretical and practical knowledge, the research then concentrates on key themes and discussions on heritage interpretation in the UK. Accordingly, the research discusses the interpretation strategies in the Jewellery Quarter, Birmingham which is the one of the most influential areas by means of historical urban-industrial heritage site.
While rising urban populations, as a result of industrialization, narrowed the buildable areas in cities, at the same time the World Wars I and II increased the demand for housing. In addition, the change of social dynamics and production models and the development of technology have also been influential in the search for flexibility. Flexibility, which can be considered in many ways, is examined in this article with the space organization, equipment/outfit and time in kitchen design. At this point, the research aims to measure user-specific expectations about flexibility in kitchens design. A survey was proposed in the study, considering that the determination of spatial habits in the kitchen is determinative in terms of which parameters should be taken into account in flexibility. The aforementioned survey was applied to people between the ages of 25 and 40 who live in apartments in Istanbul and work overtime. The survey has revealed that spatial habits in the kitchen vary with the square-meter of houses and their organization scheme according to it. For example, in 1+1 and studio apartments, the connection of the kitchen with daily life is stronger, however there are difficulties in use in terms of equipment and spatial organization. On the other hand, in relatively larger residences, it was seen that not preferring to spend time in the kitchen is due to the fact that the psycho-social requirements of the functional and flexibility of the kitchens were ignored during the building production process. In the study, it is argued that while it is possible to develop more creative and multifunctional kitchen solutions in changing square-meters, it is due to the imitation of the same plan templates of build-and-sell managerships in the apartment building process in big cities.
With their various physical differences, pets have to live with their owners in interiors, which is designed according to human scale. On the other hand, human-specific anthropometric measurements, which are the basic parameters in space design, are not sufficient to provide ergonomics in indoor spaces, which are also living spaces for pets. The hypothesis of this study, in which current examples of interior and furniture designs suitable for the physical needs of pets, whose numbers are increasing day by day, are discussed with an inclusive approach in interior architecture; It has been determined as 'when the interiors where pets live are redesigned according to the characteristics of the animals, ergonomics is provided for 'all living things' in the common living areas. The subject of common living space in the literature; Although it has been investigated in interdisciplinary fields such as cognitive psychology, zoology, and architecture on topics such as biodiversity, sustainability, animal welfare, and animal behavior, the subject of 'space organization of shared living spaces shared with domestic animals' as a new approach in the field of interior architecture has not been sufficiently discussed. For this reason, the research is a pioneering and descriptive study in terms of drawing attention to current practices in terms of conceptual infrastructure, architectural design, space organization, application examples and experimental models, making a systematic review of existing studies on the subject, and identifying new trends in the field of interior architecture. The aim of the research is to expand the interior design, which is a multidimensional subject, to include spaces designed for living with pets, in particular the arrangement of common living spaces. Since subjects such as interior design, interior architecture, and design have a wide field of research, the scope of the study is limited to the specific space and furniture designs designed for pets in terms of ease of research. In the descriptive study, the survey model, one of the quantitative research methods, was preferred as a research method to review the existing status of the researches in the field of design within the existing sample applications. As a result of the study, it has been understood that the 'interior and furniture design for pets' approach is a design approach that is open to development, is an inclusive application in the interior and has a high potential to be preferred.
Despite a great deal of effort has been made to present systematic models of design process, in practice, a lot of designs still proceed through unsystematic methods. It seems that the reason for this is too much emphasizing on describing the final design (product) and little attention to the design process; such that, there is no clear method so as to research-based design. This led to illustrate a distinct pattern from configuration of "design protocol" in terms of research-based design process. The aim of this study is to develop a model that can be used in the architecture educational system. So at first step, the readers of this research are architecture students, and designers can also benefit from it in the next steps. So that all the readers of this research using this model, in a logical process, can recognize the right information for design and ultimately achieve an optimal architectural design. In this research, our preferred context is architecture, and the focus is on research-oriented design; therefore, any given example would be in the field of architecture. In this paper, the proposed process is the result of experience gained from five years teaching architectural design (2) in master's degree that includes three milestones as follows: 1) Statement of problem 2) The scheme and 3) Design protocol. "Statement of design problem" is obtained from people's concerns about "design subject" integrated in its "bed". The scheme, itself, constitutes the expectations, goals and mission representing two sets of information (cognitive and distinction) about design that finally leads to establish a "spatial-body program" of the project. As proceeding from the onset of diagram into the end, we passed from "analyze" into "synthesize" phase. In fact, in «analyze» phase, designer decides to collect and analyze information; however, as the process goes forward, he/she combines the information from the previous phase in order to achieve novel findings. Finally, we hope that by taking advantage of the proposed process, designers can find the best way to accomplish their design projects within a defined framework.
Due to the adaptability, durability, and affordability of synthetic polymers, their usage has been increasing in the global industry. These petroleum-based polymers remain intact in nature for many years after they expire and cannot be included in the natural recycling network in any way. Producing polymers using fossil resources increasingly day by day threatens existing resources and affects the circular economy negatively. Considering the various negative effects of polymers on the environment, biopolymers could be seen as a strong alternative; which is a polymer group formed by living organisms such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. Ecological, low-emission, and recyclable biopolymers open up new and a broad range of topics in the field. Composite materials created with these biopolymer materials that act as natural adhesives; have different developing areas of applications such as packaging industry, textile, furniture, and industrial design sectors, architectural designs, and structural insulation materials. Fungal mycelium, a biopolymer, consists of fibrous filaments called hyphae, which can be defined as elongated cells, mainly composed of chitin, glucan, and proteins. The ability of fungal mycelium to digest and grow through organic matter makes it possible to produce biocomposites from mycelium. Mycelium-based composites are mixed with fungal mycelium, forming an interpenetrating three-dimensional filamentous network that binds the raw material to the material, and after completing the growth period, the mycelium growth is stopped by heat, thus offering an alternating fabrication paradigm based on the growth of materials. In this study, firstly, it was tried to find the most efficient ratio among different mixing ratios by using the mycelium of the genus Pleurotus Ostreatus and the same raw materials. Afterward, it was aimed to investigate the mechanical and physical properties through experimental studies, especially the production process, of mycelium-based composites formed by mixing different raw materials in determining proportions.
Regions with high tourism density are very sensitive to human activities. Ensuring sustainability by preserving the cultural characteristics and natural structure of these regions is of critical importance in order to transfer these assets to the future world heritage. Detecting and mapping changes in land use and land cover (LULC) using innovative methods within short time intervals are of great importance for both monitoring the regional change and making administrative planning by taking necessary measures in a timely manner. In this context, this study focuses on the creation of a 4-class LULC map of Muğla province over the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform by utilizing three different machine learning algorithms, namely, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and on comparison of their accuracy assessments. For improved classification accuracy, as well with the Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellite images, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) are also derived and used in classification of the major land use classes, which are ‘built-up area & barren land’, ‘dense vegetation’, ‘water surface’, and ‘shrub, grassland & sparse vegetation’. Experimental results show that the most relevant algorithm is RF with 0.97 overall accuracy and 0.96 Kappa value, followed by SVM and CART algorithms, respectively. These results indicate that the RF classifier outperforms both SVM and CART classifiers in terms of accuracy. Moreover, based on the results of the RF classifier, 19% (2,429 km2) of the study region is classified as built-up area & barren land, 48% (6,135 km2) as dense vegetation, 2% (301 km2) as water surface and 30% (3,832 km2) as shrub, grassland & sparse vegetation class.
The application of geospatial information technologies has increased recently due to increase in data sources from the earth sciences. The systematic data collection, storage and processing together with data transformation require geospatial information technologies. Rapidly developing computer technology has become an effective tool in design and physical planning in international platforms. Especially, the availability of geospatial information technologies (remote sensing, GIS, spatial models and GPS) for diverse disciplines and the capability of these technologies in data conversion from two dimensions to the three dimensions provide great efficiency. Thus, this study explores how digital technologies are reshaping physical planning and design. While the potential of digital technologies is well documented within physical planning and visualization, its application within practice is far less understood. This paper highlights the role of the geospatial information technologies in encouraging a new planning and design logic that moves from the privileging of the visual to a focus on processes of formation, bridging the interface of the earth science and physical planning.
As a building element, the facade which interacts with external factors between two different environmental conditions is an important interface in energy consumption and the building life cycle. In recent years, smart materials have become a research topic in the field of sustainable architecture and facade technologies. The traditional material understanding which expects materials to not be affected by external environmental conditions by preserving their qualities throughout their lifespan has begun to leave its place to the understanding of materials that change quality and energy by reacting to external stimuli. Developing facade technologies and the energy-efficient design approach also achieve the development of new technologies in window systems. The most promising of these new window technologies, called smart windows, are electrochromic, thermochromic, and photochromic windows. Within the scope of this study, the energy performance of smart window systems has been evaluated comparatively with a traditional window system in a reference office building in Kayseri, Turkey. This study aims to evaluate the energy performances of smart windows and reveal their advantages and disadvantages over the available window system in this climate condition. In this context, smart window systems have been classified and explained their properties. In the simulation part, a reference office building has been modeled with each smart window system to evaluate their energy performances comparatively. Nevertheless, a reference office building with a traditional window system has also been modeled to reveal differences in energy performances with an available window system. Finally, the results have been evaluated with graphs and recommendations on the best-performed window system have been explained.
Today, supertall buildings can be constructed in unusual forms as a pragmatic reflection of advances in construction techniques and engineering technologies, together with advanced computational design tools for architectural design. As with many other buildings, architectural and practical principles play a crucial role in the form of a supertall building, where aerodynamic behavior shaped by wind-induced excitations also becomes a critical design input. Various methods are used to meet the functional needs of these towers and reduce excitations, including aerodynamic modification methods directly related to the building form. Tapered forms are one of the most frequently used and most effective methods in today's skyscrapers, which significantly affect architectural design. To date, no study has been conducted in the literature that provides an understanding of the interrelationships between tapered building forms and main planning criteria, considering the aerodynamic design concerns of the tapering effect in supertall buildings (≥300 m). This important issue is explored in this article with data gathered from 41 supertall case studies, considering location, function, structural system, and structural material as well as the aerodynamic taper effect. The main findings of the study highlighted the following: (1) Asia was where tapered towers were most favored, with a wider margin in all regions; (2) mixed-use was the most preferred function in selected supertall buildings with tapered form; (3) outriggered frame systems were mainly used; (4) tapered supertall cases were mostly built in composite; (5) the sample group included 17 cases that used the tapering effect with aerodynamic design concerns, some of which were accompanied by corner modifications. It is believed that this study will be a basic guide for design and construction professionals including architectural and structural designers, and contractors.
From the 1980s onwards, restructuring of economy and globalization has increased the size and number of companies in Istanbul and demand for modern office space which cannot be provided in the old CBD due to construction restrictions. Thus, multi-center development has started in the city in order to answer to the growing demand for modern office markets. The present study investigated the growth and decline of office rents in office markets which have highest demand and office rents. According to the results of the study, while office rents in the office markets with growth potential have increased, that of the markets with supply increased dramatically between 2011 and 2016. On the other hand, while office rents in all of the office markets were sharply declined in 2021 due to devaluation of Turkish Lira against USD. Although the pandemic has made Work from Home (WFH) and Hybrid working models a global trend, A class office demand stayed strong due to well-being requirements on office area. Thus, it is expected to have a positive impact on the economy of the city.
During the last two decades, Istanbul experienced rapid growth due to national and international migration. In addition, multi-center development of the city, construction of peripheral highways, bridges and metro systems have affected the economic, cultural and physical structure of the city. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the changes of the housing types and prices from the center to the periphery. While some of the fashionable neighborhoods lost their importance through time, some new neighborhoods became fashionable due to their modern buildings in the green areas. The great impact of Bosphourus and Marmara Sea shores amenities on the type and price of housing was emphasized. Economic development, globalization, restructuring and strategic locations have contributed to improve the quality of housing and to increase their prices. Due to increasing income gap, there is a widening difference between the types of low-income and upper-income housing.
Cities are in a continuous process with the change and re-adaptation of different parts. Cities are deliberately planned under different socio-economic, natural, religious, and political conditions in different historical periods. While cities are growing, new urban projects are planned that will affect urban morphology. Thus, the research problem is that new urban design projects require planning and integrated policy in interaction with the city. One of the aspects of ensuring this is examining the city from the historical point of view and comprehending urban morphology analysis. Within this framework, the Galata Region is chosen as the study area. The main reason for choosing the study area is; that it is thought the planning of the Galataport Project, the characteristics of the district and its impact should be questioned. Therefore, the study aims to first determine the change and development of the Galata Region over time with the Conzenian approach. In this section, historical maps of the area will be examined through the spatial development of the city, and the determination of the areas affected by the planning decisions will be revealed. Morphological region analysis will be done to identify the focus area boundary. Secondly, the aim is to reveal the impact of the Galataport Project on the region and on the use of the coastline by space syntax method. In this part, the effect of the Galataport Project will be explained comparatively by axiality, convexity, integration and intelligibility, and synergy concept through the 1980 and 2020 maps. As a result, it is seen that the study area has its spatial characteristics, cultural values, and historical process. In the general analysis of the area, it is seen that the old city center is seen as a high potential area for transformation due to its central location. The old city center plays a central role in the marketing of the city because of its economic potential. New design projects are done in the study area because of the transformation potential. It is observed that the Galataport project together with the morphological structure led to functional changes in the field and caused differences in the characteristics of the use of space. It has affected the area and old trading functions began to transform the leisure and tourism sector. Lastly, recommendations are given according to the results.
Educational buildings need to be properly built and renovated because of the number of users served, the rate of usage, the potential for energy savings, and their number in public buildings. Physically, educational buildings that do not meet the essential comfort conditions cause more energy consumption, have a negative effect on academic performance of students and also cause disruptions in educational program applications. According to 2021 data, there are approximately 67,000 school buildings in Turkey. A major portion of these buildings were constructed before 2000 and are now nearing the end of their economic life. It is essential to renew the insufficient buildings make them suitable for the conditions of the age. In this context, resilient systems that continue to function in a variety of negative conditions while maintaining comfort conditions become a priority in the design of the created environment. The lighting arrangements of educational buildings that are directly connected to visual comfort, academic performance, and energy consumption are discussed in this study. Within the framework of resilient design, certain suggestions have been developed in light of the current lighting standards in effect regarding the processes to be followed before the retrofit works to be performed in the lighting arrangements of the school buildings. These suggestions were discussed in three categories as short-, medium-, and long-term periods, taking into consideration the duration of the improvement processes and without interfering with the existing activities during the school education period and it was aimed to create a guide for designers and practitioners with the improvement systematics to be made in these periods. In order to test these suggestions, a classroom from the Ministry of National Education's type school projects is used as an example. The existing situation of the natural and artificial lighting system of this classroom and short-, medium- and long-term improvement suggestions were estimated through the Dialux Evo program. According to the findings, the recommended improvements enhanced visual comfort criteria and resulted in a considerable reduction in energy consumption. With the help of the improvement calendar, it is possible to modify the lighting systems of existing school buildings and increase visual performance.
In this study, the term resilience has been examined in terms of ecological, economic, and cultural parameters specific to residential areas. Recently, changing needs and increasing the speed of change due to developing technology are reflected as internal and external threats to residential areas. Change is inevitable for each parameter over time, but it can also pose a threat to the morphology and identity of residential areas. The buffer zone to be created by the residential areas against this threat reduces the severity of the incoming impact and revises it and provides the adaptation of identity and morphology dynamics to the new situation with its resilience. In the first part of the study, the identity of the settlements and the resilience factor against change/transformation threats are explained according to the definitions in the literature. In the second part, the dynamics of rural settlement morphology are defined and the effect of rural resistance on the dynamics is presented. In the last part, a stratification analysis is made according to certain year intervals over the Kargalı district (village) of the Polatlı District of Ankara. The sample was analyzed in terms of rural area, road traces, environmental location relations, structural boundaries, landmarks, and the changes/transformations of all these morphology dynamics over time, its resilience, and adaptation/mutation processes. The effects and possible results of the resilience of rural settlements for sustainable rural settlement, which are more affected by similar internal or external threats than urban, on the dynamics of settlement morphology and resident over time, constitute the desired findings of the study.
Today's cities are competitive in the process of globalization. Their survival depends on attracting as much capital as possible for the various productive, infrastructure, economic, political and social sectors. The more capital raised, the parts that use it also get improved in number and scale. The process of raising capital depends on the circumstances of each city. So that, in some cities, high demand leads to increase the capacity of economic infrastructure sectors, in others, they make demand by creating economic, social, infrastructure capacity and opportunities on a large scale. This is even more important for cities in developing countries as it helps them reach the development thresholds. Meanwhile, the Tehran (Iran) and Istanbul (Turkey) cities, due to their location, economic and political conditions, have always been challenged to attract capital. Therefore, in recent decades, they have started to make investment capacities by developing large-scale projects. This study aims to verify two of the most challenging large-scale projects in these two cities. To achieve the study’s goal, the projects and their types are first discussed. Also, the impact on the lands values in the neighboring area is evaluated as one of the existing effects on the host environment. The rate of impacts varies depending on the type of projects. According to the research findings, the essences of the two projects and the purposes of their constructions are different from each other. One attempts to attract as much capital as possible in order to show off its social and cultural capitals (Iran mall- Tehran), and the other aims at economic and political benefits in competition with similar projects. Regarding land prices, in addition to the fact that these two projects have caused significant increases in land values of the host districts, they have also transformed the social structure of the residents living there.
In 1992, the World Heritage Convention became the first international legal instrument recognize cultural landscapes as a human heritage that must be protected. The Cultural Landscape - Past, Present and Future considers different aspects of man's intervention with natural vegetation and the landscape resulting from a long equilibrium of co-existence. These landscapes are not stable, and the recent and ever accelerating changes in technology and life-style have increasingly affected many ancient landscapes, as old land-use practices are abandoned and traditions forgotten.(Birks et al., 1988) Human communities in desert areas formed a special landscape, providing these cultural landscapes within a special ecosystem of sustainable living conditions, which helped to create many social, economic, and cultural systems in addition to preserving biodiversity. Unfortunately, the cultural landscape in the African desert is constantly deteriorating under the influence of urban, economic, and social changes. In the southern Algerian Timimoun city of is one of the most important global desert touristic destination due to the natural cultural landscape characterizes it, but unfortunately this landscape in continuous deterioration. Agricultural landscapes of desert environment, with its remarkable knowledge culture and world of practices, must be seen as a living library where this knowledge is transferred from generation to generation. It seems certain that we will need more of the know-how stored in this living library in the near future, especially considering the effects of climate change we are experiencing today. The paper aims to identification of cultural landscapes in the oasis and analyses transformation and change in cultural landscape and traditional green infrastructure elements by relying on a historical analysis of spatial images based on quantitative analysis using ArcGIS software with the aim of identifying the real reasons of this deterioration in the urban cultural landscape in desert cites we will propose an action strategy to prevent this degradation.
Societies have reflected their cultures and lifestyles through the environment they have shaped. This is also true for minority groups in society. Environmental problems arise due to the use of all resources for cheap and fast production without considering the result of technological developments. Changes in nature, which form the basis of many disaster scenarios, also require urgent measures to be taken in many areas. Efforts should be made to minimize the damage to the environment. In this context, as in many other fields, the number of studies on ecology and sustainability in the field of architecture is increasing day by day. Ecological building designs are the most important reflection of this. In this direction, the development of certification systems and the promotion of ecological structures come to the fore. The research looks at the concepts of ecology and sustainability from a different perspective and traces the ecological architecture through a residential building belonging to minorities that can be qualified as a historical cultural heritage and located in the Yukarı Talas locality of Talas district of Kayseri. In order to produce sustainable designs in places where life is lived, it is considered important to consider the way in which human beings shape the environment in which they live in the historical process, also in minority architecture. Within the scope of the study, the mansion in Talas, Kayseri, which was built in the 19th century and passed from an Armenian family to a Turkish family in the process, was evaluated within the scope of today's ecological architecture criteria and it was found that a significant part of these criteria was met in this building. The mansion is discussed in terms of ecology, energy, economy, indoor environmental quality, health and welfare, innovation, management, land use, transportation, renewable technology, water, environmental pollution, CO2 emission, material and waste criteria. In the study; It has been determined that there are ecological approaches to the historical minority mansion. With reference to the findings, suggestions have been developed to produce ecological, nature-friendly and energy efficient structures for today and the future.
According to the Index of Risk Management-INFORM 2020 Report, Turkey was included in the group of “high-risk” countries in terms of humanitarian crises and disasters with an index score of 5.0 in 2019. In statistics related to the damage caused by disasters, it is known that natural disasters cause a 3% loss in Turkey's gross national product every year, and this rate approaches 4-5% with indirect losses. Since disasters cause socioeconomic, physical, and institutional losses, attention has been given to the importance of disaster management and risk reduction studies. This paper focuses on vulnerability assessments and presents a multi-criteria decision-making and earthquake-related vulnerability assessment method by using physical and socioeconomic parameters in the Historic Peninsula. A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was applied in this study because vulnerability assessments are complex and depend on many different criteria. Due to its flexible structure, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is one of the MCDM methods widely used in urban vulnerability assessment studies, was preferred and integrated with Geographic Information Systems. As a result of the study, it is found that approximately 49% of the district is at a moderate vulnerability level in terms of socioeconomic characteristics. For the structural characteristics, this rate is found to be at a high vulnerability level of 93%. The remaining 7% is moderately vulnerable. In this context, emphasis should be placed on identifying risky structures and strengthening and renovating them in the Historic Peninsula. The results of the method proposed in this study can be used as a basis for risk reduction studies. In addition, it can be a guide in pre-disaster risk reduction studies and can be integrated into city planning processes to keep disaster damage at minimum levels and predict the damage that may occur in settlements. The proposed method is a low-cost and short-term analysis that can be used, especially in public institutions that lack a technologically qualified workforce.
Set aside the issues concerning their excavation, documentation, and conservation, as far as their presentation to the public experience is concerned, Archaeological sites represent a special case of cultural heritage that come with distinctive set of conditions and demands, posing a problem situation deserving a special treatment. Problem is manifold: The presentation should be informative, entertaining, and educational, all accomplished through an active corporeal and mental participation where interactivity and immersion must be the key. The setting must provide a holistic, comprehensible experience by completing “missing parts and layers,” and contextualizing it, perhaps through a story, a theme, or a background. Any intervention must be non-invasive, reversible and updateable; alternatives and different layers must be presented, preferably, synchronously. Above all, final setting should be subordinate to the primacies of “conservation of cultural heritage,” while providing an intellectually and physically accessible and sustainable overall historical environment. This has been an age-old issue for the scholars, a genuine challenge due to the ill-defined nature of the problem situation itself. The present study departs from the proposition that, Augmented Reality(AR), by definition, has a potential to contribute to such a problem situation. AR is a combination of real and virtual worlds, where “virtual” could complement what was missing in the real and new objects and layers might be woven together, into one new reality where active bodily and mental participation and interaction is possible. Though it might seem implied in the definition, the proposition still needs a rigorous investigation since AR is a rapidly emerging but still quite a young field that has a long way to go; and since, research on AR’s specific adoption to presentation of archaeological sites, apart from few examples, is still an unbeaten path. The present multidisciplinary study aims to take a step towards such an investigation. Established upon a detailed investigation and analysis of examples, the present study involves development of an AR application of a selected case: “Alexandria Troas Podium Temple,” followed by a field study. In the present report, we share our experience and observations of the process and the implementation. In conclusion, we propose that AR is a serious candidate to be a considerable asset for the presentation of archaeological sites for the visitor experience, without compromising the universal norms of conservation of cultural heritage. We also argue that AR seems to have its own agenda, coming with unprecedented possibilities still to be appreciated and adopted, which in turn might help us to go beyond the conventional conceptions and modes of conservation of cultural heritage and presentation.
While environmental, economical and social challenges that the world has been facing recently are increasing dramatically; cities have played critical role in generation many of these problems like negative impacts on environment and overconsumption of resources. Most of the cities today face severe sustainability challenges including sanitation, air pollution, environmental degradation, over population and lack of livability. However, cities may also raise answers to find solutions against many of such complex urban problems, since they are assumed as creative and innovative platforms for social ecosystem of ideas. In this sense, there is increasing interest in ‘City Laboratories’ or ‘Urban Living Labs’, which are established to provide creative experimental platforms with participation of city actors to discuss urban sustainability issues before implementation of deep and structural urban changes for citizens. They provide participatory, co-creative and experimental platforms for self-organizing cities. The aim of this paper is to discuss a collaborative City Laboratory approach -Mersin City Lab- to achieve sustainability principles during urban regeneration process for the selected case-study area located in Mersin. Mersin City Lab focuses on two aspects: Firstly, ‘City Lab’ approach, involves citizens and stakeholders into decision-making process. Secondly, it focuses on urban transformation process with circularity principles including water, mobility, energy, waste management, food and circular economy to achieve sustainable neighborhood development. The paper starts with introduction of ‘city-gaming’ methodology which has been adopted as the main structure of participation of multi-stakeholders. It continues with discussions on stages of the case-study project through implementation of workshops and game sessions by participation of multi stake-holders. Following, the results gathered from overall evaluations of participants’ proposals regarding land-use, mobility and urban water management, local economy, urban development, urban agriculture and food strategies in neighborhood level are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with impacts of City Labs approach and city-gaming methodology on decision-making process for real urban problems and urban settings.
Purpose This study identifies whether the hierarchy, development type, and city size have a crucial effect on resilience in ecological terms. Is there a desirable optimum urban form for resilience? The study aims to answer this question by comparing different types of macroform and density of some selected cities in Turkey. Design/Methodology/Approach Denizli, Muğla, and Gaziantep provinces are selected according to the comparability of their population size and urban forms in relation to the greenhouse gas emissions of each city. A retrospective causal comparison method was used in the study. Using the Corine Land Cover Classes program, the change of the artificial surfaces and the city structure between 1990 and 2018 were mapped and detailed graphics were created. Findings Findings show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions originating from road transport in Muğla, which has a multi-centered form, were the highest. The surprising result is that Gaziantep has lower GHG emission rate than Denizli although its population is twice the latter. The emission rates of the housing and services sectors were compared with the household size. Gaziantep having the largest household size has the lowest emission rate in this sector. The paper suggests that a hierarchical urban system structure is essential for the resilience of the city to be able to organize itself more effectively, adapt to external changes faster, and create a stronger and more complex structure. City size is an important criterion for low infrastructure cost, efficient use of resources, and capacity to access capital of all kinds. Yet, this criterion may differ in the resilience of the city depending on several factors such as population, area size, and distribution of various urban functions. The development type, on the other hand, is highly effective on GHG emissions as the monocentric cities generate fewer emissions than the polycentric cities. Research Limitations/Implications The GHG reports created for the case areas consisted of different years and different analysis units. This limits the sectors to which cities can be compared. Originality/Value This article is a detailed and original study in terms of evaluating the resilience of Turkish cities with different morphologies.
The intrinsic relationship between art and the public has changed as public art has greater visibility in contemporary urban space. Especially following the growing interest in placemaking in spatial planning and design, many cities in different countries tend to experience an unprecedented transformation of urban space displaying various modes of artistic performances open for the public. As a visual art, the mural could be considered one of the leading creative activities in the cities' public domain. The ever-increasing popularity of murals as public artwork made the local governments tend to introduce some programs to steer the performance of the art within the very spatial condition of the city fabric. Along with its vivid cosmopolitan culture, Istanbul has performed as the cultural hub of the contemporary arts located both indoor (the various size of galleries) and the city's outdoor spaces. As one of the central neighborhoods in Kadıköy district in İstanbul, Yeldeğirmeni, represents a very relevant context to investigate the issue public art in urban space. Having accommodated an international mural festival in 2012, the district has turned into an experimental site for various mural practices. The extent of the art in the urban space calls for morphological research to test the perceptual performance of the artwork in terms of the characteristics of the physical fabric in which the murals locate. The paper, in this context, conducts a spatial analysis focusing on network integration, visibility, and townscape characteristics of the neighborhood fabric. The research findings are correlated with the level of recognition of the murals by the public to reveal the conditional relationship between the spatial morphology and the perceptional capacity of the murals as public art.
Capital cities have a major role in carrying the symbolic meanings of their countries. Planning decisions and historical periods affect their urban forms and development processes. This research examines the morphological evaluation of Ankara—the capital city of Turkey—and provides an approach to understanding its unique physical structure. Ankara has witnessed strategically important planning periods through its history that are reflected in its urban form. The historical periods affecting the developing process of the capital city are analyzed through a mathematical method called "Space Syntax" which contributes to the field of urban morphology with a quantitative perspective. The analytical framework investigates the changing process of Ankara's unique urban axis and morphological structure. Its different historical periods show that the capital city is constantly changing. Ankara's monumental city axis, which shows its traces since the formation of the city, still exists today. However, this unique axis, which connects the historical core areas of the capital city, has lost its potential today. Due to economic and political demands, the main axis, namely Atatürk Boulevard, has been replaced by a newly formed western artery. Understanding Ankara's forming and changing process will enhance its subsequent development plans. By evaluating a unique capital city from Turkey with a morphological perspective, this research will contribute an approach to future studies.
Urban form in Shkodër is studied according to six stages during the period 1479-1913, which are reconstructed based on historical descriptions, maps, photographs, and the spatial interpretation of the Venetian cadastral registry in 1416. Like other Ottoman cities in the Balkans, the old quarters in Shkodër evolved by preserving the original medieval street network, while the new part of the city grew by expanding suburbs with dendritic street patterns and large plots along existing intercity arterial roads. The unique location of the city confined by hilly ranges and surrounded by three rivers and a lake produced a distinctive urban form due to the position of the external bazaar and the crisscrossing of arterial roads. The comparative space syntax analysis of the street network for each stage reveals a gradual transformation in the spatial structure of the city broken by two stark changes: during the early Ottoman period when the bazaar became distinctively more central in comparison to the living quarters, and after the opening of new boulevards during the late Ottoman period when the new urban center that emerged in the new city drew the spatial integration away from the historical bazaar.
Building Back Better in disaster recovery and reconstruction requires the adoption of integrated and context-sensitive approaches to the design and planning of Temporary Housing (TH) sites. However, there is a lack of methods for enabling successful outcomes in housing assistance provision, e.g. via a quantitative evaluation of the social-spatial qualities of the sites, and supporting the negotiation of urban design changes and the development of a coherent end-of-life plan. The paper aims to uncover formal analogies between different TH sites’ layouts by linking Space Syntax and Clustering analysis within an unsupervised machine-learning pipeline, which can consider a virtually unlimited number of configurational qualities and how they vary across different scales. The potential benefits of the proposal are illustrated through its application to the study of 20 TH sites built in Norcia after the 2016-2017 Central Italy earthquakes. The results indicate the proposal enables distinguishing different types of spatial arrangements according to local strategic priorities and suggest the opportunity to extend the study in the future to set up rules of thumb for the design of site layout options. The paper ultimately aims to equip local administrations and contracted professionals with a much-needed tool to develop and rapidly audit proposals for temporary neighbourhoods oriented at enhancing the resilience of disaster-affected towns both in the medium and in the long term.
What is the right location for a university campus? Universities have a preponderant role in today’s societal models. They have been in the core of development — economic, social, sustainable, inter alia — and their role within urban context has changed in order to respond to the university mission — that nowadays includes of civic engagement as well as a stronger participation in economies, through the development of startups and innovation ecosystems. This paper relies on the premise that, even in a post-pandemic world, the Campus is still a window to the world, it can shape the perception people have of the University, can be used as a branding asset and, most of all, impacts the lives of everyone living, learning, and working there. The Campus is a very powerful tool, one that universities worldwide have been using as a way of positioning themselves, of attracting students and faculty, and also creating synergies and relationships with companies. It shapes the relationships created inside and outside of it. As such, this research argues that universities can be key elements in generating and enabling dynamic synergies, promoting the presence of students, academics, and learning spaces in urban contexts. To accomplish this, universities should preserve their spatial identity and uniqueness, while guaranteeing the existence of adequate places for all learning related activities and embodying inclusion and sustainable development, promoting encounters and interaction. These two needs, for inclusion and livelihood while safeguarding some privacy coexist creating some tension for all campus users. With this issue in mind, this paper explores an analytical framework for university campuses within urban fabrics, understanding the different types of urban insertion and connections established with local and regional players, and exploring the dichotomy between closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, as variables than can be used to balance the tension between integration and privacy that affects university campuses and academic communities worldwide. Four compact university campuses that host similar functions are used to test the methodology: Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada; Aalto University in Espoo, Finland; MIT in Cambridge, MA, USA; and Yale University, in New Haven, USA. This paper relies on syntactic analysis to provide deeper information and some clarification on the university location and accessibility within the urban fabrics.
This article engages with the role of what one might tentatively call “secondary” urban spaces, in that while they are public, they are not the most vibrant, populated, or active places. These are not the spaces envisioned in many project illustrations. They are not full of people and activity. They are however a crucial part of a wider texture of urban situations, and important to extending our understanding of seclusion, solitude, and tranquility beyond distant parks and recreation areas. My aim here is to understand the emergence of these spaces in-between; those that are close to the vibrant streets and are embedded in city centers yet which offer a respite from the most bustling urbanity. These spaces, I will argue, more easily allow for the kinds of interactions that can lead to bridging and bonding with the unknown, in addition to the important everyday encounters that occur on central streets and squares. Using qualitative methods which build on Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis, the discussion will draw on observations of the syntactic properties that condition, enable, and characterize such spaces, and address a series of concepts, including capacity, insulation, sequencing, and interface. A better understanding of such places, it is argued, not only allows a richer set of tools for working with urban design and planning, but offers possibilities for more resilient planning in terms of generating social relations, the emergence of communities, and for cities to manage and withstand extraordinary conditions.
The design for the Superquadra Norte 109 [North Superblock 109] of the Brasília Pilot Plan, Brazil’s Federal Capital, has started from a critical appraisal of the existent superblocks and makes a proposal that intends to: 1) establish clear relations of the block with the surroundings, stressing the importance of elements as the entrance for vehicles, the bus stop and the connections with the local shopping and the club, through the dimension and form of places, the localization of facilities, public lighting and vegetation; 2) improve internal legibility of the block, by creating places clearly defined by the buildings, to which entrance doors open; 3) create a street system in rings, not in a tree-like one, which are common in the existing superblocks, to improve internal circulation; 4) locate facilities internal to the superblock accessible to its entrance, by recognising (against what was predicted) that non-locals use them; 5) establish a continuous system of sidewalks that privileges the pedestrian, not the vehicle, as is traditional; 6) use vegetation and illumination to reinforce the identities of places in the superblock; 7) implement a configuration that explores a clear variation in forms, dimensions and uses, which favour the identity and orientability of the block; 8) configure open spaces and localise facilities of the superblock to favour co-presence and co-awareness among the inhabitants and between the latter and those passing by.
Physical environment has long been recognized within occupational therapy as a key factor contributing to residents’ functional abilities. However, the specific aspects of the physical environment that matter and the extent to which they do so remain less understood. This paper reports a quantitative study of the relationship between a characteristic of the physical home environment—the degree of interconnectedness of its rooms—and the cognitive ability of adults. Working with demographic, health, and home layout data collected from a sample of community-dwelling older adults in Atlanta, Georgia (N=72, Mage=69.5), we found that the cognitive functioning determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score was significantly associated with the average connectivity and mean depth of the homes while controlling participants’ age and education. Regression analysis suggested home connectivity independently explained a little more than 4% of the variance in the MoCA scores. The results further revealed that the relationship may be better modeled using non-linear models, and that the increase in the numbers of circulation rings as average room connectivity rises may be partly, but not entirely, responsible for its association with cognitive ability. The study points to directions for further work, including causal modeling, based on recommendations that could be developed for homes to support older adults’ abilities to continue to reside in their own homes as they grow older.
Over a half-century, space syntax has proven resilient as a theory and method for describing and analyzing the built environment from dwellings and complex buildings to cities. The paper briefly discusses resilience as a concept in the built environment and the foundations of space syntax itself. We summarize the body of the theoretical thinking in space syntax – laws of the urban object, generic function, principles of centrality and linearity, the design method of spatio-formal processes, and laws of spatial emergence-convergence – before offering a new hypothesis about laws of spatial conservation and spatial optimization at work in the built environment. The latter builds on Conroy-Dalton’s (2001) ideas about angularity and the conservation of linearity in movement. Both could provide an essential bridge with Carvalho and Penn’s (2004) concept of self-similarity in settlements, which relates to Batty and Longley’s (1994) notions of fractal cities. We argue the hypothesis of conservation-optimization defines the conceptual framework for the progressive and regressive practice of urban planning in settlements. We illustrate this theoretical discussion by demonstrating the resilience or replication of previous space syntax findings, and by drawing on new research about the history, spatial structure, and neighborhood logic of Metropolitan Doha.
The relationship between location and context, design, and usage gains importance in architectural structures. The interrelated patterns of different syntactic and semantic layers compose the built space especially museums or exhibition spaces. The museum spaces have a considerable part of everyday life in terms of social interaction. The accessibility, visibility, and circularity of the museum spaces are affecting the integration of the human-space activity. The museums by the sea are recognized with the silhouette of the city. These museums are accessible from the seaway and overland routes. It is important that the museums as an exhibition space in the city are visible from both the sea and the land and provide two different accesses. For this reason, the study investigates two naval museums which emphasize the importance of location belonging and the type of the museum. Within the scope of the study, Genova Galata Museo Del Mare in Italy and the Istanbul Deniz Müzesi in Turkey with a similar location and function are examined. The museums are close to the seaway and visible from the sea. However, Istanbul Deniz Müzesi’s access is provided from the motorway due to the actual usage. On the other hand, in the case of Galata, the situation is the opposite. Thus, the museum structure is passed through in it and creates the connection space between the sea and land. The aim of the study is not only a representation of the maritime structure of the museum in a city that is the sea but also to highlight the importance of access from both sides. Furthermore, with the examination of the visibility, accessibility and circularity affect, the usage and time-related changes in the museum to be focused. For this purpose, use from the sea and the land, the relationship between the land and the sea will be evaluated as a bridge of the ground floor. In this study, the space syntax analysis method is applied. Space syntax provides an analytical analysis of human-environment relations, accessibility, and movement values. (Hillier et al., 1987). The relevant results will create a research base for further use and change over time. In conclusion, in two different sea countries’ naval museums are evaluated with the context of location and usage comparatively. The accesses of the museums and exhibitions areas are also evaluated by the visibility, accessibility, circularity analyses. A scientific base has been created to examine past, present, and future usage.
The focus of this paper is the redevelopment of the squatter settlements in Ankara Turkey. Most of the articles focus on gentrification and changing neighbourhood social structures but the redevelopment of the squatter settlements also aims the production of formal low-income housing as well as the integration of previous non-formal housing into formal urban space. Therefore, this article suggests that the contemporary redevelopment project of squatters in Ankara, Turkey is a part of a broader strategy of integrating low-income into the formal housing system by cooperating with a part of low-income groups. The research was made in Altındağ, Ankara by using a deep semi-structured interview, and document analyses method. The researcher conducted 25 interviews with residents and 2 interviews with officials.
In the restructuring of the cities today, economic growth and its reflective trend multi-centred, urban development pattern made business enterprises shifted its locational choice in a decentralized way. As the focus of this paper, construction firms expended their market areas as well. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of construction firms according to the variables of socio-economic characteristics of districts and total construction sizes within the concept of multi-centre development in Istanbul. The paper describes the growth of the city and the construction firms through time according to the concentric zones and districts, firstly. Then descriptive figures and results of regression analysis are given by taking the number of construction firms as dependent variable and population, income per capita, average household size and amount of construction activity as the independent variables. Main hypothesis of this paper is that socio-economic indicators and total size of construction in building permits can explain the variance of number of construction firms in Istanbul district. Overall results from the multiple regression model indicate that the role of socio-economic indicators and total size of construction in building permits on the distribution of construction firms is proved on a large scale in the study. The spatial distribution of the construction firms has been figured out that the sub-central, peripheral districts of Istanbul have sustained the significant role in a way that responds to the construction supply, and housing sub-markets. However, the intense construction trends in the periphery reveal a fact that these firms preserve the location of their management offices in the sub-centre with relatively higher economic attraction, in central districts.
Historic cultural landscapes consist of pattern of layers reflecting mutual interaction of the local people with the land through time. They have material and immaterial traces of collective practices of the initial inhabitants and a local culture. Traditional determinist approach has a tendency to split material and immaterial, natural and cultural values and evaluate them separately. However, the concept of cultural landscape has been arisen as a criticism against this duality and distinction and thereafter landscapes started to be regarded as cultural representations that are shaped by both natural and cultural values. This article explores the historic cultural landscape of Karabağlar Yaylası in a rural-urban continuum in search of preservation strategies regarding changing relations with modernization and urbanization. Karabağlar Yaylası is a semi-urban and semi-rural settlement close to Muğla city centre. The seasonal migration and socio-economical interdependency have been two significant facts that sustain the settlement. However, the historic cultural landscape of Karabağlar is under threat of urban sprawl and increasing development pressures with urbanization. Modernization tools and implementations have fragmented and transformed the distinct socio-spatial pattern of Karabağlar and destroyed its character defining features over the last five decades. In order to reveal socio-spatial transformations in Karabağlar, a survey analysis was conducted. Two similar face-to-face questionnaires carried out in 2006 and 2020 are evaluated comparatively. The questionnaires have been structured over how the inhabitants of Karabağlar perceive the space, how they develop land use and the symbolic meaning they attribute to the space. Findings related to field research and the empirical results of the questionnaires are evaluated holistically and changing social, economic and environmental relations are elaborated. To combat with the problems arising due to socio-spatial transformations, the article proposes some preservation strategies that care cultural values as far as natural values, perception of residents, collective memory, sense of community and their interaction with the land. This study has a potential to set up a research agenda in terms of preservation strategies for similar geographical settings.
Armed conflict is considered a major risk for cultural heritage since the Second World War and guidelines are prepared by international organizations such as UNESCO and ICCROM on risk management and protection of cultural heritage in conflict-affected areas. However, the main concerns are reducing risks prior to the armed conflict by identifying, analyzing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risks and managing them before the risk occurs. The literature is quite narrow in respect to the ways of protecting cultural heritage and sustaining life for both buildings and people in intentionally destroyed historic settlements. Within this context, this study aims to raise the question on how to manage change in the intentionally destroyed historic settlements and how to strengthen resilience in conflict-affected areas. In order to achieve this aim, an examination on two case studies, Kirkuk Citadel and the Old Town of Van, which were both intentionally destroyed as a result of armed conflict is made using comparative analysis method. The cases are chosen to represent different time periods, scales and types of destruction. Depending on the international law and guidelines, the study tries to understand the impact of armed conflict on the historic settlements embracing tangible and intangible cultural heritage, types of risks that threaten them and the ways to strengthen resilience in such areas. It is revealed as a result of the study that for both case study areas, being in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage is seen a primary step to be internationally recognized and to claim help for future actions aiming to reduce risks. Nevertheless, it can be argued that strategies have to be developed depending on the size and level of destruction, and the level of intervention to preserve and to rehabilitate life in such historic settlements, as each intentionally destroyed historic settlement has unique cultural, political and economic characteristics.
According to the World Health Organization, disasters are the unexpected consequences of occurrences that cause a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community. Available records indicate that natural, technological and man-made disasters -by causing loss of lives and property- affected more than 4 billion people worldwide in the last 20 years. People with disabilities are among those who are highly fragile and physically vulnerable to the dangers and risks posed by disasters. The actual reason behind why people with disabilities are rather vulnerable to the adverse effects of natural and man-made disasters is the fact that they have no access to social, spatial and civil resources. According to the United Nations Inclusive Disaster Risk Management Report, in the event of disasters and emergencies, individuals with disabilities are affected disproportionately due to the inaccessibility of the evacuation, response, and rescue efforts. The 7th Millennium Development Goal (1990-2015) emphasizes that improvements in humans’ lives and in the environment are critical to ensure environmental sustainability, and it highlights the need to ‘build a disaster-resilient community.’ Resilience to urban disasters shows a community’s ability to adapt to natural and man-made disasters and hazards, to keep any potential threats away, and to evaluate the consequences and modify existing conditions. This study focuses on accessibility in disaster-resilient cities, and it aims to evaluate the components of urban resilience, which helps to eliminate the damages of disasters and to recover, with a particular focus on the accessibility of individuals with disabilities. Based on the available literature, the study evaluates the outcomes of a workshop that was conducted with 40 participants in August-September 2021 as one of the events in preparation for MARUF21. The participants were local officials who are in charge of and accountable for disaster and emergency management, and individuals who are vulnerable to disasters and emergencies. The findings and results of the study are presented under four headings: (i) Accessibility of Urban Spaces in Disaster and Emergency Management, (ii) Risk Management and Accessibility in Cultural Heritage Areas, (iii) Social Policies and Accessibility in Disaster and Emergency Management, and (iv) Accessibility to Communication, Technology and Innovations. The study highlights that accessibility in disaster and emergency management extends beyond spatial organization, and it is a prerequisite for social harmony and disaster resilience.
In this study, the issue of the accident frequency/occurrence in local residential streets where vehicle counts are not obtained is discussed. The accident reports received from the Ministry of Interior include fatal and injury accidents. But since the number of deadly accidents is minor, a binomial regression was not employed in the statistical analysis. This study investigates the role of morphological characteristics of the street network where main arterials are excluded in the safety of residential neighborhoods of Mersin, Turkey. Results showed that commercial and industrial uses generate more traffic than residential neighborhoods, therefore, responsible for higher rates of accidents. The number of vehicles, employment, and population increase the accident rate. Empirical model results showed that population density, street length per capita (meters), and number of intersections significantly affect accident occurrence. Number of intersections increases accident frequencies while street length per capita reduces. In contrast, the number of links, street density, link to node ratio, and average link length have no significant effect on accident occurrence. Traffic safety cannot be achieved if the street length is not proportional to the number of vehicles. In addition, street design is also a matter of efficient use of urban space.
Transportation planning and design had been a major concern from the urban planning perspective. Various means of transportation have shaped our cities and landscapes for ages and by looking at transportation buildings from an architectural perspective one can see that existing studies focus on the building performance of the transportation buildings or the history of them. Consequently, transportation building design is an important concern that should be addressed from multiple perspectives. Starting from 2019-2020 Fall Semester, Abdullah Gül University Department of Architecture started a new elective course ARCD 110 Transit Architecture, focusing on this issue. While the main intention of the course is to develop a critical view on the existing prescriptive design methods related to the transportation buildings and their environment, students are expected challenge these discussions at their final projects. In order to develop a critical view on the existing design methods, a considerable part of the class focuses on the design guidelines and typologies of the buildings along with the history of the selected building types. In parallel, student presentations showing different examples throughout the world to inspect different design approaches as well as to start debates regarding various debates around design, global world, awards in architecture, and symbolism in architecture. Afterwards, the class turns into a discussion environment focusing on design issues not only related to transportation buildings but also to the rest of the design environment which they might encounter in the future. these discussions start from multimodal and micro mobile transportation possibilities followed by the personal space as a design parameter. These arguments are followed by sustainability from triple bottom line perspective and the possibilities of different technologies and their effect on the transportation related buildings. Meanwhile, they also experiment with simulation tools to test their design cases in different conditions. After the discussions and the debates students are tasked to design a subway station in front of their campus for a final project. After four semesters, this paper will present the aim of the course, the class structure, projects and the findings of the course with selected examples from the course students to its readers.
At a glance, architectural space or architectural product is the name given to the artificial shell of actions arising from human needs. These needs range from basic expectations, such as protection, shelter, and production which are necessary for human life, to expectations which require more complex intellectual infrastructure such as culture, belief, and lifestyle. In this study, possible intellectual, architectural approach and design method preferences in Village Institute buildings as architectural products are examined and their contributions to architectural project education are discussed through project work examples. Within the scope of the study, the understanding of education and architecture of the village institutes were examined and possible inferences and concepts which would form the basis of the design were tried to be determined with the help of publications in the literature focused on these subjects. Further, it is aimed to question the relationship of these concepts with those produced in the architectural project studio. The design study subject of the article was carried out in the 2018-2019 Fall Semester at the Department of Architecture at KTU. The first step in the process is turning the inferences and concepts obtained by the executives into a set of information which shall be, eventually, compared with the student project work. This set is retained by the executives for discussion in the article. The second step is the literature research of the students about the project topic and location. Each student reached some concepts from the field and Village Institutes where Trabzon/Beşikdüzü Village Institute was located in the past and advanced his/her design studies through these concepts. Within the scope of this article, the concept sets obtained by the executives and students were compared and discussions were made on overlaps and divergences by associating the aforementioned two steps, and a theoretical framework was formed which was graphically formed.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected all levels of education all over the World. In Turkey, on March 16, 2020, the decision of distance education was taken in higher education sharply. This necessity had caused urgent adaptation to the distance education process, which resulted in changing the courses’ curriculums in parallel with the emergence of new teaching and learning strategies especially in applied programs such as interior architecture. This process has tested the ‘resilience’ of the education system explicitly. Resilience means an ability of a community, system, or individual to ‘adapt’ and ‘transform’ in the case of varied facts causing any disruptive situation in the existing system. The pandemic has taught the education community about ‘adaptation’ and ‘transformation’ through implementing diverse learning tools and responses to complex circumstances, especially in applied courses. With the end of the pandemic, the instructors experiencing the face-to-face education environment anew will sustain it with the lessons from the pandemic undoubtedly. This study aims to discuss the concept of ‘resilience’ with its basic dimensions, ‘adaptation’ and ‘transformation’, in interior architecture education by focusing on the experiences, limitations, and potentials experienced in the distance education process. It specifically dwells on teaching and learning experiences of Universal Design (UD) course conducted in the Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, Atılım University, Ankara in the 2020 Spring term when the first and urgent adaptation to distance education had been experienced. The evaluation process is supported with the obtained qualitative data, with results suggesting that all students gained useful insights by experiencing multiple dialogue environments in various ways of learning into how they can incorporate inclusivity into future designs. This study displays that it is crucial that the distance UD learning process open to interactive dialogue among students, experts, instructors, and users to design inclusive spaces welcoming all people without discrimination. It argues that there have been potential improvements about adaptation and transformations of educational approaches within the pandemic, but in interior architecture education as applied design education, the importance and necessity of experiential learning in bodily and collective communication has been deeply proven.
How to move from tradition to modernity and how to combine or control them in a society has a direct relationship with the culture and the culture, as the main tool of architecture, needs a transition. This transition was started to be appeared in Iran during first Pahlavi era, while the government was planning to develop this process. This research is a qualitative-descriptive one and it has a deductive style and the significance and aim of this research is to study the tradition and modernity in architecture and to see how the contemporary architecture of Iran tried to transit from tradition to modernity during first Pahlavi Era. In this paper, first we will have a quick review on Iran during first Pahlavi era and its contemporary social and political history and tradition and modernity in its architecture and then by studying the architecture of two famous foreign architects, Nikolai Markov and Andre Godard who were invited to the country by the government for reformation and modernization of architecture of the country, their modern architectural styles facing with traditional and national needs of the country and their solutions will be studied.
In many countries, urban policies and urban planning increasingly favor urban renewal more than new urban development. However, the urban renewal processes are challenging because of ‘land assembly’, ‘recovery of urban infrastructure’, and ‘social sustainability. The success of the urban renewal processes is closely related to these three key issues because they can affect directly social, economic, and political costs and time periods. The aim of the article analyzes approaches and their outcomes for three keys issues faced in urban renewal processes in the Turkish case. Such an analysis offers insight into policies that can help to overcome three key issues faced in urban renewal and to promote sustainable urban renewal.
Flexible design in architecture is the ability of buildings to adapt to changing situations in their use, functioning, or context. The ability of the users to change the space and control it according to their requirements and demands is the strongest aspect of flexible design. Flexible design, integrated into design practice with modern architecture, plays a key role in the solution of many design problems. This study, which focuses on housing flexibility, aims to determine the demands of the users regarding the flexible use of housing and to understand the internal dynamics of the process that determine the housing flexibility in this context. Within the scope of the study, it is thought that the housing flexibility is formed by evaluating the changing demands of the users within the framework of the sustainability of the goals and values and realizing them according to the existing capabilities. This process has been attempted to be conceptualized by defining it with sub-elements belonging to three components that are involved in the process defined as change, goals-values, opportunities. In the conceptual model, at the first stage, sustainability works as a control mechanism to ensure the realization of change demands arising from various factors. While sustainability checks the suitability and validity of the demands, the opportunities organize these demands to be accomplished. According to the model, the goals and values must be suitable for sustainability to the demands for change to be realized. However, to realize the demands and achieve a flexible solution, the existing opportunities must be suitable. Within the scope of the conceptual model, the effect of the process components on housing flexibility is attempted to be determined through questioning the flexibility demands of the users. In line with these aims, a questionnaire survey was conducted. 450 subjects were reached via email and 322 of them replied. The findings of the study allowed us to understand that the expectations of the users in terms of the demands, goals, and values, sustainability, and opportunities regarding the change in providing housing flexibility. The results point out that the users demand flexible housing, which enables spaces enlarged and narrowed or divided and combined. In this context, it has been determined that the flexibility of the spaces should provide long-term use in accordance with the lifestyle within the scope of goals and values. For this purpose, the necessity of technological opportunities that provide modification of spaces is understood.
In the field of urban morphology, different scholars have developed different approaches. The pioneering approaches are the procedural-typological approach of G. Caniggia and G.L. Maffei and the historico-evolutionary approach of M.R.G. Conzen, which are the focus of this paper. However, it is also worth mentioning J.W.R. Whitehand (1981), who integrated the analysis of changes to the built fabric with the study of the individuals and organizations involved in the various aspects of property development, users, planners, and architects. As well, Kropf (2009) named four distinct approaches – spatial analytical, configurational, process typological, and historico-geographical – for the purpose of determining more explicitly which aspects are included in the different approaches to urban morphology. Based on the theoretical approaches of the above-mentioned scholars, in the scope of this article, the architectural and planning dimensions of urban morphology will be discussed for Ludlow and Famagusta, which carry similar morphological characteristics on the planning level and different typological characteristics on the architectural level. Ludlow is a small market town in the south of Shropshire, England; it is a few miles east of the Welsh border. Famagusta, with its Old Town, is a small market town in the eastern part of Cyprus. This article explores urban morphology based on the two pioneering morphological approaches, and then it sets up a typo-morphological basis for Ludlow and Famagusta through an integrated approach. The belief is that such an integrated approach will drive future interventions, design, and planning policies towards their conservation.
Architecture is most often defined as the art and technique of creating space. The understanding and use of space in a society is the most important means that concretely reflects the cultural system and way of life, which is the sum of all the experiences, talents and values of that society. While the physical environment created by people in history is mostly shaped according to local values, the spaces designed by architects have been the scene of conflict among universal and regional values, especially after the Industrial Revolution, with the development of Modern Architecture. This study which evaluates the architectural approaches adopted after Modern Architecture, within the framework of economic, technological and socio-cultural developments in the world and discusses them with their reflections in Turkey, emphasizes the validity of striving for lasting values instead of fashions in architecture. In this context, the issue of culture and identity comes to the fore. Cities have their own unique appearance, physical structure and way of life, as well as a "spirit" that makes them distinctive. The characteristics of the city which make it different from the others constitute "urban identity". Especially in developing countries, many cities face the risk of losing their identity in the process of urban development, which consists of the expansion of the streets and the demolition of buildings that can actually be evaluated. The cultural and natural heritage that makes cities different is also the foundation of urban identity. These values are also a prerequisite for the sustainability of cities. Cultural heritage can be considered not only as a trace of the past, but as a wealth for the future of people. When properly managed, there are many opportunities to create a strong relationship between identity, culture and heritage. Since these opportunities vary in each settlement, different solutions need to be developed. However, it is important that different solutions are produced in a consistent and meaningful integrity, and not as independent initiatives of cities that share the same geography and culture in regional scale. In this process, it is necessary for central administrative bodies, local governments and civil society to work together for an effective and sustainable urban structure.