Yıl: 2022 Cilt: 13 Sayı: 3 Sayfa Aralığı: 269 - 281 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.21031/epod.1015970 İndeks Tarihi: 06-10-2022

Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey

Öz:
Education is undoubtedly one of the most important elements for the development levels of countries and societies. It is also one of the essential requirements in today's world. Education is a key element of an individual’s initial and later social development, therefore development across countries. Today, in most developed countries, the state spends a large amount of fund for education. Households, as well as governments, spend a lot on education. In this study, the expenses for the education of households in Turkey were discussed, and the effect of socio-demographic and economic factors on these expenditures was examined. For this purpose, the data set obtained from the 2019 Household Budget Survey published by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT) was analyzed with the Heckman sample selection model. According to the analysis results, the fact that the head of the household is male in a family, his age, and being married had a negative effect on education expenditures. Education expenses were positively affected by household income, population, the number of technological devices, and the employment of the head of the family. In addition, the structure of the household, the presence of individuals who smoke, go to the cinema, and do sports also affected household education expenditures.
Anahtar Kelime: Household budget survey education expenditure Heckman sample selection Turkey

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • Acar, E. Ö., Günalp, B., & Cilasun, S. M. (2016). An empirical analysis of household education expenditures in Turkey. International Journal of Educational Development, 51, 23-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.03.007
  • Acerenza, S., & Gandelman, N. (2019). Household education spending in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from income and expenditure surveys. Education Finance and Policy, 14(1), 61-87. https://doi.org/10.1162/edfp_a_00241
  • Aksoy, A., Bilgic, A., Yen, S. T., & Urak, F. (2019). Determinants of household alcohol and tobacco expenditures in Turkey. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 40(4), 609-622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-019-09619-1
  • Alkan, Ö., & Tekmanlı, H. H. (2021). Determination of the factors affecting sexual violence against women in Turkey: A population-based analysis. BMC Women's Health, 21(1), 188. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01333-1
  • Amemiya, T. (1985). Advanced econometrics. Harvard University Press.
  • Andreou, S. N. (2012). Analysis of household expenditure on education in Cyprus. Cyprus Economic Policy Review, 6(2), 17-38.
  • Azam, M., & Kingdon, G. G. (2013). Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure. World Development, 42, 143-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.09.003
  • Barro, R. J., & Lee, J. W. (2013). A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010. Journal of Development Economics, 104, 184-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.10.001
  • Bayar, A. A., & İlhan, B. Y. (2016). Determinants of household education expenditures: Do poor spend less on education. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, 18(1), 83-111.
  • Cavus, M., Kilinc, B. K., Yazici, B., Tekeli, S., Gunsoy, G., Gunsoy, B., & Karaduman, C. (2021). Modeling the contribution of distance education to students’ preparation for the professions. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 22(1), 106-119. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.849890
  • Cheah, Y. K., & Tan, A. K. (2014). Determinants of leisure-time physical activity: Evidence from Malaysia. The Singapore Economic Review, 59(02), 1450017. https://doi:10.1142/s0217590814500179
  • Chi, W., & Qian, X. (2016). Human capital investment in children: An empirical study of household child education expenditure in China, 2007 and 2011. China Economic Review, 37, 52-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2015.11.008
  • Çebi Karaaslan, K. (2021). Analysis of factors affecting individuals' sources of happiness with multinomial logistic model. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 12(3), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.21031/epod.925631
  • Demiroglari, S., & Kiren Gurler, O. (2020). Determinants of household education expenditures by education level: The case of Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences, 10(1), 235-258. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3940537
  • Deng, Q., & Xue, J. (2014). Multivariate tobit system estimation of education expenditure in urban China. Singapore Economic Review, 59(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1142/s0217590814500052
  • Donkoh, S. A., & Amikuzuno, J. A. (2011). The determinants of household education expenditure in Ghana. Educational Research and Review, 6(8), 570–579. http://41.66.217.101/handle/123456789/2080
  • Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric analysis. Pearson Education India.
  • Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47(1), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.2307/1912352
  • Himaz, R. (2010). Intrahousehold allocation of education expenditure: The case of Sri Lanka. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 58(2), 231-258. https://doi.org/10.1086/648187
  • Husain, M. J., Datta, B. K., Virk-Baker, M. K., Parascandola, M., & Khondker, B. H. (2018). The crowding-out effect of tobacco expenditure on household spending patterns in Bangladesh. PLOS ONE, 13(10), e0205120. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205120
  • Huy, V. Q. (2012). Determinants of educational expenditure in Vietnam. International Journal of Applied Economics, 9(1), 59-72.
  • Jenkins, G. P., Amala Anyabolu, H., & Bahramian, P. (2019). Family decision-making for educational expenditure: New evidence from survey data for Nigeria. Applied Economics, 51(52), 5663-5673. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2019.1616075
  • Kim, J. H. (2019). Multicollinearity and misleading statistical results. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 72(6), 558-569. https://doi.org/10.4097/kja.19087
  • Kousar, R., Sadaf, T., Makhdum, M. S. A., & Ijaz, A. (2017). Determinants of household's education and nutrition spending A gender-based empirical analysis. Humanomics, 33(4), 470-483. https://doi.org/10.1108/h-06-2016-0050
  • Kuvat, O., & Ayvaz Kizilgol, O. (2020). An analysis of out of pocket education expenditures in Turkey: Logit and Tobit models. Ege Academic Review, 20(3), 231-244. https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.795986
  • Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables (vol. 7). Sage.
  • Majumder, A., & Mitra, C. (2016). Gender bias in household education expenditure: The case of West Bengal. Indian Growth and Development Review, 9(2), 129-150. https://doi.org/10.1108/IGDR-04-2016-0018
  • Mussa, R. (2013). Rural–urban differences in parental spending on children's primary education in Malawi. Development Southern Africa, 30(6), 789-811. https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2013.859066
  • Ogundari, K., & Abdulai, A. (2014). Determinants of household's education and healthcare spending in Nigeria: Evidence from survey data. African Development Review, 26(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8268.12060
  • Paraje, G., & Araya, D. (2018). Relationship between smoking and health and education spending in Chile. Tobacco Control, 27(5), 560-567. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053857
  • Puhani, P. (2000). The Heckman correction for sample selection and its critique. Journal of Economic Surveys, 14(1), 53-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6419.00104
  • Qian, J. X., & Smyth, R. (2011). Educational expenditure in urban China: Income effects, family characteristics and the demand for domestic and overseas education. Applied Economics, 43(24), 3379-3394. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036841003636292
  • Saha, A. (2013). An assessment of gender discrimination in household expenditure on education in India. Oxford Development Studies, 41(2), 220-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2013.786694
  • San, S., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2016). The impact of tobacco expenditures on spending within Turkish households. Tobacco Control, 25(5), 558–563. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052000
  • Song, Y. (2012). Poverty reduction in China: The contribution of popularizing primary education. China and World Economy, 20(1), 105-122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-124X.2012.01275.x
  • Song, Y., & Zhou, G. (2019). Inequality of opportunity and household education expenditures: Evidence from panel data in China. China Economic Review, 55, 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2019.03.002
  • Sun, H.-p., Sun, W.-f., Geng, Y., Yang, X., & Edziah, B. K. (2019). How does natural resource dependence affect public education spending? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(4), 3666-3674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3853-6
  • Susanli, Z. B. (2013). Gender and household education expenditure in Turkey. Eurasian Business & Economics Soc. https://hdl.handle.net/11729/601
  • TEDMEM. (2020). 2019 Eğitim değerlendirme raporu. https://tedmem.org/download/2019-egitim-degerlendirme-raporu?wpdmdl=3403&refresh=6057d14ac60581616367946
  • Tobin, J. (1958). Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables. Econometrica, 26(1), 24-36. https://doi.org/10.2307/1907382
  • Tsagris, M., & Pandis, N. (2021). Multicollinearity. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 159(5), 695-696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2021.02.005
  • TURKSTAT (2020). Hanehalkı tüketim harcaması, 2019. Retrieved 22.03.2021, from https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Hanehalki-Tuketim-Harcamasi-2019-33593#:~:text=Hanehalk%C4%B1%20b%C3%BCt%C3%A7e%20ara%C5%9Ft%C4%B1rmas%C4%B1n%C4%B1n%202019%20y%C4%B1l%C4%B1,5%20ile%20ula%C5%9Ft%C4%B1rma%20harcamalar%C4%B1%20ald%C4%B1.
  • Verbeek, M. (2008). A guide to modern econometrics. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Wei, H., Guo, R., Sun, H., & Wang, N. (2021). Household leverage and education expenditure: The role of household investment. Finance Research Letters, 38, 101837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.frl.2020.101837
  • Wongmonta, S., & Glewwe, P. (2017). An analysis of gender differences in household education expenditure: The case of Thailand. Education Economics, 25(2), 183-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2016.1168363
  • Yen, S. T., & Rosinski, J. (2008). On the marginal effects of variables in the log-transformed sample selection models. Economics Letters, 100(1), 4-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2007.10.019
APA KARAASLAN A, TEKMANLI H (2022). Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. , 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
Chicago KARAASLAN ABDULKERIM,TEKMANLI HASAN HÜSEYİN Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. (2022): 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
MLA KARAASLAN ABDULKERIM,TEKMANLI HASAN HÜSEYİN Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. , 2022, ss.269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
AMA KARAASLAN A,TEKMANLI H Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. . 2022; 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
Vancouver KARAASLAN A,TEKMANLI H Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. . 2022; 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
IEEE KARAASLAN A,TEKMANLI H "Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey." , ss.269 - 281, 2022. 10.21031/epod.1015970
ISNAD KARAASLAN, ABDULKERIM - TEKMANLI, HASAN HÜSEYİN. "Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey". (2022), 269-281. https://doi.org/10.21031/epod.1015970
APA KARAASLAN A, TEKMANLI H (2022). Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi, 13(3), 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
Chicago KARAASLAN ABDULKERIM,TEKMANLI HASAN HÜSEYİN Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi 13, no.3 (2022): 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
MLA KARAASLAN ABDULKERIM,TEKMANLI HASAN HÜSEYİN Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi, vol.13, no.3, 2022, ss.269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
AMA KARAASLAN A,TEKMANLI H Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi. 2022; 13(3): 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
Vancouver KARAASLAN A,TEKMANLI H Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi. 2022; 13(3): 269 - 281. 10.21031/epod.1015970
IEEE KARAASLAN A,TEKMANLI H "Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey." Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi, 13, ss.269 - 281, 2022. 10.21031/epod.1015970
ISNAD KARAASLAN, ABDULKERIM - TEKMANLI, HASAN HÜSEYİN. "Factors Affecting Household Expenditures on Education: A Heckman Sample Selection Application for Turkey". Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi 13/3 (2022), 269-281. https://doi.org/10.21031/epod.1015970