Yıl: 2022 Cilt: 16 Sayı: 31 Sayfa Aralığı: 345 - 360 Metin Dili: İngilizce İndeks Tarihi: 20-12-2022

Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis

Öz:
Iran’s confrontation with the USA and its allies within the framework of its revolutionary Islamic identity has led many Arab countries, especially Saudi Arabia, to be vigilant. After the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia deteriorated fundamentally, and the ideological and geopolitical struggle between the two countries deepened. This situation not only affected the two countries, but also drew many countries in the region to the firing line. While regional instability has increased in the Middle East, sectarian rivalry and ideological struggle have also escalated. The Arab Spring process, on the other hand, made the Hobbesian anarchic structure among the Middle Eastern states even more evident. In this respect, after the Arab Spring, an axis of tension has emerged between Iran and Saudi Arabia, covering countries such as Yemen, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Bahrain. The hottest point of this tension axis has been Yemen. As a matter of fact, the progress of the Zaydi Houthis, known as Shiite, in Yemen was supported by Iran, but was found unacceptable by Saudi Arabia and its allies. Ultimately, Saudi Arabia and its allies started a struggle against the Houthis, which they saw as part of Shiite expansionism. On the other hand, with the aggressive policy of Saudi Arabia towards them, the Houthis have further developed their relations with Iran for pragmatic and ideological reasons. In essence, the Houthis, which emerged as a result of Yemen’s local and social problems, gradually became another denominator in the equation of the Iran-Saudi Arabia rivalry.
Anahtar Kelime: Iran Saudi Arabia Houthis Hobbesian Anarchic Culture Yemen Crisis

İran-Suudi Arabistan Rekabeti ve Yemen Krizi

Öz:
İran’ın devrimci İslami kimliği çerçevesinde ABD ve müttefiklerine karşı cephe alması başta Suudi Arabistan olmak üzere pek çok Arap ülkesinin teyakkuza geçmesine yol açmıştır. 1979 İran Devrimi’nden sonra İran ile Suudi Arabistan arasındaki ilişkiler temelden bozulurken, iki ülke arasındaki ideolojik ve jeopolitik mücadele derinleşmiştir. Bu durum sadece iki ülkeyi etkilemekle kalmamış, bölgedeki birçok aktörün de jeopolitik ve ideolojik olarak tehdit altında hissetmesine yol açmıştır. Orta Doğu’da bölgesel istikarsızlık artarken mezhebi rekabet ve ideolojik mücadele de tırmanmıştır. Arap Baharı süreci ise Orta Doğu devletleri arasındaki Hobbesçu anarşik yapıyı daha da belirgin hale getirmiştir. Bu minvalde Arap Baharı’nın ardından İran ile Suudi Arabistan arasında Yemen, Suriye, Lübnan, Irak ve Bahreyn gibi ülkeleri kapsayan bir gerilim ekseni ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu gerilim ekseninin en sıcak noktası ise Yemen olmuştur. Nitekim Şii kimlikleriyle bilinen Zeydi Husilerin Yemen’deki ilerleyişi İran tarafından desteklenmiş ancak Suudi Arabistan ve müttefikleri tarafından kabul edilemez bulunmuştur. Nihayetinde Suudi Arabistan ve müttefikleri, Şii yayılmacılığının bir parçası olarak gördükleri Husilere karşı mücadeleye girişmişlerdir. Öte yandan Suudi Arabistan’ın kendilerine yönelik saldırgan politikasıyla Husiler, pragmatik ve ideolojik gerekçelerle İran’la ilişkilerini daha çok geliştirmişlerdir. Özünde Yemen’in yerel ve toplumsal sorunlarının bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkan Husiler zamanla İran-Suudi Arabistan rekabetin denkleminde bir başka payda haline gelmişlerdir.
Anahtar Kelime: İran Suudi Arabistan Husiler Hobbesçu Anarşik Kültür Yemen Krizi

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • AL FAISAL, Turki, “Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy”, Middle East Policy, 20(4), 2013, pp 37-44.
  • ABDULLAH, Jamal vd., Gulf Cooperation Council’s Challenges and Prospects, Al Jazeera Center for Studies, 2014.
  • ALLEY, April L., “Collapse of the Houthi-Saleh Alliance and the Future of Yemen’s War”, 11 Ocak 2018, https://www.crisisgroup, .org/middle-east-north-africa/gulf-and-arabian-penin- sula/yemen/collapse-houthi-saleh-alliance-and-future-yemens-war
  • AL-MONITOR, “Yemen’s Houthis proxy, not ally for Iran”, 19 November 2014, https://www. almonitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/11/yemen-houthis differences-hezbollah-lebanon.html.
  • AMELOT, Laurent, “Yémen: une Guerre Saoudienne Contre L’Iran”. Outre-Terre, Number:3, 2015, pp. 329-338.
  • ASGARKHANI, Abu Mohammad–Mahmoud Babaei, “Emniyet-i Hesti Şenahti ve Meseleyi Emniyet-i Halic-i Farsi Bade Ez Enqilab-i İslam-i İran”, Pejuheşhay-i Siyaset-i Cihan-i İslami, 2(4), 2012.
  • BARZEGAR, Keyhan-Dinan Seyyed Morteza, “Iran’s Political Stance toward Yemen’s Ansar Allah Movement: A Constructivist Based Study”, Journal of Politics and Law, 9(9), 2016, 77-91.
  • BAUCHARD Denis, “Arabie saoudite, Iran, Turquie à la poursuite d’un leadership régional”, éd., Le Moyen-Orient et le monde, La Découverte, 2020, pp. 47-54.
  • BARZEGAR, Kayhan “Iran and the Shiite Crescent: Myths and realities”, Brown J. World Aff., 15, 2008.
  • BONNEFOY, Laurent, “Yémen: Comprendre la Guerre”, Études, Number:2, 2018, pp.17-28.
  • BONNEFOY, Laurent et al., Yémen. Le Tournant Révolutionnaire, Karthala Editions, 2012.
  • BONNEFOY Laurent - Abdulsalam Al-Rubaidi, “Recompositions Islamistes sunnites et Polari- sation confessionnelle dans le Yémen en guerre”, Critique Internationale, 78(1), 2018.
  • COLVIN, Ross. “Cut off head of snake” Saudis told U.S. on Iran, Reuters, 2010. https://www. reuters.com/article/us-wikileaks-iran-saudis-idUSTRE6AS02B20101129
  • DAZI-HENI Fatiha , “Le Yémen, test de la nouvelle politique saoudienne”, Orient XXI, 2015, en ligne: http://orientxxi.info/magazine/le-yemen-test-de-la-nouvelle-politique-saoudienne,0868
  • DJALILI, Mohammad Reza - Thierry Kellner, “L’Iran Dans son Contexte Régional”, Politique Etrangère, 3, 2012.
  • DJALILI, Mohammad-Reza “La Politique Arabe de l’Iran”, A Contrario, 5, 2008, pp.134-146.
  • DRESCH, Paul, A History of Modern Yemen, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.
  • FRANCK, Mermier, “Yémen: Un Conflit Pluriel, Un Paysage Politique Éclaté”, Diplomatie, Number:98, Areion Group, 2019.
  • FRISON, François, “Guerre au Yémen: an V. Politique étrangère”, Number:2, 2019, pp.91-104.
  • GAUCHER, Jean, “Pourquoi Riyad Considère-t-elle la Présence İranienne au Yémen Comme une Menace?”, in Questions Géopolitiques, Moyen-Orient, https://geopolri.hypotheses.or- g/?p=2590.
  • GRESH, Alain, “Au Yémen, un enchevêtrement de conflits et d’ambitions Géopolitiques”, Orient XXI, 2015.
  • GARAYAG, Davoud, “Asl-i ve Meban-i Siyaset-i Haric-i Cumhur-i İslam-i İran: Custar-i Der Metun”, Quarterly Journal of Strategic Studies, 11(40), 2008, pp.275-290.
  • GÖKALP, Yusuf, “Yemen’de Zeydi-Sünni İlişkilerinin Tarihi Arka Planı”, e-Makalat Mezhep Araştırmaları, 6(2), 2013, pp.87-114.
  • HEGGHAMMER, Thomas- Stephane Lacroix, “Rejectionist Islamism in Saudi Arabia: The Story of Juhayman al-Utaybi Revisited”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 39(1), 2007, 103-122.
  • HOLZAPFEL, Philip Barrett, “Yemen’s Transition Process: Between Fragmentation and Trans- formation”, United States Institute of Peace, Washington DC, 2014.
  • JUNEAU, Thomas, “Iran’s Policy Towards the Houthis in Yemen: A Limited Return on a Mo- dest Investment”, International Affairs, 92(3), 2016, pp.647-663.
  • HAGOOD, Anne, “Saudi Arabia and Iran: The Tale of Two Media”, Arab Media and Society, American University, 2010, pp.1-18.
  • KAMRAVA M. The International Politics of the Persian Gulf, Syracuse University Press, 2011.
  • KELLNER, Thierry-Mohammad Reza Djalili, “L’antagonisme İrano-Saoudien et le Nouveau Grand jeu au Moyen-Orient”, Diplomatie, Number:91, Mars-Avril 2018, pp. 39-43.
  • KUMAR, Vikas, “Sectarianism and International Relations: Shia Iran in a Muslim World”, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 3(3), 2016, pp.359-373.
  • LYNCH, Marc, “Three Big Lessons of the Qatar Crisis”, The Qatar Crisis, POMEPS Briefings, 2017.
  • MANJANG, Alieu, “Saudia-Iranian Rivalry in the Horn of Africa: Beyond the Middle East”, International Relations and Diplomacy, 5(1), 2017, pp.46-60.
  • NASIR, M. Ali, “Yemen: Another Somalia in the Arabian Peninsula”, Asian Journal of Huma- nities and Social Studies, 3(4), 2015, pp.318-332.
  • NIA Mohammed M. “Holistic Constructivism: A Theoretical Approach to Understand Iran’s Foreign Policy”, Perceptions, Spring- Summer, 2010.
  • OWEN, Bennett-Jones, Cold War in the Islamic world: Saudi Arabia, Iran and the struggle for supremacy, Intelligence and National Security, 37:5, 2012.
  • ÖZEV, Muharrem H. “Saudi Society and the State: Ideational and Material Basis”, Arab Studies Quarterly, 39(4), 2017.
  • RUBIN, Lawrance, Islam and Balance: Ideational Threats in Arab Politics, California, Stanford University Press, 2014.
  • ROY, Olivier, “L’impact de la Révolution Iranienne au Moyen-Orient”, Les Mondes chiites et l’Iran, Paris, Karthala, 2007.
  • RYAN, Curtis R., “Regime Security and Shifting Alliances in the Middle East”, The Qatar Cri- sis, POMEPS Briefings, 2017.
  • SAIKAL, Amin, The Arab World And Iran: A Turbulent Region in Transition, Palgrave Mac- millan, New York, 2016.
  • SERMEDI, Hamid, “Cengi Tahmili ve Tesiri An Ber Tağyiri Goftemanı Siyaseti Harici İran Ez ArmanGerayi Dehi Evvel be Amelgerayi Menfaati Mihveri Deh-i Dovvom Enqelabi İslami”, Mahname-yi Pejuheşi Melli, 1(11), 2017, pp.1-20.
  • SHOKRI, Abbas, Fersatha ve Çaleşhay-i Ferheng-i Cumhur-i İslam-i İran der Mıntıgay-i Havermeyan, I.S.U Press, 2012.
  • WENDT, Alexander, Uluslararası Siyasetin Sosyal Teorisi (trans Sarı Ertem), Küre Publishing, İstanbul, 2016.
APA İZOL R, CİNGÖZ M (2022). Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. , 345 - 360.
Chicago İZOL Ramazan,CİNGÖZ MURAT Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. (2022): 345 - 360.
MLA İZOL Ramazan,CİNGÖZ MURAT Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. , 2022, ss.345 - 360.
AMA İZOL R,CİNGÖZ M Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. . 2022; 345 - 360.
Vancouver İZOL R,CİNGÖZ M Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. . 2022; 345 - 360.
IEEE İZOL R,CİNGÖZ M "Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis." , ss.345 - 360, 2022.
ISNAD İZOL, Ramazan - CİNGÖZ, MURAT. "Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis". (2022), 345-360.
APA İZOL R, CİNGÖZ M (2022). Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. Gazi Akademik Bakış, 16(31), 345 - 360.
Chicago İZOL Ramazan,CİNGÖZ MURAT Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. Gazi Akademik Bakış 16, no.31 (2022): 345 - 360.
MLA İZOL Ramazan,CİNGÖZ MURAT Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. Gazi Akademik Bakış, vol.16, no.31, 2022, ss.345 - 360.
AMA İZOL R,CİNGÖZ M Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. Gazi Akademik Bakış. 2022; 16(31): 345 - 360.
Vancouver İZOL R,CİNGÖZ M Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis. Gazi Akademik Bakış. 2022; 16(31): 345 - 360.
IEEE İZOL R,CİNGÖZ M "Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis." Gazi Akademik Bakış, 16, ss.345 - 360, 2022.
ISNAD İZOL, Ramazan - CİNGÖZ, MURAT. "Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry and the Yemen Crisis". Gazi Akademik Bakış 16/31 (2022), 345-360.