Yıl: 2022 Cilt: 6 Sayı: 2 Sayfa Aralığı: 400 - 422 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226 İndeks Tarihi: 25-05-2023

The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy

Öz:
The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between organizational support perceptions and personal growth initiative levels of the faculty members working in Turkey and to examine the effect of self-efficacy perceptions in this relationship. The study was designed as a relational survey model. 346 faculty members from public universities in Turkey comprised the participants. The data was collected with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Perceived Organizational Support Scale (POSS), Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II). Descriptive analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to examine the structural relations among the variables. It was observed that faculty members’ organizational support perceptions had a significant direct effect on their personal growth initiative levels; organizational support perceptions had a significant effect on general self-efficacy beliefs; and the effect of general self-efficacy beliefs on personal growth initiative levels was significant. It was evidenced that faculty members’ self-efficacy beliefs fully mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and personal growth initiative levels. These results are in line with the principles of Organizational Support Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. More research explaining the effect of organizational factors on self-efficacy and personal growth initiative is needed.
Anahtar Kelime:

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • Abaci, R., & Okyay, B. (2013). A comparison of self confidence levels and personal growth initiative skills between managers and employees. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 39-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.006
  • Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., Ali, G., & Islam, T. (2015). Perceived organizational support and its outcomes: A meta-analysis of latest available literature. Management Research Review, 38(6), 627-639. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-09-2013-0220
  • Alola, U. V., Olugbade, O. A., Avci, T., & Öztüren, A. (2019). Customer incivility and employees' outcomes in the hotel: Testing the mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Tourism Management Perspectives, 29, 9-17.
  • Aypay, A. (2010). Genel Öz Yeterlik Ölçeğinin (GÖYÖ) Türkçe'ye uyarlama çalışması [The adaptation study of General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale to Turkish]. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 11(2), 113-132.
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
  • Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359-373.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  • Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy: The foundation of agency. In W. Perrig and A. Grob (Eds.) Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness: Essays in honor of the 60th birthday of August Flammer, (pp. 16-30), Taylor and Francis e-Library.
  • Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9-44. http://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311410606
  • Beri, N., & Jain, M. (2016). Personal growth initiative among undergraduate students: Influence of emotional self-efficacy and general well-being. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 8(2), 43-56. http://doi.org/10.21659/rupkatha.v8n2.05
  • Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Wiley, New York, NY, USA.
  • Boz, M., Özkan, Ç., & Aydın, Ş. (2017). Algılanan örgütsel desteğin örgütsel bağlılığa etkisi: otelcilik sektöründe bir araştırma [The effect of perceived organizational support in organizational commitment: A research in the hospitality industry]. UİİİD-IJEAS, 2017 (16. UİK Special Issue): 71-86. https://doi.org/10.18092/ulikidince.322256
  • Büyükgöze, H. (2015). An investigation of pre-service science and mathematics teachers' personal growth ınitiative. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 8(3), 47-53.
  • Caesens, G., & Stinglhamber, F. (2014). The relationship between perceived organizational support and work engagement: The role of self-efficacy and its outcomes. European Review of Applied Psychology, 64(5), 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2014.08.002
  • Chester, M. D., & Beaudin, B. Q. (1996). Efficacy beliefs of newly hired teachers in urban schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 233-257.
  • Claudia, M. (2018). The influence of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and organizational commitment toward organizational citizenship behavior (a study of the permanent lecturers at University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin). Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business (JIEB), 33(1), 23-45.
  • Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310–357. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
  • Çankaya, E. M., Dong, X., & Liew, J. (2017). An examination of the relationship between social self-efficacy and personal growth initiative in international context. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 61, 88-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.10.001
  • Çelik, E. (2015). Mediating and moderating role of academic self-efficacy in the relationship between student academic support and personal growth initiative. Australian Journal of Career Development, 24(2), 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1177/1038416215583563
  • Deniz Giray, M., & Sahin, D. N. (2012). Algilanan örgütsel, yönetici ve çalisma arkadaslari destegi ölçekleri: geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalismasi [Perceived organizational, supervisor and coworker support scales: A study for validity and reliability]. Turkish Psychological Articles, 15(30), 1-9.
  • Edwards, M. R., & Peccei, R. (2010). Perceived organizational support, organizational identification, and employee outcomes: testing a simultaneous multifoci model. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(1), 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1027/1866-5888/a000007
  • Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.42
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Miller, P. A., Fultz, J., Shell, R., Mathy, R. M., & Reno, R. R. (1989). Relation of sympathy and personal distress to prosocial behavior: a multimethod study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 55-66.
  • Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021- 9010.71.3.500
  • Eisenberger, R., & Stinglhamber, F. (2011). Perceived organizational support: Fostering enthusiastic and productive employees. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.
  • Fındıklı, M. A. (2014). Algılanan lider desteği ve algılanan örgütsel destek ile işten ayrılma niyeti ilişkisinde örgütsel özdeşlemenin aracılık rolü: Istanbul’da kamu çalışanları üzerine bir araştırma [The mediating effect of organizational identification on the relationship among perceived leader support, organizational support and intention to leave: A survey for public employees in Istanbul]. Istanbul Management Journal, 25(77), 136-157.
  • Geddes, D., & Stickney, L. T. (2011). The trouble with sanctions: Organizational responses to deviant anger displays at work. Human Relations, 64(2), 201-230. http://doi.org/10.1177/0018726710375482
  • Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 161-178.
  • Hardin, E. E., Weigold, I. K., Robitschek, C., & Nixon, A. E. (2007). Self-discrepancy and distress: The role of personal growth initiative. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 86-92. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.1.86
  • Hayton, J. C., Carnabuci, G., & Eisenberger, R. (2012). With a little help from my colleagues: A social embeddedness approach to perceived organizational support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 235-249. http://doi.org/10.1002/job.755
  • Henson, R. K. (2001). Relationships between Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Task Analysis, and Classroom Management Beliefs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association, February, 3, 2001, New Orleans.
  • Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1989). Anxiety and self-concept as antecedents of stress and coping: A longitudinal study with German and Turkish adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(7), 785-792.
  • Jex, S. M. (1998). Stress and job performance: Theory, research, and implications for managerial practice. Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Joo, B. K. B., Park, S., & Lee, S. (2020). Personal growth initiative: the effects of person– organization fit, work empowerment and authentic leadership. International Journal of Manpower, 42(3), 502-517. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-02-2020-0056
  • Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology, 86(1), 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.86.1.80
  • Karasar, N. (2011). Bilimsel araştirma yöntemi [Scientific research methods], (11. edition) Ankara: Nobel Publishing House.
  • Kalemci Tuzun, I., & Kalemci, R. A. (2012), Organizational and supervisory support in relation to employee turnover intentions, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27(5), 518-534. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941211235418
  • Kashubeck-West, S., & Meyer, J. (2008). The well-being of women who are late deafened. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(4), 463-472. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013619
  • Kurtessis, J. N., Eisenberger, R., Ford, M. T., Buffardi, L. C., Stewart, K. A., & Adis, C. S. (2015). Perceived organizational support: A meta-analytic evaluation of organizational support theory. Journal of Management, 43(6), 1854-1884. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206315575554
  • Lee, V. E., Dedrick, R. F., & Smith, J. B. (1991). The effect of the social organization of schools on teachers' efficacy and satisfaction. Sociology of Education, 190-208.
  • Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of Topological Psychology. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
  • Loo, J. M., Tsai, J. S., Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. (2014). Gratitude, hope, mindfulness and personalgrowth initiative: Buffers or risk factors for problem gambling?. PloS one, 9(2), e83889. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083889
  • Lönnfjord, V., & Hagquist, C. (2018). The psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the general self-efficacy scale: A Rasch analysis based on adolescent data. Current Psychology, 37(4), 703-715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9551-y
  • Luyckx, K., & Robitschek, C. (2014). Personal growth initiative and identity formation in adolescence through young adulthood: Mediating processes on the pathway to wellbeing. Journal of Adolescence, 37(7), 973-981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.07.009
  • MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593-608. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542
  • Madan, P., & Srivastava, S. (2017). Does personal growth initiative lead to impression management: role of personality?. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, 8(3), 234-248.
  • Malik, N. I., Yasin, G., & Shahzadi, H. (2013). Personal growth initiative and self-esteem as predictors of academic achievement among students of technical training institutes. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 33(2), 435-446.
  • Matsuo, M. (2019). Empowerment through self-improvement skills: The role of learning goals and personal growth initiative. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 115, 103311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.05.008
  • Michael, J. H., Evans, D. D., Jansen, K. J., & Haight, J. M. (2005). Management commitment to safety as organizational support: Relationships with non-safety outcomes in wood manufacturing employees. Journal of safety research, 36(2), 171-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2005.03.002
  • Moen, F., & Allgood, E. (2009). Coaching and the effect on self-efficacy. Organization Development Journal, 27(4), 69-82.
  • Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 139-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.004
  • Ogunyemi, A. O., & Mabekoje, S. O. (2007) Self-efficacy, risk-taking behavior and mental health as predictors of personal growth initiative among university undergraduates. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 5(2), 349-362.
  • Ohly, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). Challenging the status quo: What motivates proactive behaviour?. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80(4), 623-629. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317907X180360
  • Özdevecioğlu, M. (2004). Algılanan örgütsel desteğin işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkileri [A research for determining the effects of perceived organizational support on turnover intention]. Journal of Public Management, 37(4), 97-115.
  • Summary of the Number of the Faculty Members in Turkey was reached on 08.07.2022 on https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/.
  • Özyılmaz, A., Erdoğan, B., & Karaeminogullari, A. (2018). Trust in organization as a moderator of the relationship between self efficacy and workplace outcomes: A social cognitive theory based examination. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91 (1), 181-204.
  • Parker, S. K., & Collins, C. G. (2010). Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors. Journal of management, 36(3), 633-662. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308321554
  • Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 636-652. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021- 9010.91.3.636
  • Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879
  • Prussia, G. E., Anderson, J. S., & Manz, C. C. (1998). Self leadership and performance outcomes: the mediating influence of self efficacy. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 19(5), 523-538.
  • Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021- 9010.87.4.698
  • Robitschek, C., Ashton, M. W., Spering, C. C., Geiger, N., Byers, D., Schotts, G. C., & Thoen, M. A. (2012). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 274-287. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027310
  • Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30(4), 183-198.
  • Robitschek, C. (1999). Further Validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 31(4), 197-210.
  • Robitschek, C., & Keyes, C. L. (2009). Keyes's model of mental health with personal growth initiative as a parsimonious predictor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 321-329. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013954
  • Sanders, M. J., Van Oss, T., & McGeary, S. (2016). Analyzing reflections in service learning to promote personal growth and community self-efficacy. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(1), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825915608872
  • Song, J. H., Chai, D. S., Kim, J., & Bae, S. H. (2018). Job performance in the learning organization: The mediating impacts of self efficacy and work engagement. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 30(4), 249-271. https://doi.org/10.1002/piq.21251
  • Sharma, H. L., & Rani, R. (2014). Self-efficacy–a comparison among university postgraduates in demographic profiles. Research Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(1), 1-7.
  • Sharma, H. L., & Rani, R. (2013). Relationship of personal growth initiative with self-efficacy among university postgraduate students. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(16), 125-135.
  • Shigemoto, Y., Ashton, M. W., & Robitschek, C. (2016). Predictors of growth in the aftermath of traumatic events: The role of personal growth initiative. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 21(5), 399-409. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2015.1110446
  • Shorey, H. S., Little, T. D., Snyder, C. R., Kluck, B., & Robitschek, C. (2007). Hope and personal growth initiative: A comparison of positive, future-oriented constructs. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(7), 1917-1926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.06.011
  • Srivastava, S., & Singh, S. (2020). Linking personal growth initiative and organizational identification to employee engagement: testing the mediating-moderating effects in Indian hotel industry. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45, 79-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.07.005
  • Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 240-261.
  • Stewart, A. B. (2014). Emotional self-efficacy and other psychosocial variables as predictors of personal growth initiative (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation), Educational Psychology, Northern Arizona University.
  • Tobin, T.J., Muller, R.O. & Turner, L.M. Organizational learning and climate as predictors of selfefficacy. Soc Psychol Educ 9, 301–319 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-005-4790-z
  • Turunç, Ö., & Çelik, M. (2010). Çalışanların algıladıkları örgütsel destek ve iş stresinin örgütsel özdeşleşme ve iş performansına etkisi [The effect of perceived organizational support and work stress on organizational identification and job performance]. Journal of Management and Finance, 17(2), 183-206.
  • Van Emmerik, I. H., Euwema, M. C., & Bakker, A. B. (2007). Threats of workplace violence and the buffering effect of social support. Group & Organization Management, 32(2), 152-175. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601106286784
  • Wang, Y. C., Shelley Tien, H. L., & Wu, C. L. (2018). The relation of career adaptability to work– family experience and personal growth initiative among Taiwanese working parents. Journal of Employment Counseling, 55(1), 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1002/joec.12071
  • Weigold, I. K., Porfeli, E. J., & Weigold, A. (2013). Examining tenets of personal growth initiative using the Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1396-1403. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034104
  • Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361-384.
  • Yalcin, I., & Malkoç, A. (2013). Adaptation of Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II to Turkish and investigation of psychometric properties. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 26(3), 258-266. https://doi.org/10.5350/DAJPN2013260304
  • Zhang, L., Qiu, Y., & Teng, E. (2017). Cross-level relationships between justice climate and organizational citizenship behavior: perceived organizational support as mediator. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 45(3), 387-397. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.4842
APA COSKUN B, Katıtaş S, karadaş h (2022). The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. , 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
Chicago COSKUN Basak,Katıtaş Sevda,karadaş halil The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. (2022): 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
MLA COSKUN Basak,Katıtaş Sevda,karadaş halil The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. , 2022, ss.400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
AMA COSKUN B,Katıtaş S,karadaş h The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. . 2022; 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
Vancouver COSKUN B,Katıtaş S,karadaş h The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. . 2022; 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
IEEE COSKUN B,Katıtaş S,karadaş h "The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy." , ss.400 - 422, 2022. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
ISNAD COSKUN, Basak vd. "The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy". (2022), 400-422. https://doi.org/10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
APA COSKUN B, Katıtaş S, karadaş h (2022). The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Modern Education Studies, 6(2), 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
Chicago COSKUN Basak,Katıtaş Sevda,karadaş halil The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Modern Education Studies 6, no.2 (2022): 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
MLA COSKUN Basak,Katıtaş Sevda,karadaş halil The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Modern Education Studies, vol.6, no.2, 2022, ss.400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
AMA COSKUN B,Katıtaş S,karadaş h The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Modern Education Studies. 2022; 6(2): 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
Vancouver COSKUN B,Katıtaş S,karadaş h The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Modern Education Studies. 2022; 6(2): 400 - 422. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
IEEE COSKUN B,Katıtaş S,karadaş h "The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy." International Journal of Modern Education Studies, 6, ss.400 - 422, 2022. 10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226
ISNAD COSKUN, Basak vd. "The Relationship Between Faculty Members’ Organizational Support Perceptions and Personal Growth Initiative Levels, The Mediating Role of General Self-Efficacy". International Journal of Modern Education Studies 6/2 (2022), 400-422. https://doi.org/10.51383/ijonmes.2022.226