Yıl: 2011 Cilt: 20 Sayı: 4 Sayfa Aralığı: 449 - 474 Metin Dili: İngilizce İndeks Tarihi: 29-07-2022

Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia

Öz:
Batı Anadolu’da İzmir ve Manisa şehri yakınlarında tarihsel dönemlerde büyük depremlerin meydana gelmiş olması, bu bölgede önemli sismojenik fayların varlığına işaret etmektedir. Ancak, bu faylar şimdiye kadar ayrıntılı bir şekilde araştırılmamışlardır. Bu bölgede bulunan Manisa Fay Zonu (MFZ) büyük ölçekli aktif normal fay sistemidir ve bu zon üzerinde gerçekleştirilen arazi gözlemleri ile paleosismolojik çalışmalar, gelecekteki depremlerin tahmin edilebilmesi açısından önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, MFZ’nun Holosen aktivitesine ait jeolojik ve paleosismolojik veriler sunulmuştur. Tarihsel dönem yüzey faylanmalarının zamanını ve büyüklüklerini ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla, ayrıntılı fay izi haritalaması, geç Pleyistosen−erken Holosen yaşlı sedimanların incelenmesi, radyokarbon yaşlandırma yöntemleri kullanılarak hendek çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Hendek verileriyle eski deprem kataloğu bilgileri karşılaştırıldığında üç depreme ait izler saptanmıştır; bunlar sırasıyla, 926, 1595 veya 1664 ve 1845 depremlerine karşılık gelmektedir. Ayrıca, batı, orta ve doğu bölgelerden oluşan üç ana sismojenik zon tanımlanmıştır. Fay sarplığının Pliyosen−Kuvaterner zamanındaki düşey atım miktarının batı bölümde daha az olması bu bölümlerin bağımsız olarak hareket ettiklerini göstermektedir. Arazi çalışmaları, MFZ’nun geç Pleyistosen ve Holosen’de bölgede meydana gelen ve yüzey kırığı oluşturan depremlerin kaynağı olduğunu göstermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, Manisa şehrini etkileyen tarihsel depremlere neden olan faylar ve bu fayların tektonik mekanizmaları üzerine elde edilen ilk paleosismolojik verileri oluşturmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelime:

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • Aktar, M., Karabulut, H., Özalaybey, S. & Childs, D. 2007. A conjugate strike-slip fault system within the extensional tectonics of Western Turkey. Geophysical Journal International 171, 1363–1375.
  • Aktar, M., Karabulut, H., Özalaybey, S. & Childs, D. 2007. A conjugate strike-slip fault system within the extensional tectonics of Western Turkey. Geophysical Journal International 171, 1363–1375.
  • Akyüz, H.S. & Altunel, E. 2001. Geological and archaeological evidence for post-Roman earthquake surface faulting at Cibyra, SW Turkey. Geodynamica Acta 14, 95–101.
  • Altunel, E. 1998. Evidence for damaging historical earthguakes at Priene, western Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 7, 25–35
  • Altunel, E. 1999. Geologic and geomorphologic observations in relation to 20th september 1899. Menderes earthguake, western Turkey. Journal of the Geological Society, London 156, 241–246.
  • Altunel, E., Barka, A.A. & Akyüz, H.S. 1999. Paleoseismicity of the Dinar Fault, SW Turkey. TerraNova 11, 297–302.
  • Ambraseys, N.N. 1988. Engineering seismology. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 17, 1–105.
  • Ambraseys, N.N. & Finkel, C.F. 1995. Th e Seismicity of Turkey and Adjacent Areas: A Historical Review, 1500–1800. Eren Publishing & Book Trade, İstanbul.
  • Ambraseys, N.N. & Jackson, J.A. 1998. Faulting associated with historical and recent earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Geophysical Journal International 133, 390–406.
  • Arpat, E. & Bİngöl, E. 1969. Th e rift system of the western Turkey: thoughts on its development. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey Bulletin 73, 1–9.
  • Blikra, L.H. & Nemec, W. 1998. Postglacial colluvium in western Norway: depositional processes, facies and palaeoclimatic record. Sedimentology 45, 909–959.
  • Bozkurt, E. 2000. Timing of extension on the Büyük Menderes Graben, western Turkey, and its tectonic implications. In:
  • Bozkurt, E., Winchester, J.A. & Piper, J.D.A. (eds), Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 173, 385–403.
  • Bozkurt, E. 2001. Neotectonics of Turkey: a synthesis. Geodinamica Acta 14, 3–30.
  • Bozkurt, E. 2004. Granitoid rocks of the southern Menderes Massif (southwestern Turkey): fi eld evidence for Tertiary magmatism in an extensional shear zone. International Journal of Earth Sciences 93, 52–71.
  • Bozkurt, E. & Park, R.G. 1994. Southern Menderes Massif: an incipient metamorphic core complex in western Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of the Geological Society, London 151, 213–216.
  • Bozkurt, E. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2004. Tectonic evolution of the Gediz Graben; fi eld evidence for an episodic, two-stage extension in western Turkey. Geological Magazine 141, 63–79.
  • Bozkurt, E. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2006. Evolution of the large-scale active Manisa Fault, southwest Turkey: implications on fault development and regional tectonics. Geodynamica Acta 19, 427–453.
  • Caputo, R. 1993. Morphogenic earthquakes: a proposal. Bulletin INQUA-NC 16, 24.
  • Caputo, R. & Helly, B. 2005. Th e Holocene activity of the Rodia Fault, Central Greece. Journal of Geodynamics 40, 153–169.
  • Caputo, R. & Helly, B. 2008. Th e use of distinct disciplines to investigate past earthquakes. Tectonophysics 453, 7–19.
  • Caputo, R., Helly, B., Pavlides, S. & Papadopoulos, G. 2004. Palaeoseismological investigation of the Tyrnavos Fault, Central Greece. A contribution to the seismic hazard assessment of Th essaly. Tectonophysics 394, 1–20.
  • Çİftçİ, N.B. & Bozkurt, E. 2007. Anomalous stress fi eld and active breaching at relay ramps: a fi eld example from Gediz Graben, SW Turkey. Geological Magazine 144, 687–699.
  • Çİftçİ, N.B. & Bozkurt, E. 2008. Folding of the Gediz Graben fi ll, SW Turkey: extensional and/or contractional origin? Geodinamica Acta 21, 145–167.
  • Çİftçİ, N.B. & Bozkurt, E. 2009. Evolution of the Miocene sedimentary fi ll of the Gediz Graben, SW Turkey. Sedimentary Geology 216, 49–79.
  • Çİftçİ, N.B. & Bozkurt, E. 2010. Structural evolution of the Gediz Graben, SW Turkey: temporal and spatial variation of the graben basin. Basin Research 22, 846–873.
  • Collins, A.S. & Robertson, A.H.F. 2003. Kinematic evidence for Late Mesozoic–Miocene emplacement of the Lycian Allochthon over the Western Anatolia Belt, SW Turkey. Geological Journal 38, 1–16.
  • Collinson, J.D. & Thompson D.B. 1982. Sedimentary Structures. Allen & Unwin, London.
  • Dart, C., Cohen, H., Akyüz, H.S. & Barka, A.A. 1995. Basinward migration of rift -border faults: implications for facies distributions and preservation potential. Geology 23, 69–72.
  • Dewey, J.F. & Şengör, A.M.C. 1979. Aegean and surrounding regions: complex multiplate and continuum tectonics in a convergent zone. Geological Society of America Bulletin 90, 89–92.
  • Dramis, F. & Blumetti, A.M. 2005. Some considerations about seismic geomorphology and paleoseismology. Tectonophysics 408, 177–191.
  • Emre, Ö., Ere, Ö., Özalp, S., Doğan, A., Özaksoy, V., Yildirim, C. & Göktaş, F. 2005. İzmir Yakın Çevresinin Diri Fayları ve Deprem Potansiyelleri [Earthquake Potential and Active Faults of İzmir and Surroundings]. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey, Report no. 10754, Ankara [in Turkish, unpublished].
  • Emre, T. & Sözbİlİr, H. 1997. Field evidence for metamorphic core complex, detachment faulting and accommodation faults in the Gediz and Büyük Menderes Grabens (Western Turkey). In:
  • Pİşkİn, Ö., Ergün, M., Savaçın, M.Y. & Tarcan, G. (eds), Proceedings, International Earth Sciences Colloquium on the Aegean Region, İzmir, 73–94.
  • England, P. 2003. Th e alignment of earthquake T-axes with the principal axes of geodetic strain in the Aegean region. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 12, 47–54.
  • Ergİn, K., Güçlü, U. & Uz, Z. 1967. A Catalogue of Earthquakes for Turkey and Surrounding Area (11 A.D.–1964). Technical University of İstanbul, Publications, no. 24 [in Turkish].
  • Eyİdoğan, H. & Barka, A.A. 1996. Th e 1 October 1995 Dinar earthquake, SW Turkey. Terra Nova 8, 479–485.
  • Eyİdoğan, H. & Jackson, J.A. 1985. A seismological study of normal faulting in the Demirci, Alaşehir and Gediz earthquake of 1969–70 in western Turkey: implications for the nature and geometry of deformation in the continental crust. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 81, 569–607.
  • Ganas, A., Pavlides, S.B., Sboras, S., Valkaniotis, S., Papaioannou, S., Alexandris, G.A., Plessa, A. & Papadopoulos, G.A. 2004. Active fault geometry and kinematics in Parnitha Mountain, Attica, Greece. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 2103–2118
  • Guidoboni, E., Comastri, A. & triana, G. 1994. Catalogue of Ancient Earthquakes in the Mediterranean Area up to the10th Century. Istituto Nazionale di Geofi sica, ISBN: 88-85213-06-5.
  • Hajdas, I., Bonanı, G., Thut, J., Leone, G., Pfennınger, R. & Maden, C. 2004. A report on sample preparation at the ETH/ PSI AMS facility in Zurich. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 223–224, 267–271.
  • Hakyemez, H.Y., Erkal, T. & Göktaş, F. 1999. Late Quaternary evolution of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens, western Anatolia, Turkey. Quaternary Science Reviews 18, 549–554.
  • Harms, J.C., Southard, J.B., Spearing, D.R. & Walker, R.G. 1975. Depositional Environments as Interpreted from Primary Sedimentary Structures and Stratifi cation Sequences. SEPM Short Course No. 2 Lecture Notes. Society of Economic Palaeontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, OK.
  • Işik, V., Tekelİ, O. & Seyİtoğlu, G. 2004. Th e 40Ar/39Ar age of extensional ductile deformation and granitoid intrusion in the northern Menderes core complex: implications for the initiation of extensional tectonics in western Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 23, 555–566.
  • Jackson, J. & Mckenzie, D. 1988. Th e relationship between plate motions and seismic moment tensors and rates of active deformation in the Mediterranean and Middle East. Geophysical Journal 93, 45–73.
  • Kaymakçi, N. 2006. Kinematic development and paleostress analysis of Denizli basin (west Turkey): implications of spatial variation of relative paleostress magnitudes and orientations. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 27, 207–222.
  • Koçyİğİt, A. & Özacar, A. 2003. Extensional neotectonic regime through the NE edge of outer Isparta Angle, SW Turkey: new fi eld and seismic data. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 12, 67–90.
  • Koçyİğİt, A., Yusufoğlu, H. & Bozkurt, E. 1999. Evidence from the Gediz Graben for episodic two stage extension in western Turkey. Journal of the Geological Society, London 156, 605–616.
  • KOERI 2010. Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute web site. http://www.koeri. boun.edu.tr/scripts/lst5.asp.
  • Leeder, M.R. & Gawthorpe, R.L. 1987. Sedimentary models for extensional tilt block/half-graben basins. In: Coward, M.P., Dewey, J.F. & Hancock, P.L. (eds), Continental Extensional Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 28, 139–152.
  • Lenk, O., Türkezer, A., Ergintav, S., Kurt, A.I. & Belgen, A. 2003. Monitoring the kinematics of Anatolia using permenant GPS network stations. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 12, 55–66.
  • Machette, M.N. 1978. Dating Quaternary faults in the southwestern United States by using buried calcareous paleosols. Journal of Research U.S. Geological Survey 6, 369–381.
  • Mayer, L. 1984. Dating Quaternary fault scarps formed in alluvium using morphologic parameters. Quaternary Research 22, 300– 313.
  • McCalpin, J. 1996. Paleoseismology. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
  • McCalpin, J. 2009. Paleoseismology, Second Edition. Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier.
  • Munsell Color Company 1994. Munsell Soil Color Charts, Revised Edition. Macbeth Division of Kollmorgen, New Windsor, NY.
  • Nash, D.B. 1980. Morphological dating of degraded normal fault scarps. Journal of Geology 88, 353–360.
  • Nelson, A.R. 1992. Lithofacies analysis of colluvial sediments – an aid in interpreting the recent history of Quaternary normal faults in the Basin and Range province, western United States. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 62, 607–621.
  • Okay, A.I. & Sİyako, M. 1993. Th e revised location of the İzmir- Ankara Suture in the region between Balıkesir and İzmir. In: Turgut, S. (ed), Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Potential of Anatolia and Surrounding Regions. Ozan Sungurlu Symposium Proceedings, Ankara, 333–355 [in Turkish].
  • Özer, S. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2003. Presence and tectonic signifi cance of Cretaceous rudist species in the so-called Permo– Carboniferous Göktepe Formation, central Menderes metamorphic massif, western Turkey. International Journal of Earth Sciences 92, 397–404.
  • Özkaymak, Ç. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2006. Aktif Manisa fayının batı bölümünün jeolojik özellikleri; deprem üreten faylarda reaktivasyon [Geological properties of western part of the active Manisa Fault; fault reactivation on active faults]. 10th Meeting of Active Tectonics Research Group, Abstracts, 68–70.
  • Özkaymak, Ç. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2007. Aktif Manisa Fayında reaktivasyona işaret eden stratigrafi k ve jeomorfolojik kriterler [Stratigraphic and geomorphologic criterias indicating reactivation on active Manisa Fault]. Çukurova University 30th Year Geology Symposium, Abstracts, 177–178.
  • Özkaymak, Ç. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2008. Stratigraphic and structural evidence for fault reactivation: the active Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 615– 635.
  • Özkaymak, Ç. & Sözbİlİr, H., Uzel, B., Akyüz, H.S., Altunel, E., Yalçiner, C.Ç., Merİç, N. & Atlihan, M.A. 2008. Manisa Fay Zonu’ndaki Holosen aktivitesine ait veriler ve fay zonunun batı segmentinde yapılan paleosismolojik çalışmalar [Evidence for Holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone and paleoseismic studies along the western part of the fault zone] 12th Workshop of Active Tectonics Research Group, Abstracts, 35–36.
  • Özkaymak, Ç., Sözbİlİr, H., Uzel, B. & Akyüz, H.S. 2009. Palaeoseismological evidence for Holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. EGU General Assembly 2009 Geophysical Research, Abstracts, 11-13407.
  • Papazachos, B. & Papazachou, C. 1997. Th e Earthquakes of Greece. Technical books Edition, Th essaloniki.
  • Paton, S. 1992. Active normal faulting, drainage patterns and sedimentation in southwestern Turkey. Journal of the Geological Society, London 149, 1031–1044.
  • Pavlides, S. 1996. First palaeoseismological results from Greece. Annali Geofi s 34, 545–555.
  • Pavlides, S. & Caputo, R. 2004. Magnitude versus faults’ surface parameters: quantitative relationships from the Aegean. Tectonophysics 380, 159–188.
  • Ramsey, B.C. 2009. Dealing with outliers and off sets in radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 51, 1023–1045.
  • Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Ramsey, B.C., Buck, C.E., Burr, G.S., Edwards, R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Hajdas, I., Heaton, T.J., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S.W., Reimer, R.W., Richards, D.A., Southon, J.R., Talamo, S., Turney, C.S.M., van der Plicht, J. & Weyhenmeyer, C.E. 2009. IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51, 1111–1150.
  • Roberts, S. & Jackson, J.A. 1991. Active normal faulting in central Greece: an overview. In: Roberts, A.M., Yielding, G. & Freeman, B. (eds), Th e Geometry of Normal Faults. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 56, 125–142.
  • Seyİtoğlu, G. & Scott, B.C. 1991. Late Cenozoic crustal extension and basin formation in west Turkey. Geological Magazine 128, 155–166.
  • Sletten, K. & Blikra, L.H. 2007. Holocene colluvial (debris-fl ow and water-fl ow) processes in eastern Norway: stratigraphy, chronology and palaeoenvironmental implications. Journal of Quaternary Science 22, 619–635.
  • Soysal, H., Sİpahİoğlu, S., Kolçak, D. & Altinok, Y. 1981. Historical Earthquake Catalogue of Turkey and Surrounding Area (2100 B.C.–1900 A.D.). Technical Report, TÜBİTAK, no. TBAG-341.
  • Sözbİlİr, H. 2000. Batı Anadolu’dan örneklerle aktif faylar ve potansiyel aktif faylar [Active faults and potentially active faults: examples from western Anatolia]. Symposium on Earthquake Potential of Western Anatolia, Abstracts, 133–142.
  • Sözbİlİr, H. 2001. Extensional tectonics and the geometry of related macroscopic structures: fi eld evidence from the Gediz detachment, western Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 10, 51–67.
  • Sözbİlİr, H. 2002. Geometry and origin of folding in the Neogene sediments of the Gediz Graben, western Anatolia, Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 15, 277–288.
  • Sözbİlİr, H. 2005. Oligo–Miocene extension in the Lycian orogen: evidence from the Lycian molasse basin, SW Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 18, 257–284.
  • Sözbİlİr, H., Koçer, T., Demİrtaş, R., Uzel, B., Ersoy, Y., Akgün, M. & Özkaymak, Ç. 2006. Seferihisar-Yelki Fay zonunda paleosismolojik çalışmalar: doğrultu atımlı fay zonunda eğim atımlı aktif normal faylanmaya ait veriler [ Paleoseismological studies on Seferihisar-Yelki Fault Zone: evidence for active normal faulting on strike-slip fault zone]. 10th Meeting of Active Tectonics Research Group, Abstracts, 76–77.
  • Sözbİlİr, H., Sümer, Ö., Uzel, B., Özkaymak, Ç., Ersoy, Y., Erkül, F., İncİ, U. & Helvacı, C. 2007. Batı Anadolu’da İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zonu içinde kalan aktif doğrultu-atımlı faylarla sınırlı havzaların jeolojik özellikleri [Geological features of strikeslip basins located within the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone, western Anatolia]. 11th Workshop of Active Tectonics Research Group Meeting, Abstracts, p. 42.
  • Sözbİlİr, H., Uzel, B., Sümer, Ö., İncİ, U., Ersoy, E.Y., Koçer, T., Demİrtaş, R. & Özkaymak, Ç. 2008. D-B Uzanımlı İzmir fayı ile KD-uzanımlı Seferihisar Fayı’nın birlikte çalıştığına dair veriler: İzmir Körfezi’ni oluşturan aktif faylarda kinematik ve paleosismolojik çalışmalar, Batı Anadolu, Türkiye [Evidence for a kinematically linked E–W- trending İzmir Fault and NEtrending Seferihisar Fault: kinematic and paleoseismogical studies carried out on active faults forming the İzmir Bay, Western Anatolia]. Geological Bulletin of Turkey 51, 91–114.
  • Sözbİlİr, H., Sümer, Ö., Uzel, B., Ersoy, Y., Erkül, F., İncİ, U., Helvacı, C. & Özkaymak, Ç. 2009. 17–20 Ekim 2005-Sığacık Körfezi (İzmir) depremlerinin sismik jeomorfolojisi ve bölgedeki gerilme alanları ile ilişkisi, Batı Anadolu [Th e seismic geomorphology of the Sığacık Gulf (İzmir) earthquakes of October 17 to 20, 2005 and their relationships with the stress fi eld of their Western Anatolian region]. Geological Bulletin of Turkey 52, 217–238.
  • Şengör, A.M.C. 1987. Cross-faults and diff erential stretching of hangingwalls in regions of low-angle normal faulting: examples from western Turkey. In: Coward, M.P., Dewey, J.F. & Hancock, P.L. (eds), Continental Extensional Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 28, 575–589.
  • Şengör, A.M.C. & Yilmaz, Y. 1981, Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75, 181–241.
  • Şengör, A.M.C., Görür, N. & Şaroğlu, F. 1985. Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. In: Biddle, K. & Christie-Blick, N. (eds), Strike-slip Deformation, Basin Formation and Sedimentation. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publications 37, 227–264.
  • Tan, O., Tapirdamaz, M.C. & Yörük, A. 2008. Th e earthquakes catalogues for Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 405–418.
  • Taymaz, T., Jackson, J. & McKenzie, D. 1991. Active tectonics of the North and Central Aegean Sea. Geophysical Journal International 106, 433–490.
  • Taymaz, T., Tan, O. & Yolsal, S. 2004. Seismotectonics of western Turkey: a synthesis of source parameters and rupture histories of recent earthquakes. AGU Fall Meeting, Session T14, San Francisco-California, EOS Transactions 85, 47.
  • Uzel, B. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2008. A fi rst record of strike-slip basin in western Anatolia and its tectonic implication: Th e Cumaovası basin as an example. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 559– 591.
  • Uzel, B., Sözbİlİr, H. & Ö zkaymak, Ç. 2011. Neotectonic evolution of an actively growing superimposed Basin in Western Anatolia: the inner Bay of İzmir, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences [in press]. doi: 10.3906/yer-0910-11
  • Wallace, R.E. 1977. Profi les and ages of young fault scarps, northcentral Nevada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 88, 1267–1281.
  • Wells D.L. & Coppersmith K.J. 1994. New empirical relationship among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 84, 974–1002.
  • Zhu, L., Akyol, N., Mitchell, B.J. & Sözbİlİr, H. 2006. Seismotectonics of western Turkey from high resolutions and moment tensor determinations. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L07316.
APA Özkaymak Ç, Sözbilir H, Uzel B, AKYÜZ H (2011). Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. , 449 - 474.
Chicago Özkaymak Çağlar,Sözbilir Hasan,Uzel Bora,AKYÜZ H. Serdar Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. (2011): 449 - 474.
MLA Özkaymak Çağlar,Sözbilir Hasan,Uzel Bora,AKYÜZ H. Serdar Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. , 2011, ss.449 - 474.
AMA Özkaymak Ç,Sözbilir H,Uzel B,AKYÜZ H Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. . 2011; 449 - 474.
Vancouver Özkaymak Ç,Sözbilir H,Uzel B,AKYÜZ H Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. . 2011; 449 - 474.
IEEE Özkaymak Ç,Sözbilir H,Uzel B,AKYÜZ H "Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia." , ss.449 - 474, 2011.
ISNAD Özkaymak, Çağlar vd. "Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia". (2011), 449-474.
APA Özkaymak Ç, Sözbilir H, Uzel B, AKYÜZ H (2011). Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 20(4), 449 - 474.
Chicago Özkaymak Çağlar,Sözbilir Hasan,Uzel Bora,AKYÜZ H. Serdar Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 20, no.4 (2011): 449 - 474.
MLA Özkaymak Çağlar,Sözbilir Hasan,Uzel Bora,AKYÜZ H. Serdar Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.20, no.4, 2011, ss.449 - 474.
AMA Özkaymak Ç,Sözbilir H,Uzel B,AKYÜZ H Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences. 2011; 20(4): 449 - 474.
Vancouver Özkaymak Ç,Sözbilir H,Uzel B,AKYÜZ H Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences. 2011; 20(4): 449 - 474.
IEEE Özkaymak Ç,Sözbilir H,Uzel B,AKYÜZ H "Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia." Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 20, ss.449 - 474, 2011.
ISNAD Özkaymak, Çağlar vd. "Geological and palaeoseismological evidence for late pleistocene−holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone, Western Anatolia". Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 20/4 (2011), 449-474.