Yıl: 2024 Cilt: 16 Sayı: 1 Sayfa Aralığı: 16 - 30 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.18863/pgy.1242958 İndeks Tarihi: 16-01-2024

Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots

Öz:
Robots are becoming increasingly common in many areas of human life as technology advances. Considering the usage areas, robots appear in a wide range, from entertainment to psychotherapy. In addition to its role in facilitating human life, its use in the health field has recently been quite remarkable. In this study, interactive robots are evaluated in general and their use in the mental health field is discussed on a large scale. Accordingly, the primary purpose of this study is to examine the need for the development of interactive and therapy robots, their areas of use, and studies on their effectiveness as well as therapy robots that are generally accepted in the relevant literature. The results of the examination show that interactive robots are classified into six groups: social, entertainment, educational, rehabilitation, sex, and therapy robots. In the related literature, Eliza, Woebot, Youper, Wysa, Simsensei Kiosk, Paro, NeCoRo, Kaspar, Bandit, and Pepper have generally been accepted as therapy robots. The results of the studies demonstrate the effectiveness and the usage of interactive therapy robots in therapy for different groups and needs, especially for disadvantaged individuals. On the other hand, it is considered that more research on the effectiveness of robots is needed. Considering the effects on mental health and quality of life, it is believed that the usage of robots in therapy is important and its widespread use will have a significant positive effect in the field.
Anahtar Kelime: Interactive robots human-robot interaction robotherapy artificial intelligence therapy robots

Etkileşimli Robotlar: Terapi Robotları

Öz:
Teknolojinin gelişmesiyle birlikte robotların kullanımı insan hayatının pek çok alanında gittikçe yaygınlaşmaktadır. Kullanım alanlarına bakıldığında robotlar eğlenceden psikoterapiye oldukça geniş bir yelpazede karşımıza çıkmaktadır. İnsan hayatını kolaylaştırıcı rolünün yanında sağlık alanındaki kullanımı da son zamanlarda oldukça dikkat çekici boyuttadır. Bu çalışmada etkileşimli robotlar genel olarak değerlendirilmekle birlikte ruh sağlığı alanındaki kullanımı geniş bir ölçekte ele alınmıştır. Bu doğrultuda çalışmanın temel amacı etkileşimli robotların ve terapi robotlarının geliştirilmesine duyulan ihtiyacı, kullanım alanlarını, etkililiğine yönelik gerçekleştirilen çalışmaları ve ilgili alan yazında genel olarak kabul görmüş terapi robotlarını incelemektir. Yapılan inceleme sonucu etkileşimli robotların sosyal, eğlence, eğitim, rehabilitasyon, cinsellik ve terapi robotları olmak üzere altı kategoride ele alındığı tespit edilmiştir. İlgili alan yazında Eliza, Woebot, Youper, Wysa, Simsensei Kiosk, Paro, NeCoRo, Kaspar, Bandit ve Pepper’ın genel olarak kabul gören terapi robotları oldukları değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan çalışmalar etkileşimli terapi robotlarının özellikle dezavantajlı bireylere yönelik olmak üzere farklı gruplara ve ihtiyaçlara dönük kullanımının terapi için yaygın ve etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. Diğer taraftan robotların etkililiğine yönelik daha fazla araştırmaya ihtiyaç duyulduğu değerlendirilmektedir. Ruh sağlığı ve insanların yaşam kalitesi üzerindeki etkileri göz önüne alındığında, terapi alanında robotların kullanımının önemli olduğu ve kullanımın yaygınlaşmasının alanda anlamlı düzeyde pozitif bir etki yaratacağı düşünülmektedir.
Anahtar Kelime: Etkileşimli robotlar İnsan-robot etkileşimi Roboterapi Yapay zekâ Terapi robotları

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • Abd-Alrazaq AA, Alajlani M, Alalwan AA, Bewick BM, Gardner P, Househ M. (2019) An overview of the features of chatbots in mental health: A scoping review. Int J Med Inform, 132:103978.
  • Abd-Alrazaq AA, Rababeh A, Alajlani M, Bewick BM, Househ M (2020) Effectiveness and safety of using chatbots to improve mental health: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res, 22:e16021.
  • Abd-Alrazaq AA, Alajlani M, Ali N, Denecke K, Bewick BM, Househ M (2021) Perceptions and opinions of patients about mental health chatbots: scoping review. J Med Internet Res, 23:e17828.
  • Aresti-Bartolome N, Garcia-Zapirain B (2014) Technologies as support tools for persons with autistic spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 11:7767–7802.
  • Bartneck C, Forlizzi J (2004) A design-centred framework for social human-robot interaction. In 13th IEEE International Workshop On Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 591-594. 20-22 September 2004, Kurashiki, Japan.
  • Bechade L, Dubuisson-Duplessis G, Pittaro G, Garcia, M Devillers L (2019) Towards metrics of evaluation of pepper robot as a social companion for the elderly. In Advanced Social Interaction with Agents (Eds. M Eskenazi, L Devillers and J Mariani): 89-101. June 6-9 2017, Farmington, PA, USA.
  • Belpaeme T, Kennedy J, Ramachandran A, Scassellati B, Tanaka F (2018) Social robots for education: A review. Sci Robot, 3:eaat5954.
  • Bemelmans R, Gelderblom GJ, Jonker P, De Witte L (2012) Socially assistive robots in elderly care: A systematic review into effects and effectiveness. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 13:114-120.
  • Bendig E, Erb B, Schulze-Thuesing L, Baumeister H (2019) The next generation: Chatbots in clinical psychology and psychotherapy to foster mental health–a scoping review. Verhaltenstherapie, 1-13.
  • Bickmore TW, Mitchell SE, Jack BW, Paasche-Orlow MK, Pfeifer LM, O’Donnell J (2010) Response to a relational agent by hospital patients with depressive symptoms. Interact Comput, 22:289-298.
  • Bilgin H (2022) Yapay zekânın mahkeme kararlarında kullanımına uluslararası bir bakış ve robot hâkimler hakkında düşünceler. İnönü Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, 13:405-419.
  • Broekens J, Heerink M, Rosendal H (2009) Assistive social robots in elderly care: a review. Gerontechnology, 8:94-103.
  • Breazeal CL (2002) Designing Sociable Robots. London, MIT Press.
  • Buerger SP, Palazzolo JJ, Krebs HI, Hogan N (2004) Rehabilitation robotics: Adapting robot behavior to suit patient needs and abilities. In Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference, 3239-3244. 30 June 2004- 02 July 2004 Boston, MA, USA.
  • Canel AN (2020) Yapay zekâ uygulamaları ve psikolojik danışma. In Psikolojik Danışmada Yeni Açılımlar ve Çevrimiçi Psikolojik Danışma Uygulayıcılar İçin El Kitabı, 2. baskı. (Ed ŞG Zeren):163-179. Ankara, Pegem Akademi.
  • Carlo AD, Ghomi RH, Renn BN, Strong MA, Areán PA (2020) Assessment of real-world use of behavioral health mobile applications by a novel stickiness metric. JAMA Netw Open, 3:e2011978-e2011978.
  • Cheok AD, Karunanayaka K, Zhang EY (2017) Human-robot love and sex relationships. In Robot Ethics: From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence (Eds P Lin, K Abney, R Jenkins):193-220. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Chung SJ, Lee H (2020) Visual presentation of mental healthcare chatbots for user experience. Journal of the HCI Society of Korea, 15:39-45.
  • Cifuentes CA, Pinto MJ, Céspedes N, Múnera M (2020) Social robots in therapy and care. Curr Robot Rep, 1:59-74.
  • Coco K, Kangasniemi M, Rantanen T (2018) Care personnel's attitudes and fears toward care robots in elderly care: a comparison of data from the care personnel in Finland and Japan. J Nurs Scholarsh, 50:634-644.
  • Costescu CA, Vanderborght B, David DO (2014) The effects of robot-enhanced psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Rev Gen Psychol, 18:127-136.
  • Cristea IA, Sucala M, David D (2013) Can you tell the difference? Comparing face-to-face versus computer-based interventions. The" Eliza" effect in psychotherapy. J Cogn Behav Psychother, 13:291-298.
  • Dautenhahn K (1999) Robots as social actors: Aurora and the case of autism. In Proc. CT99, The Third International Cognitive Technology Conference, 359-374. 11-14 August 1999 San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • David D, Matu SA, David OA (2014) Robot-based psychotherapy: Concepts development, state of the art, and new directions. Int J Cogn Ther, 7:192-210.
  • Derin G, Öztürk E (2020) Yapay zekâ psikolojisi ve sanal gerçeklik uygulamaları. In Siber psikoloji, (Ed E Öztürk):41-47. Ankara, Türkiye Klinikleri.
  • DeVault D, Artstein R, Benn G, Dey T, Fast E., Gainer A et al. (2014) SimSensei Kiosk: A virtual human interviewer for healthcare decision support. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems, 5-9 May 2014 Paris, France. page:1061-1068.
  • Donnermann M, Schaper P, Lugrin B (2020) Integrating a social robot in higher education–a field study. In 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) IEEE, 573-579. 31 August-04 September 2020 Naples, Italy.
  • Döring N, Mohseni MR, Walter R (2020) Design, use, and effects of sex dolls and sex robots: Scoping review. J Med Internet Res, 22:e18551.
  • Döring N, Pöschl S (2018) Sex toys, sex dolls, sex robots: Our under-researched bed-fellows. Sexologies, 27:e51-e55.
  • Eliçin Ö (2016) Otizmi olan bireylerin eğitimlerinde robot kullanılarak yürütülen araştırmaların gözden geçirilmesi. Uludağ Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 29:231-253.
  • Fasola J, Matarić MJ (2013) A socially assistive robot exercise coach for the elderly. J Hum Robot Interact, 2:3-32.
  • Feil-Seifer D, Mataric MJ (2008) B 3 IA: A control architecture for autonomous robot-assisted behavior intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In RO-MAN 2008-The 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication. IEEE, 328-333. 01-03 August 2008 Munich, Germany.
  • Feil-Seifer D, Matarić MJ (2011) Automated detection and classification of positive vs. negative robot interactions with children with autism using distance-based features. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI). IEEE, 323-330. 08-11 March 2011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Fiske A, Henningsen P, Buyx A (2019) Your robot therapist will see you now: ethical implications of embodied artificial intelligence in psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. J Med Internet Res, 21:e13216.
  • Fitzpatrick KK, Darcy A, Vierhile M (2017) Delivering cognitive behavior therapy to young adults with symptoms of depression and anxiety using a fully automated conversational agent (Woebot): A randomized controlled trial. JMIR Ment Health, 4:e7785.
  • Fujita M (2001) AIBO: Toward the era of digital creatures. Int J Rob Res, 20:781-794.
  • Hart J, Gratch J, Marsella S (2013) How virtual reality training can win friends and influence people. In Fundamental Issues in Defense Training and Simulation (Eds C Best, G Galanis, J Kerry, R Sottilare):235-249). Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.
  • Hoorn JF, Winter SD (2018). Here comes the bad news: doctor robot taking over. Int J Soc Robot, 10:519-535.
  • Huijnen CA, Lexis MA, de Witte LP (2016) Matching robot KASPAR to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) therapy and educational goals. Int J Soc Robot, 8:445-455.
  • Inkster B, Sarda S, Subramanian V (2018) An empathy-driven, conversational artificial intelligence agent (Wysa) for digital mental well-being: Real-world data evaluation mixed-methods study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 6:e12106.
  • Ishida T (2003) A small biped entertainment robot SDR-4X II. In Proceedings 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation. Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation for the New Millennium, 1046-1051. 16-20 July 2003 Kobe, Japan.
  • Joinson AN (2001) Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role of self-awareness and visual anonymity. Eur J Soc Psychol, 31:177–192.
  • Kaplan A, Haenlein M (2019) Siri, Siri, in my hand: Who's the fairest in the land? On the interpretations, illustrations, and implications of artificial intelligence. Bus Horiz, 62:15-25.
  • Karakosta E, Dautenhahn K, Syrdal DS, Wood LJ, Robins B (2019) Using the humanoid robot Kaspar in a Greek school environment to support children with autism spectrum condition. Paladyn, J Behav Robot, 10:298-317.
  • Kidd CD, Taggart W, Turkle S (2006) A sociable robot to encourage social interaction among the elderly. In Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 3972-3976. 15-19 May 2006 Orlando, FL, USA.
  • Lathan CE ve Malley S (2001) Development of a new robotic interface for telerehabilitation.In Proceedings of the 2001 EC/NSF Workshop on Universal Accessibility of Ubiquitous Computing: Providing for the Elderly, 80-83. 22-25 May 2001 Alcácer do Sal, Portugal.
  • Leo AJ, Schuelke MJ, Hunt DM, Miller JP, Areán, PA, Cheng AL (2022) Digital mental healthiıntervention plus usual care compared with usual care only and usual care plus in-person psychological counseling for orthopedic patients with symptoms of depression or anxiety: Cohort study. JMIR Form Res, 6:e36203.
  • Levy D (2007) Robot prostitutes as alternatives to human sex workers. In Proceed 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. 10-14 April 2007, Roma, Italy.
  • Levy D (2009) Love and Sex with Robots: The Evolution of Human-Robot Relationships. New York, Harper Collins.
  • Libin A, E (2005) Robots who care: Robotic psychology and robotherapy approach. In AAAI Fall Symposium: Caring Machines, 67-74. 3-6 November 2005 Washington, DC, USA.
  • Libin AV, Libin EV (2004) Person–robot interactions from the robopsychologists' point of view: The robotic psychology and robotherapy approach. Proceedings of the IEEE, 92:1789-1803.
  • Libin EV, Libin A (2003) New diagnostic tool for robotic psychologyand robotherapy studies. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, 6:369–374.
  • Ma J, Tojib D, Tsarenko Y (2022) Sex robots: Are we ready for them? An exploration of the psychological mechanisms underlying people's receptiveness of sex robots. J Bus Ethics, 1-17.
  • Malik T, Ambrose AJ, Sinha C (2022) Evaluating user feedback for an artificial intelligence–enabled, cognitive behavioral therapy–based mental health app (Wysa): Qualitative thematic analysis. JMIR Hum Factors, 9:e35668.
  • Martín F, Agüero CE, Cañas JM, Valenti M, Martínez-Martín P (2013) Robotherapy with dementia patients. Int J Adv Robot Syst, 10:10.
  • Mead R, Wade E, Johnson P, Clair AS, Chen S, Matarić MJ (2010) An architecture for rehabilitation task practice in socially assistive human-robot interaction. In 19th International Symposium in Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 404-409. 13-15 September 2010 Viareggio, Italy.
  • Mehta A, Niles AN, Vargas JH, Marafon T, Couto DD, Gross JJ (2021) Acceptability and effectiveness of artificial intelligence therapy for anxiety and depression (Youper): Longitudinal observational study. J Med Internet Res, 23:e26771.
  • Mordoch E, Osterreicher A, Guse L, Roger K, Thompson G (2013) Use of social commitment robots in the care of elderly people with dementia: A literature review. Maturitas, 74:14-20.
  • USC Interaction Lab. (2022) Robots. https://uscinteractionlab.web.app/about/robots. (Accessed 9.8.2022).
  • Pandey AK, Gelin R (2018) A mass-produced sociable humanoid robot: Pepper: The first machine of its kind. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 25:40-48.
  • Paro Robots (2022) PARO therapoutic robot. http://www.parorobots.com (Accessed 13.4.2022).
  • Pierno AC, Mari M, Lusher D, Castiello U (2008) Robotic movement elicits visuomotor priming in children with autism. Neuropsychologia, 46: 448-454.
  • Prochaska JJ, Vogel EA, Chieng A, Kendra M, Baiocchi M, Pajarito S ve Robinson A (2021) A therapeutic relational agent for reducing problematic substance use (Woebot): development and usability study. J Med Internet Res, 23:e24850.
  • Ramachandran M, Suharwardy S, Leonard SA, Gunaseelan A, Robinson A, Darcy A et al. (2020) 74: Acceptability of postnatal mood management through a smartphone-based automated conversational agent. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol, 222:62
  • Ranoliya BR, Raghuwanshi N, Singh S (2017) Chatbot for university related FAQs. In 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), 1525-1530. 13-16 September 2017 Udupi, India.
  • Robots (2022a) Bandit. https://robots.ieee.org/robots/bandit/ (Accessed 9.8.2022’).
  • Robots (2022b) Pepper. https://robots.ieee.org/robots/pepper/ (Accessed 10.8.2022).
  • Roger K, Guse L, Mordoch E, Osterreicher A (2012) Social commitment robots and dementia. Can J Aging, 31:87–94.
  • Rossi S, Santangelo G, Staffa M, Varrasi S, Conti D, Di Nuovo A (2018) Psychometric evaluation supported by a social robot: Personality factors and technology acceptance. In 2018 27th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 802-807. 27-31 August 2018 Nanjing, China.
  • Saint-Aimé S, Le-Pevedic B, Duhaut D, Shibata T (2007) EmotiRob: companion robot project. In RO-MAN 2007-The 16th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 919-924. 26-29 August 2007 Jeju, Korea (South).
  • Sakagami Y, Watanabe R, Aoyama C, Matsunaga S, Higaki N, Fujimura K (2002) The intelligent ASIMO: System overview and integration. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, 2478-2483. 30 September 2002- 04 October 2002 Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Saldien J, Goris K, Yılmazyıldız S, Verhelst W, Lefeber D (2008) On the desing of the huggable robot Probo. Journal of Physical Agents, 2:3-11.
  • Sato M, Yasuhara Y, Osaka K, Ito H, Dino MJ S, Ong IL et al. (2020) Rehabilitation care with Pepper humanoid robot: A qualitative case study of older patients with schizophrenia and/or dementia in Japan. Enferm Clin, 30:32-36.
  • Scassellati B, Admoni H, Matarić M (2012) Robots for use in autism research. Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 14:275-294.
  • Scassellati B, Brawer J, Tsui K, Nasihati GS, Malzkuhn M, Manini B, et al. (2018) Teaching language to deaf infants with a robot and a virtual human. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 21- 26 April 2018 Montreal QC Canada. page:1-13.
  • Sharkey A, Wood N (2014) The Paro seal robot: Demeaning or enabling. In Proceedings of AISB, 36:2014.
  • Sharma V, Goyal M, Malik D (2017) An intelligent behaviour shown by chatbot system. Int J New Technol Res, 3:263312.
  • Shibata T, Inoue K, Irie R (1996) Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project. In Proceedings 5th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, RO-MAN'96 TSUKUBA, 466-471. 11-14 November 1996 Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Shibata T, Tashima T ve Tanie K (1999) Emergence of emotional behavior through physical interaction between human and robot. In Proceedings 1999 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2868-2873. 10-15 May 1999 Detroit, MI, USA.
  • Shibata T, Wada K (2011) Robot therapy: A new approach for mental healthcare of the elderly–a mini-review. Gerontology, 57:378-386.
  • Snell JC (1997) Impacts of robotic sex. The Futurist, 31:32-36.
  • SoftBank Robotics (2022) Pepper. https://www.softbankrobotics.com/emea/en/pepper (Accessed 10.8.2022).
  • Suharwardy S, Ramachandran M, Leonard SA, Gunaseelan A, Robinson A, Darcy A et al. (2020) 116: Effect of an automated conversational agent on postpartum mental health: A randomized, controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 222:91.
  • Sweeney C, Potts C, Ennis E, Bond R, Mulvenna MD, O’neill S et al. (2021) Can Chatbots help support a person’s mental health? Perceptions and views from mental healthcare professionals and experts. ACM Trans Comput Healthc, 2:25.
  • Syriopoulou-Delli CK, Gkiolnta E (2020) Review of assistive technology in the training of children with autism spectrum disorders. Int J Dev Disabil, 68:73-85.
  • Tanaka F, Isshiki K, Takahashi F, Uekusa M, Sei R, Hayashi K (2015) Pepper learns together with children: Development of an educational application. In 2015 IEEE-RAS 15th International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), 270-275. 03-05 November 2015 Seoul, Korea (South).
  • Tanioka T (2019) Nursing and rehabilitative care of the elderly using humanoid robots. J Med Invest, 66:19-23.
  • Tapus A, Tapus C ve Mataric MJ (2009) The use of socially assistive robots in the design of intelligent cognitive therapies for people with dementia. In 2009 IEEE international conference on rehabilitation robotics, 924-929. 23-26 June 2009 Kyoto, Japan.
  • Turing AM (1950) Mind. Mind, 59:433-460.
  • Ujike S, Yasuhara Y, Osaka K, Sato M, Catangui E, Edo S et al. (2019) Encounter of Pepper-CPGE for the elderly and patients with schizophrenia: An innovative strategy to improve patient's recreation, rehabilitation, and communication. J Med Invest, 66:50-53.
  • University of Hertfordshire (2022) Kaspar the social robot. https://www.herts.ac.uk/kaspar/research-and-development (Accessed 16.4.2022).
  • Vaidyam AN, Wisniewski H, Halamka JD, Kashavan MS, Torous JB (2019) Chatbots and conversational agents in mental health: a review of the psychiatric landscape. Can J Psychiatry. 64:456-464.
  • Wada K, Shibata T (2007) Social effects of robot therapy in a care house-Change of social network of the residents for two months. In Proceedings-IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1250-1255. 10-14 April 2007 Rome, Italy.
  • Wada K, Shibata T, Saito T, Tanie K (2002) Robot assisted activity for elderly people and nurses at a day service center. In Proceedings 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1416-1421.11-15 May 2002 Washington, DC, USA.
  • Wainer J, Robins B, Amirabdollahian F, Dautenhahn K (2014) Using the humanoid robot KASPAR to autonomously play triadic games and facilitate collaborative play among children with autism. IEEE Trans Auton Ment Dev, 6:183-199.
  • Wasil AR, Gillespie S, Shingleton R, Wilks CR, Weisz JR (2020) Examining the reach of smartphone apps for depression and anxiety. Am J Psychiatry, 177:464-465.
  • Weizenbaum J (1966) ELIZA—a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Commun ACM, 9:36-45.
  • Williams JG, Whiten A, Singh T (2004) A systematic review of action imitation in autistic spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord, 34:285– 299.
  • Wing L, Gould J, Yeates SR, Brierly LM (1977) Symbolic play in severely mentally retarded and in autistic children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 18:167-178.
  • Woebot (2022) Woebot Health. https://woebothealth.com/about-us/ (Accessed 7.8.2022).
  • Wysa (2022a) Mental health support, for everyone. https://www.wysa.io/ (Accessed 7.8.2022).
  • Wysa (2022b) FAQs. https://www.wysa.io/faq (Accessed 7.8.2022).
  • Youper (2022a) About us. https://www.youper.ai/new-about-us (Accessed 6.8.2022).
  • Youper (2022b) Our approach. https://www.youper.ai/our-approach (Accessed 6.8.2022).
  • Youper (2022c) Youper. https://www.youper.ai/ (Accessed 6.8.2022).
  • Youper (2022d) Our tech. https://www.youper.ai/our-tech (Accessed 29.8.2022).
APA Akyazı K, Baştemur Ş (2024). Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. , 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
Chicago Akyazı Kadem Gürkan,Baştemur Şule Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. (2024): 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
MLA Akyazı Kadem Gürkan,Baştemur Şule Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. , 2024, ss.16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
AMA Akyazı K,Baştemur Ş Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. . 2024; 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
Vancouver Akyazı K,Baştemur Ş Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. . 2024; 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
IEEE Akyazı K,Baştemur Ş "Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots." , ss.16 - 30, 2024. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
ISNAD Akyazı, Kadem Gürkan - Baştemur, Şule. "Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots". (2024), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.1242958
APA Akyazı K, Baştemur Ş (2024). Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 16(1), 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
Chicago Akyazı Kadem Gürkan,Baştemur Şule Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 16, no.1 (2024): 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
MLA Akyazı Kadem Gürkan,Baştemur Şule Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, vol.16, no.1, 2024, ss.16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
AMA Akyazı K,Baştemur Ş Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2024; 16(1): 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
Vancouver Akyazı K,Baştemur Ş Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2024; 16(1): 16 - 30. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
IEEE Akyazı K,Baştemur Ş "Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots." Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 16, ss.16 - 30, 2024. 10.18863/pgy.1242958
ISNAD Akyazı, Kadem Gürkan - Baştemur, Şule. "Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots". Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 16/1 (2024), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.1242958