Yıl: 2024 Cilt: 16 Sayı: 1 Sayfa Aralığı: 31 - 47 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.18863/pgy.1223370 İndeks Tarihi: 16-01-2024

Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs

Öz:
It is an intriguing question of how people can reduce stress in which situations where internal moral standards are violated. Addressing this question, moral disengagement theory has been proposed to explain different cognitive mechanisms which ease people into engaging or witnessing moral transgressions. Several findings showed that moral disengagement tendencies might be explained by individual differences as well as contextual factors. Beyond showing the correlations between moral disengagement processes and individual differences and contextual factors, it is also valuable to investigate if there is an effective way to intervene in moral disengagement. This review article addresses the previously shown evidence regarding individual differences, contextual factors, and interventions, which in turn aim to enrich our understanding of the underlying psychological mechanisms to reduce unethical behaviors. Taken together, Honesty-Modesty, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism were found to be individual differences associated with moral disengagement. Additionally, less research yielded that attachment styles, political attitudes, moral identity, and moral emotions might be important to experience moral disengagement. Although several studies showed that individual differences are related to being more prone to moral disengagement, these studies had rarely been considered in intervention programs aiming to reduce immoral behaviors. Programs that have been designed to reduce moral disengagement overlook the long-term effects. Additionally, interventions often focus on the work environment and adolescence. In the future, interventions that include longitudinal designs considering the role of individual differences and different contexts might contribute to the relevant literature.
Anahtar Kelime: Moral psychology moral disengagement individual differences intervention studies

Ahlaki Uzaklaşmadan Uzaklaşmak: Bireysel Farklılıklar ve Müdahale Programlarına İlişkin Bir Derleme

Öz:
Kişilerin içsel ahlaki standartların ihlal edildiği durumlarda nasıl düşük düzeyde stres deneyimlediği merak uyandıran bir sorudur. Bu soruyu ele alan ahlaki uzaklaşma teorisi, insanların ahlaki ihlallere dahil veya tanık olmasını kolaylaştıran farklı bilişsel mekanizmaları açıklamak üzere öne sürülmüştür. İncelemeler ahlaki uzaklaşmaya ilişkin eğilimlerin bağlamsal faktörlerin yanı sıra bireysel farklılıklarla da açıklanabileceğine işaret etmektedir. Ahlaki uzaklaşmanın bireysel farklılıklar ve bağlamsal faktörlerle ilişkisinin ötesinde, ahlaki uzaklaşmaya müdahale etmenin etkili bir yolu olup olmadığını araştırmak da oldukça değerlidir. Bu derleme makalesi, bireysel farklılıklar, bağlamsal faktörler ve müdahalelerle ilgili çalışmaları ele alarak etik olmayan davranışların azaltılabilmesi için altta yatan psikolojik mekanizmalara ilişkin anlayışımızı zenginleştirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Birlikte ele alındığında, bulgular Dürüstlük-Alçakgönüllülük, Uyumluluk, Sorumluluk, Psikopati ve Makyavelizm’in, ahlaki uzaklaşma ile ilişkili bireysel farklılıklar olduğunu göstermektedir. Ek olarak, daha az sayıda araştırmada bağlanma stillerinin, politik tutumların, ahlaki kimliğin ve ahlaki duyguların ahlaki uzaklaşma süreçlerini deneyimlemekle ilişkili olduğu bulunmuştur. Çalışmalar bireysel farklılıkların ahlaki uzaklaşmaya yatkınlık için önemli olduğunu gösterse de bu farkların ahlaki uzaklaşmayı azaltmak için müdahale programlarında nadiren dikkate alındığı görülmektedir. Ahlaki uzaklaşmayı azaltmak için tasarlanan programların uzun vadeli etkilerinin nadiren test edildiği ve genellikle çalışma ortamına veya ergenlik dönemine odaklandığı görülmektedir. Gelecekte bireysel farklılıkların rolünü dikkate alan boylamsal desenleri içeren uygulamalı çalışmalar ilgili literatüre katkı sağlayacaktır.
Anahtar Kelime: Ahlak psikolojisi ahlaki uzaklaşma bireysel farklılıklar müdahale çalışmaları

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
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APA Yalçın E, Aktaş B (2024). Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. , 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
Chicago Yalçın Esra,Aktaş Büşra Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. (2024): 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
MLA Yalçın Esra,Aktaş Büşra Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. , 2024, ss.31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
AMA Yalçın E,Aktaş B Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. . 2024; 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
Vancouver Yalçın E,Aktaş B Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. . 2024; 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
IEEE Yalçın E,Aktaş B "Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs." , ss.31 - 47, 2024. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
ISNAD Yalçın, Esra - Aktaş, Büşra. "Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs". (2024), 31-47. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.1223370
APA Yalçın E, Aktaş B (2024). Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 16(1), 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
Chicago Yalçın Esra,Aktaş Büşra Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 16, no.1 (2024): 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
MLA Yalçın Esra,Aktaş Büşra Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, vol.16, no.1, 2024, ss.31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
AMA Yalçın E,Aktaş B Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2024; 16(1): 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
Vancouver Yalçın E,Aktaş B Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2024; 16(1): 31 - 47. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
IEEE Yalçın E,Aktaş B "Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs." Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 16, ss.31 - 47, 2024. 10.18863/pgy.1223370
ISNAD Yalçın, Esra - Aktaş, Büşra. "Disengagement from Moral Disengagement: A Review of Individual Differences and Interventions Programs". Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 16/1 (2024), 31-47. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.1223370