Yıl: 2024 Cilt: 16 Sayı: 1 Sayfa Aralığı: 175 - 184 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.18863/pgy.1238867 İndeks Tarihi: 16-01-2024

Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors

Öz:
In this review, we explore the intricate development of sexual identity, drawing insights from genetic, endocrinological, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological studies. Gender identity, encapsulating an individual's internal perception as male or female, undergoes a nuanced and gradual formation, commencing early in life and progressing through distinct stages. Gender nonconformity delineates behaviors that diverge from culturally prescribed norms, while gender dysphoria encompasses the emotional distress experienced by some individuals due to a mismatch between their gender identity and assigned sex at birth. The genesis of sexual identity involves multifaceted processes spanning numerous years. Human sex differentiation involves the suppression or inactivation of specific genes, a phenomenon illuminated by genetic investigations into gender dysphoria, which have shown comparable rates of genetic variations to the general population. Nevertheless, twin studies suggest an augmented likelihood of transsexuality among family members, hinting at potential environmental influences. Brain sexual differentiation occurs during mid-to-late pregnancy due to the impact of gonadal hormones. The mechanisms underpinning the loss of feminine brain characteristics and subsequent masculinization likely involve a combination of factors, indicating a complex interplay rather than a singular cause. Studies propose that human sexual behavior is not governed by a solitary gene but rather by a network of genes dispersed across the genome. Notably, disparities in brain structures, functionalities between genders, as well as variations in endocrine and serotonin-dopamine levels, are implicated in the etiology of gender dysphoria, contributing to the understanding of this complex phenomenon situated between genders.
Anahtar Kelime: Sexual identity environmental stress neurobiology epigenetics

Cinsel Kimlik Gelişiminin Nörobiyolojik Yapıtaşları ve Çevresel Stresörlerin Epigenetik Etkileri

Öz:
Bu gözden geçirmede cinsel kimlik gelişimini bu konuda yapılan genetik, endokrinolojik, nöroanatomik, nörofizyolojik çalışmaların ışığında açıklanması hedeflenmiştir. Cinsel kimlik bireyin kendisini öznel olarak kadın ya da erkek olarak algılamasını ifade eder. Cinsel kimlik gelişiminin erken yaşlarda başladığı, uzun yıllar süren aşamalı bir süreç olduğu ve çeşitli aşamalardan geçtiği belirtilmektedir. Cinsiyet uygunsuzluğu kültürel olarak tanımlanan normlara uymayan cinsiyet rol davranışını belirtir. Cinsiyet hoşnutsuzluğu ise, cinsiyet uyumsuzluğu olan bazı bireylerin yaşayabileceği duygusal karmaşa veya sıkıntıyı ifade etmektedir. İnsanlarda cinsiyet farklılaşması bazı genlerin basımlanması ya da inaktivasyonu ile meydana gelmektedir. Cinsiyet hoşnutsuzluğ örneklemlerindeki genetik araştırmalar rutin moleküler karyotiplemede değişiklik oranlarının genel popülasyona benzer olduğunu göstermiştir. Ancak yapılan ikiz çalışmalarında aile üyeleri arasında artan transseksüelite riski paylaşılmış çevrenin de etken olabileceğini düşündürmüştür. İnsanlarda beynin cinsel yönden farklılaşması gonadal hormonlar etkisi ile gebeliğin ortası/sonlarında olmaktadır. Eldeki veriler değerlendirildiğinde beynin dişil özelliklerinin kaybolması ve erkeksileşmesi için olasılıkla birden fazla mekanizmanın rol oynayabileceği düşünülebilir. Yapılan çalışmalar insanlarda cinsel davranışın tek bir gen tarafından belirlenmediğini, tüm genoma yayılmış çoklu genlerce belirlendiğini düşündürmektedir. Erkek ve kadın beyni yapı ve işlevlerin farklı olması, endokrinolojik ve serotonin- dopamin düzeyinde ki farklılıklar cinsiyetler arasında CH etiyolojisinde etkili olabilir.
Anahtar Kelime: cinsel kimlik çevresel stres nörobiyloji epigenetik

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
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APA Sari M, Savcı U, balta b, ÖZTÜRK Y, TUFAN A (2024). Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. , 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
Chicago Sari Mesut,Savcı Ugur,balta büşra,ÖZTÜRK Yusuf,TUFAN ALİ EVREN Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. (2024): 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
MLA Sari Mesut,Savcı Ugur,balta büşra,ÖZTÜRK Yusuf,TUFAN ALİ EVREN Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. , 2024, ss.175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
AMA Sari M,Savcı U,balta b,ÖZTÜRK Y,TUFAN A Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. . 2024; 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
Vancouver Sari M,Savcı U,balta b,ÖZTÜRK Y,TUFAN A Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. . 2024; 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
IEEE Sari M,Savcı U,balta b,ÖZTÜRK Y,TUFAN A "Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors." , ss.175 - 184, 2024. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
ISNAD Sari, Mesut vd. "Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors". (2024), 175-184. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.1238867
APA Sari M, Savcı U, balta b, ÖZTÜRK Y, TUFAN A (2024). Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 16(1), 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
Chicago Sari Mesut,Savcı Ugur,balta büşra,ÖZTÜRK Yusuf,TUFAN ALİ EVREN Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 16, no.1 (2024): 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
MLA Sari Mesut,Savcı Ugur,balta büşra,ÖZTÜRK Yusuf,TUFAN ALİ EVREN Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, vol.16, no.1, 2024, ss.175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
AMA Sari M,Savcı U,balta b,ÖZTÜRK Y,TUFAN A Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2024; 16(1): 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
Vancouver Sari M,Savcı U,balta b,ÖZTÜRK Y,TUFAN A Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar. 2024; 16(1): 175 - 184. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
IEEE Sari M,Savcı U,balta b,ÖZTÜRK Y,TUFAN A "Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors." Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 16, ss.175 - 184, 2024. 10.18863/pgy.1238867
ISNAD Sari, Mesut vd. "Neurobiological Components of Sexual Identity Development and Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Stressors". Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 16/1 (2024), 175-184. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.1238867