Yıl: 2023 Cilt: 47 Sayı: 6 Sayfa Aralığı: 556 - 564 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.55730/1300-0128.4325 İndeks Tarihi: 17-01-2024

Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses

Öz:
Horses that perform constant physical activity related to sport or work are subject to musculoskeletal disorders. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a functional training program to promote physical conditions (epaxial musculature biometry and linear kinematics) and behavior traits in patrol horses. Sixteen crossbred horses were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: not submitted (control group) and submitted (test group) to a functional exercise program. The training program exercises were performed three times per week for 90 days and consisted of dynamic mobilization techniques, reflexive mobilization, dynamic imbalance, and passive stretching. The studied variables were Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle thickness (cm), Musculus multifidus (MM) cross-sectional area (cm²), stride length to step (SLs) and trot (SLt), footprint distances to step (FDs) and trot (FDt) and behavioral actions occurrence as alert, frightened, curious, distracted, nervous, drowsiness and stubborn. Physical evaluations on muscles were taken one day before the beginning of the functional exercise applications and after 90 days, and behavioral occurrence was recorded during each training session. LD muscle thickness did not differ (p > 0.05) between evaluation times; however, MM cross-sectional area differed (p < 0.05) between treatments. SLs, SLt, FDs, and FDt were higher (p < 0.05) in animals submitted to functional exercises; also, these animals showed lower drowsiness and stubbornness (p < 0.05) when compared to animals in the control group. Performing functional training causes Musculus multifidus hypertrophy, which sustains the spine, improves step and trot stride amplitude, and promotes positive changes in patrolling horses’ behavior.
Anahtar Kelime: Muscular biometry kinematics equine ethology functional training

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • 1. Aleman MA. Review of equine muscle disorders. Neuromuscular disorders 2008; 18: 277-287.
  • 2. Clayton H. The dynamic horse. 1st ed. Mason, USA: Sport Horse Publications; 2004.
  • 3. Stubbs NC, Clayton HM. Activate your horse’s core: Unmounted Exercises for Dynamic Mobility. 1st ed. Mason, USA: Sport Horse Publications; 2008.
  • 4. Oliveira K. Restrição de Movimento. 1st ed. Porto Alegre, BR: HorseMove método; 2017.
  • 5. Hodgson DR, McKeever KH, McGowan CM. The athletic horse: principles and practice of equine sports medicine. 1st ed. Oxford, USA: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
  • 6. Fureix C, Menguy H, Hausberger M. Partners with bad temper: reject or cure? A study of chronic pain and aggression in horses. Plos One 2010; 5: 124-134.
  • 7. Oliveira K, Saltillo RV, Da Fonseca R, Costa C, Paulo RDL et al. Gymnastic training and dynamic mobilization exercises improve stride quality and increase epaxial muscle size in therapy horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2015; 35: 888-8893.
  • 8. Piercy RJ. Muscle disorders of equine athletes. Eds. USA: Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery; 2013.
  • 9. Rodrigues PG, Oliveira K, Alves SDSV, Fidêncio CF, de Oliveira CG et al. Muscle and biomechanical response time in patrol horses submitted to functional training. Research, Society and Development 2021; 10 (3): e26710313204-e26710313204.
  • 10. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of horses. 7st ed. Washington, USA: National Academy Press; 2007.
  • 11. Oliveira K, Clayton HM, Harada SÉ. Gymnastic Training of Hippotherapy Horses Benefits Gait Quality When Ridden by Riders with Different Body Weights. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2020; 94: 103248.
  • 12. Stubbs NC, Kaiser LJ, Hauptman J, Clayton HM. Dynamic mobilization exercises increase cross-sectional area of musculus multifidus. Equine Veterinary Journal 2011; 43: 522-529.
  • 13. Oliveira K, Velludo GS, Da Fonseca R, Lopes AM, Santos PCS et al. Biometria por ultrassonografia da musculatura epaxial e pélvica em equinos treinados com rédea Pessoa. Ciencia Rural 2014; 44: 2045- 2051.
  • 14. Bobbert MF, Santamaria S, Van Weeren PR, Back W, Barneveld A. Can jumping capacity of adult show jumping horses be predicted on the basis of submaximal free jumps at foal age? A longitudinal study. Veterinary Journal 2005; 170: 212-221.
  • 15. Pessoa GO, Trigo P, Neto FDM, Junior ACL, Sousa TM et al. Comparative well-being of horses kept under total or partial confinement prior to employment for mounted patrols. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2016; 184: 51 - 58.
  • 16. Young T, Creighton E, Smith T, Hosie CH. A novel scale of behavioural indicators of stress for use with domestic horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2012; 140: 33-43.
  • 17. Statistical Analysys Systems. SAS - User’s guide. Version 6: Institute, Cary; 1998.
  • 18. D’Angelis FH, Mota MD, Freitas EV, Ferraz GC, Abrahão AR et al. Aerobic training, but not creatine, modifies Longissimus dorsi muscle composition. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2007; 27: 118-222.
  • 19. Clayton HM, Kaiser LJ, Lavagnino M, Stubbs NC. Dynamic mobilizations in cervical flexion: Effects on intervertebral angulations. Equine Veterinary Journal 2010; 42: 688-694.
  • 20. Long K, McGowan CM, Hyytiäinen HK. Effect of caudal traction on mechanical nociceptive thresholds of epaxial and pelvic musculature on a group of horses with signs of back pain. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2020; 93: 103197.
  • 21. Clayton HM, Lavagnino M, Kaiser LJ, Stubbs NC. Swing phase kinematic and kinetic response to weighting the hind pasterns. Equine Veterinary Journal 2011; 43: 210-215.
  • 22. Haussler KK. Equine Manual Therapies in Sport Horse Practice: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice 2018; 34: 375- 389.
  • 23. Rodrigues PG, Freitas LMD, Oliveira KD, Martins COD, Silva CM et al. Thermal and behavioral response of horses submitted to functional exercises and acupuncture. Ciência Rural 2021; 52: e20201046.
  • 24. Haussler KK. Joint Mobilization and Manipulation for the Equine Athlete: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice 2016; 32: 87-101.
  • 25. Dyson S, Berger J, Ellis AD, Mullard J. Development of an ethogram for a pain scoring system in ridden horses and its application to determine the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 2018; 23: 47-57.
  • 26. Wagner AE. Effects of stress on pain in horses and incorporating pain scales for equine practice. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 2010; 26: 481-492.
APA Gomes Rodrigues P, Fidencio C, Oliveira K, Mendonça Silva C, Oliveira C, carvalho M, Santos A, Oliveira Júnior G, Souza J (2023). Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. , 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
Chicago Gomes Rodrigues Paula,Fidencio Camila,Oliveira Kátia,Mendonça Silva Camilla,Oliveira Clistenes,carvalho Miradelson,Santos Anselmo,Oliveira Júnior Gregório Murilo de,Souza Jose C. Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. (2023): 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
MLA Gomes Rodrigues Paula,Fidencio Camila,Oliveira Kátia,Mendonça Silva Camilla,Oliveira Clistenes,carvalho Miradelson,Santos Anselmo,Oliveira Júnior Gregório Murilo de,Souza Jose C. Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. , 2023, ss.556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
AMA Gomes Rodrigues P,Fidencio C,Oliveira K,Mendonça Silva C,Oliveira C,carvalho M,Santos A,Oliveira Júnior G,Souza J Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. . 2023; 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
Vancouver Gomes Rodrigues P,Fidencio C,Oliveira K,Mendonça Silva C,Oliveira C,carvalho M,Santos A,Oliveira Júnior G,Souza J Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. . 2023; 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
IEEE Gomes Rodrigues P,Fidencio C,Oliveira K,Mendonça Silva C,Oliveira C,carvalho M,Santos A,Oliveira Júnior G,Souza J "Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses." , ss.556 - 564, 2023. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
ISNAD Gomes Rodrigues, Paula vd. "Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses". (2023), 556-564. https://doi.org/10.55730/1300-0128.4325
APA Gomes Rodrigues P, Fidencio C, Oliveira K, Mendonça Silva C, Oliveira C, carvalho M, Santos A, Oliveira Júnior G, Souza J (2023). Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 47(6), 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
Chicago Gomes Rodrigues Paula,Fidencio Camila,Oliveira Kátia,Mendonça Silva Camilla,Oliveira Clistenes,carvalho Miradelson,Santos Anselmo,Oliveira Júnior Gregório Murilo de,Souza Jose C. Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 47, no.6 (2023): 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
MLA Gomes Rodrigues Paula,Fidencio Camila,Oliveira Kátia,Mendonça Silva Camilla,Oliveira Clistenes,carvalho Miradelson,Santos Anselmo,Oliveira Júnior Gregório Murilo de,Souza Jose C. Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol.47, no.6, 2023, ss.556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
AMA Gomes Rodrigues P,Fidencio C,Oliveira K,Mendonça Silva C,Oliveira C,carvalho M,Santos A,Oliveira Júnior G,Souza J Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2023; 47(6): 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
Vancouver Gomes Rodrigues P,Fidencio C,Oliveira K,Mendonça Silva C,Oliveira C,carvalho M,Santos A,Oliveira Júnior G,Souza J Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2023; 47(6): 556 - 564. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
IEEE Gomes Rodrigues P,Fidencio C,Oliveira K,Mendonça Silva C,Oliveira C,carvalho M,Santos A,Oliveira Júnior G,Souza J "Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses." Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 47, ss.556 - 564, 2023. 10.55730/1300-0128.4325
ISNAD Gomes Rodrigues, Paula vd. "Functional training promotes benefits in the physical condition of horses". Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 47/6 (2023), 556-564. https://doi.org/10.55730/1300-0128.4325