Yıl: 2024 Cilt: 21 Sayı: 2 Sayfa Aralığı: 547 - 560 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.33462/jotaf.1326627 İndeks Tarihi: 16-04-2024

Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes

Öz:
Agricultural wastes are abundant worldwide with increased production and consumption activities as a result of human population growth. Waste recycling processes, which are important to support sustainable production, remain popular due to the increasing amount of agricultural waste. In particular, there are various studies on the recovery of valuable components from waste. In this context, the recovery of cellulose and nanocellulose from waste, which has the potential to be used and applied in many sectors, especially in food, draws attention. Although black carrot juice waste, which is one of the important agricultural wastes, is frequently used in the production of natural colorants, it was used for the production of cellulose and nanocellulose in this study due to its high cellulose content. Response Surface Method-Central Composite Design was used to improve the alkaline extraction conditions of cellulose for the optimum yield and whiteness index by using process parameters of NaOH concentration (2–12%), process temperature (25–110 °C), and time (60–240 min). The optimum process parameters were determined as the NaOH concentration (7.06%), process temperature (44.83°C), and time (114.21 min) for alkaline extraction of cellulose from black carrot juice waste where the yield of cellulose was 22.90±2.48%, and whiteness index was 60.32±0.07%. Nanocellulose was produced from cellulose obtained from black carrot juice waste by acidic hydrolysis using 25% H2SO4. Nanocellulose yield and whiteness index were found as 15.76±0.16% and 58.77±0.26% respectively. The average diameter (61±2.89 nm) and length (281±18.50 nm) of the nanocellulose were determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). As a result of the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was determined that non-cellulosic components were removed.
Anahtar Kelime: Black carrot juice waste Cellulose Optimization Acid hydrolysis Nanocellulose

Siyah Havuç Suyu Atıklarından Selüloz Ekstraksiyon Parametrelerinin Optimizasyonu ve Nanoselüloz Üretimi

Öz:
Dünya nüfusunun sürekli artış göstermesiyle birlikte, üretim ve tüketim faaliyetleri de hızla artmakta ve sonucunda tarımsal atıklar dünya genelinde büyük miktarlarda birikmektedir. Bu durum, sürdürülebilir üretimi desteklemek amacıyla atık geri dönüşüm süreçlerine olan ihtiyacı da artırmaktadır. Özellikle tarımsal atık miktarının artmasıyla birlikte, atıklardan değerli bileşenlerin geri kazanımı konusunda çeşitli çalışmalar yoğunlaşmıştır. Bu bağlamda, selüloz ve nanoselüloz gibi maddelerin atıklardan geri kazanımı, özellikle gıda sektörü başta olmak üzere birçok sektörde kullanım ve uygulama potansiyeline sahip olduğu için önem taşımaktadır. Siyah havuç suyu atığı da önemli bir tarımsal atık olarak kabul edilmekte ve genellikle doğal renklendirici üretiminde sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. Renk maddesi üretiminin yanı sıra yüksek selüloz içeriği sebebiyle bu çalışmada siyah havuç suyu atığı, selüloz ve nanoselüloz üretiminde kullanılmıştır. Yanıt Yüzey Yöntemi (Response Surface Method)-Merkezi Tümleşik Tasarım (CCD) yöntemi kullanılarak, selülozun alkali ekstraksiyon koşulları optimize edilmiştir. Bu optimizasyon sürecinde, NaOH konsantrasyonu (%2–12), proses sıcaklığı (25–110 °C) ve proses süresi (60–240 dakika) gibi parametreler dikkate alınarak yanıt olarak selüloz verimi ve beyazlık indeksi seçilmiştir. Bu sayede, farklı parametre kombinasyonlarına karşılık gelen selüloz verimi ve beyazlık indeksi değerleri ile birlikte optimum ekstraksiyon koşulları belirlenmiştir. Selüloz veriminin %22,90±2,48 ve beyazlık indeksinin %60,32±0,07 olduğu siyah havuç suyu atıklarından selülozun alkali ekstraksiyonu için optimum proses parametreleri NaOH konsantrasyonu %7,06; proses sıcaklığı 44,83 °C ve proses süresi 114,21 dk olarak belirlenmiştir. Siyah havuç suyu atıklarından elde edilen selülozdan %25 konsantrasyonda H2SO4 kullanılarak asidik hidroliz ile nanoselüloz üretilmiştir. Nanoselüloz verimi ve beyazlık indeksi sırasıyla %15,76±0,16 ve %58,77±0,26 olarak bulunmuştur. Nanoselülozun ortalama çapı (61±2,89 nm) ve uzunluğu (281±18,50 nm) Atomik Kuvvet Mikroskobu (AFM) ile belirlenmiştir. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spektroskopisi sonucunda ise selülozik olmayan bileşenlerin uzaklaştırıldığı belirlenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelime: Siyah havuç suyu atığı Selüloz Optimizasyon Asit hidrolizi Nanoselüloz

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
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APA HAYATİOĞLU N, Tekin İ, Ersus S (2024). Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. , 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
Chicago HAYATİOĞLU NERGİZ,Tekin İdil,Ersus Seda Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. (2024): 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
MLA HAYATİOĞLU NERGİZ,Tekin İdil,Ersus Seda Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. , 2024, ss.547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
AMA HAYATİOĞLU N,Tekin İ,Ersus S Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. . 2024; 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
Vancouver HAYATİOĞLU N,Tekin İ,Ersus S Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. . 2024; 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
IEEE HAYATİOĞLU N,Tekin İ,Ersus S "Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes." , ss.547 - 560, 2024. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
ISNAD HAYATİOĞLU, NERGİZ vd. "Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes". (2024), 547-560. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1326627
APA HAYATİOĞLU N, Tekin İ, Ersus S (2024). Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(2), 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
Chicago HAYATİOĞLU NERGİZ,Tekin İdil,Ersus Seda Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 21, no.2 (2024): 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
MLA HAYATİOĞLU NERGİZ,Tekin İdil,Ersus Seda Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.21, no.2, 2024, ss.547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
AMA HAYATİOĞLU N,Tekin İ,Ersus S Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi. 2024; 21(2): 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
Vancouver HAYATİOĞLU N,Tekin İ,Ersus S Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi. 2024; 21(2): 547 - 560. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
IEEE HAYATİOĞLU N,Tekin İ,Ersus S "Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes." Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 21, ss.547 - 560, 2024. 10.33462/jotaf.1326627
ISNAD HAYATİOĞLU, NERGİZ vd. "Optimization of Cellulose Extraction Parameters and Production of Nanocellulose from Black Carrot Juice Wastes". Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 21/2 (2024), 547-560. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1326627