Yıl: 2024 Cilt: 35 Sayı: 1 Sayfa Aralığı: 36 - 45 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.17644/sbd.1432708 İndeks Tarihi: 10-06-2024

The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes

Öz:
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 6 week oculomotor exercise program on hand-eye coordination, reaction time, visual perception and dynamic visual acuity with table tennis athletes. 50 table tennis players included in the study were randomly divided in to oculomotor exercise (OMEG, n=25) and control (CG, n=25) groups. While the two groups continued their routine tennis training programs, oculomotor exercises with gaze stabilization were applied to OMEG twice a day for 6 weeks via the WhatsApp application. Plate tapping test was used to evaluate the eye-hand coordination of the participants, reaction time test (number of hits and average reaction time) using the Blazepod device was used to evaluate reaction times, and forms A and B of the Trail Making Test (TMT-A ve TMT-B) were used to evaluate visual perception. Dynamic visual acuity test with powerpoint was used to evaluate the dynamic visual acuity of the participants. The paired t-test and two-sample t-test was executed to examine within and between the groups. The OMEG had significant improvements in hand-eye coordination, visual perception, reaction time and dynamic visual acuity (p<0.05). Significant differences between both groups were observed in the plate tapping test (t=-3.560, p=0.01) and TMT-A (t=-2.276, p=0.027). The 6 week oculomotor exercise program is able to improve hand-eye coordination and visual perception for table tennis athletes.
Anahtar Kelime: Eye hand coordination Oculomotor exercise Reaction time Table tennis Visual perception

Masa Tenisi Sporcularında Bakış Stabilizasyonlu Okülomotor Egzersizlerin El-Göz Koordinasyonu ve Reaksiyon Zamanına Etkisi

Öz:
Bu çalışmanın amacı masa tenisi sporcularında 6 haftalık okülomotor egzersiz programının el-göz koordinasyonu, reaksiyon zamanı, görsel algı ve dinamik görme keskinliği üzerine etkisini belirlemektir. Araştırmaya dahil edilen 50 masa tenisi oyuncusu rastgele okülo-motor egzersiz (OMEG, n=25) ve kontrol (CG, n=25) gruplarına ayrıldı. İki grup rutin tenis antrenman programlarına devam ederken, okülo-motor egzersiz grubuna WhatsApp uygulaması üzerinden 6 hafta boyunca günde iki kez bakış stabilizasyonlu okülomotor egzersizler uygulandı. Katılımcıların el-göz koordinasyonunu değerlendirmek için disklere vurma testi, reaksiyon zamanını (vuruş sayısı ve ortalama reaksiyon zamanı) değerlendirmek için Blazepod cihazı ve görsel algıyı değerlendirmek için İz Sürme Testinin A ve B formları kullanıldı. Katılımcıların dinamik görme keskinliğini değerlendirmek için powerpoint ile dinamik görme keskinliği testi kullanıldı. Grup içi ve gruplararası analizlerde eşleştirilmiş t testi ve iki örnekli t testi uygulandı. OMEG'de el-göz koordinasyonu, görsel algı, reaksiyon zamanı ve dinamik görme keskinliğinde anlamlı iyileşmeler elde edildi (p<0.05). Disklere dokunma testi (t=-3,560, p=0,01) ve IST-A'da (t=2,276, p=0,027) her iki grup arasında anlamlı fark gözlendi. Masa tenisi sporcularında 6 haftalık okülomotor egzersiz programı, el-göz koordinasyonu ve görsel algıyı geliştirebilir.
Anahtar Kelime: El göz koordinasyonu Okülomotor egzersiz Reaksiyon süresi Masa tenisi Görsel algı

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • 1. Appelbaum, L.G., Schroeder, J.E., Cain, M.S., and Mitroff, S.R. (2011). Improved visual cognition through stroboscopic training. Frontiers in Psychology, 28(2):276. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00276.
  • 2. Appelbaum, L.G., and Erickson, G. (2016). Sports vision training: A review of the state-of- the-art in digital training techniques. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11,160–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1266376
  • 3. Bhardwaj, V., and Vats, M. (2014). Effectiveness of gaze stability exercises on balance in healthy elderly population. International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, 2(4):642-47.
  • 4. Basiri, F., Farsi, A., Abdoli, B., and Kavyani, M. (2020). The effect of visual and tennis training on perceptual-motor skill and learning of forehand drive in table tennis players. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation, 14(1):21-32. https://doi.org/10.32598/JMR.14.1.3
  • 5. Broadbent, D.P., Causer, J., Williams, A.M., and Ford, P.R. (2014). Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: Future research directions. European Journal of Sport Science, 15,32231. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.957727
  • 6. Biernat, E., Buchholtz, S., and Krzepota, J. (2018). Eye on the ball: table tennis as a pro health form of leisure-time physical activity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(4): 738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040738
  • 7. Corrigan, J.D., and Hinkeldey, M.S. (1987). Relationships between parts a and b of the Trail Making Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(4):402–9.
  • 8. Crawford, J., Medendorp, W., and Marotta, J. (2004). Spatial transformations for eye–hand coordination. Journal of Neurophysiology, 92(1):10-9. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00117.2004
  • 9. Cross, E.S., Stadler, W., Parkinson, J., Schütz Bosbach, S., and Prinz, W. (2013). The influence of visual training on predicting complex action sequences. Human Brain Mapping, 34(2):467-86. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21450
  • 10. Durey, A., and Seydler, R. (1994). Perfecting of a ball bounce and trajectories simulation software: in order to predict the consequences of changing table tennis rules. International of Journal of Table Tennis, No:2.
  • 11. Azim Zadeh, E., Ghasemi, A., and Gholami, A. (2016). Effect of selected visual and sport training program on visual skills. Motor Behavior, 7(22):15-32.
  • 12. Ellisona, P.H., Sparksa, A., Murphy, P.N., Carnegiea, E., and Marchanta, D.C. (2014). Determining eye–hand coordination using the sport vision trainer: an evaluation of test–retest reliability. Research in Sports Medicine, 22(1):36-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2013.852090
  • 13. Eurofit. (1988). European Tests of Physical Fitness, Council of Europe. Committee for the Development of Sport, Rome.
  • 14. Faber, I.R., Oosterveld, F.G., and Sanden, J.N. (2014). Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study. PLoS ONE, 17;9(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096748
  • 15. Garcia, T., Martin, Y., and Nieto, A. (1993). Visión deportiva. Suplemento de la Revista Gaceta óptica. Colegio nacional de ópticos- optometristas: Madrid, Spain.
  • 16. Genova, B., Mateeff, S., Bonnet, C., and Hohnsbein, J. (2000). Mechanisms of simple and choice reaction to changes in direction of visual motion. Vision Research, 40:3049-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(00)00158-9
  • 17. Girard, O., and Millet, G.P. (2009). Neuromuscular fatigue in racquet sports. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 20:161-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2008.10.008
  • 18. Gu, Y., Yu, C., Shao, S., and Baker, J.S. (2019). Effects of table tennis multi-ball training on dynamic posture control. PeerJ Journals, 6: e6262. https://doi.org/10.7717/ peerj.6262
  • 19. Heppe H, Kohler A, Fleddermann M, and Zentgraf K. (2016). The relationship between expertise in sports, visuospatial, and basic cognitive skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 7:904. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00904
  • 20. Herdman, S.J., Tusa, R.J, Blatt, P., Suzuki, A., Venuto, P.J., and Roberts, D. (1998). Computerized dynamic visual acuity test in the assessment of vestibular deficits. Handbook of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19(6):790-6.
  • 21. Hernández-Mendo, A., Reigal, R. E., López-Walle, J. M., Serpa, S., Samdal, O., Morales-Sánchez, V., and Falco, C. (2019). Physical activity, sports practice, and cognitive functioning: The current research status. Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 2658. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02658
  • 22. Heydari, H., Badami, R., and Meshkati, Z. (2022). Comparison of the effect of sports vision training with and without ınline hockey specific context on the speed and whole body reaction time of ınline hockey players. Journal of Sports and Motor Development and Learning, 14(1):89- 110. https://doi.org/10.22059/jsmdl.2022.333255.1618
  • 23. Hirano, M. (2018). The validation of a novel dynamic visual acuity test, and examination of the effects of different factors on dynamic visual acuity. [Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Waterloo].
  • 24. Hiromi, M., Kenji, Y., Takeshi, Y., and Tokio, T. (2010). The characteristics of kinetic vision in women’s table tennis players. Doshisha journal of health & sports science, 2:26-37.
  • 25. Hitzeman, S.A., and Beckerman, S.A. (1993). What the literature says about sports vision. Optometry Clinics, 3(1):145-69.
  • 26. John B. Allen. (1996). Table tennis and motor development. International Journal of Table Tennis Science, No:3.
  • 27. Johnson, C.D., Hugh, M.P., Wood, T., and Kibler, B. (2006). Performance demands of professional male tennis players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(8):696–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.021253
  • 28. Cole, K.R., Goodman, K., and Volland, L. (2022). Reporting of exercise dose and dosage and outcome measures for gaze stabilisation in the literature: a scoping review. BMJ Open, 12(2): e049560. https://doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049560
  • 29. Land, M. (2006). Eye movements and the control of actions in everyday life. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 25(3):296-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2006.01.002
  • 30. de-Oliveira, L.A., Matos, M.V., Fernandes, I.G., Nascimento, D.A., and da Silva-Grigoletto, M.E. (2021). Test-retest reliability of a visual- cognitive technology (BlazePod™) to measure response time. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 20(1):179. https://doi: 10.52082/jssm.2021.179.
  • 31. Liskustyawati, H., Sulaiman, S., and Rachman, H.A. (2016). The physical tests for 13-15 year old table tennis players. The Journal of Educational Development, 4(2),192-200.
  • 32. Magill, R., and Anderson, D. (2013). Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications. 10th ed. New York City: Mc GrawHill Higher Education.
  • 33. Mallahi, A., Ghasemi, A., and Gholami, A. (2014). Effect of visual and sport skills training on visual skills and sport performance among novice table tennis and basketball players. Motor Behaviour, 5(14):129-45.
  • 34. Maman, P., Biswas, S.K., and Sandhu, J.S. (2011). Role of sports vision and eye-hand coordination in performance of table tennis players. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, 5(2): 106-16.
  • 35. Minoonejad, H., Barati, A.H., Naderifar, H., Heidari, B., Kazemi, A.S., and Lashay, A. (2019). Effect of four weeks of ocular-motor exercises on dynamic visual acuity and stability limit of female basketball players. Gait & Posture, 3, 286-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.06.022
  • 36. Murray, N.P., and Hunfalvay, M. (2017). A comparison of visual search strategies of elite and non- elite tennis players through cluster analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35:241-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1161215.
  • 37. Pajoohesha, P., Badamib, R., Nazakat, M., and Hosseinic, A. (2019). The effect of sports vision training on visual-motor perception and performance in kata in the teenager. International Journal of Motor Control and Learning, 1(2) 33-40.
  • 38. Percio, C., Brancucci, A., Vecchio, F., Marzano, N., Pirritano, M., and Meccariello, E. (2007). Visual event-related potentials in elite and amateur athletes. Brain Research Bulletin, 74:104-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.05.011.
  • 39. Petersa BT, Helen S. Cohen, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar and Jacob J. Bloomberg (2013). Effects of distance and duration on vertical dynamic visual acuity in screening healthy adults and people with vestibular disorders. Journal of Vestibular Research,1; 23(6): 285–291. https://doi.org/10.3233/VES-130502
  • 40. Rawstron, J.A., Burley, C.D., and Elder, M.J. (2005). A systematic review of the applicability and efficacy of eye exercises. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, 42(2):82-8. https://doi.org/10.3928/01913913-20050301-02
  • 41. Scharfen, H.-E., and Memmert, D. (2019). Measurement of cognitive functions in experts and elite-athletes: A meta-analytic review. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3526
  • 42. Stein, H., and Slatt, B. (1981). Hitting blind, The new visual approach to winning tennis. Beaufort, Newyork, 150-57.
  • 43. Turhan, B., Mutlutürk, N., and Gençoğlu, A. (2007). Masa tenisinde koordinatif oyun yetenekleri. 3. Raket Sporları Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitapçığı, ss. 32-37, Kocaeli.
  • 44. Voss, M.W., Kramer, A.F., Basak, C., Prakash, R.S., and Roberts, B. (2010). Are expert athletes “expert” in the cognitive laboratory? A meta- analytic review of cognition and sport expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4:812–826. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1588
  • 45. Wechsler K, Bickmann P, Rudolf K, Tholl C, Froböse I, and Grieben C. (2021). Comparison of multiple object tracking performance between professional and amateur esport players as well as traditional sportsmen. International Journal of eSports Research, 1:1–17. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJER.20210101.oa2
  • 46. Zhu, X.J., Li, Y.H., and Liu, L.Q. (2019). Functional significance of stereopsis in Professional table-tennis players. The journal of sports medıcıne and physıcal fıtness, 59:1798–804. https://doi.org/10.23736/s0022-4707.19.09300-9
APA Altuncu G, ARAS BAYRAM G (2024). The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. , 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
Chicago Altuncu Gülay,ARAS BAYRAM Gülay The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. (2024): 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
MLA Altuncu Gülay,ARAS BAYRAM Gülay The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. , 2024, ss.36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
AMA Altuncu G,ARAS BAYRAM G The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. . 2024; 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
Vancouver Altuncu G,ARAS BAYRAM G The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. . 2024; 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
IEEE Altuncu G,ARAS BAYRAM G "The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes." , ss.36 - 45, 2024. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
ISNAD Altuncu, Gülay - ARAS BAYRAM, Gülay. "The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes". (2024), 36-45. https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.1432708
APA Altuncu G, ARAS BAYRAM G (2024). The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 35(1), 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
Chicago Altuncu Gülay,ARAS BAYRAM Gülay The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 35, no.1 (2024): 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
MLA Altuncu Gülay,ARAS BAYRAM Gülay The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, vol.35, no.1, 2024, ss.36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
AMA Altuncu G,ARAS BAYRAM G The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi. 2024; 35(1): 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
Vancouver Altuncu G,ARAS BAYRAM G The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi. 2024; 35(1): 36 - 45. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
IEEE Altuncu G,ARAS BAYRAM G "The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes." Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 35, ss.36 - 45, 2024. 10.17644/sbd.1432708
ISNAD Altuncu, Gülay - ARAS BAYRAM, Gülay. "The Effect of Oculomotor Exercises With Gaze Stabilization on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time in Table Tennis Athletes". Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 35/1 (2024), 36-45. https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.1432708