Yıl: 2014 Cilt: 35 Sayı: 3 Sayfa Aralığı: 219 - 252 Metin Dili: Türkçe İndeks Tarihi: 29-07-2022

Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu

Öz:
Kula Volkanik Alanı (KVA) Türkiyenin Batı Anadolu bölgesindeki Gediz Grabeni ile Simav Grabeni arasında bulu- nan Selendi baseninde yer almaktadır. Kula volkanizmasının gelişim süreci üç evreye ayrılmıştır: İlk evre (B-I, 1,94 ± 0,160,99 ± 0,11 milyon yıl) zayıf patlamaların ürettiği, kalınlığı 40-50 cm olan cüruf kül geri-düşme ürünleri ile başlamış ve sonrasında iyi gelişmiş sütun yapıları içeren plato bazaltlar ile devam etmiştir. Monojenetik volkanların oluşumu Kula volkanizmasının en yüksek hacimli lavlarına eşlik eden ikinci evre ile başlamıştır (B-II, 300 ± 3 - 50 ± 9 bin yıl). KVAnın son evre ürünleri ise, (B-III, 25 ± 7 - 4 ± 2 bin yıl) yüzeyi oldukça pürüzlü, gözenekli, keskin kenar bloklu ve kırık, ancak iç kısmı yoğun ve sütun soğuma yapıları içeren aa tip bazaltik lav akıntıları ile karakterize edilmektedir. KVA 80 cüruf konisi, 5 maar, 8 sıçratma konisi ve 6 tümülüs içermektedir. KVAnın volkanik ürünleri bazanit ve fonotefrit olarak sınıflandırılmaktadır. Tüm ürünler alkali karakterdedir. Bazaltik lavlar baskın olarak kli- nopiroksen, olivin, hornblend (B-II ve B-III evreleri için), plajiyoklaz ve feldispatoid fenokristallerinden oluşmaktadır. Sahada detaylı morfolojik araştırmaların yanı sıra topografik haritalar da kullanılarak piroklastik çökellerin hacimleri hesaplanmıştır. Cüruf konileri, 556 m. medyan taban çapına (Wco), 45 m medyan yüksekliğine (Hco) ve 5,4 x 106 m3 medyan hacmine (V ) sahiptir. Püsküren toplam malzemenin hacmi (V ) 3,25 km3 Yoğun Kayaç Eşitliğidir (YKE). C TKoniler 3-39 arası koni taban çapı / koni yükseklik oranına (Wco/Hco) ve 2,3° ve 45° arasında değişen yamaç eği- mine (θ) sahiptir. Maarlar ise 8-40 arası ortalama çap / derinlik oranına (Do/d) sahiptir. Püsküren toplam malzeme hacmi (VE) 0,36 km3 YKE ve toplam jüvenil bileşen hacmi (VJ) 0,34 km3 YKE olarak hesaplanmıştır. Volkanik merkez- lerden çıkan alkali bazaltik lavların hacmi ise en az 2,3 km3 olup, tüm ürünlerin toplam hacmi ~5,9 km3 civarındadır. B-II ve B-III cüruf konileri arasındaki morfolojik değişim aşınma oranına bağlıdır.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Jeoloji

Volkanları, Batı Anadolu Volcanological Characteristics of Alkaline Basalt and Pyroclastic Deposits, Kula Volcanoes, Western Anatolia

Öz:
ABSTRACT Kula Volcanic Field (KVF) is situated in Selendi Basin between Gediz and Simav Grabens in Western Anatolia. The evolutionary stages of Kula volcanism have been identified as: First stage (B-I, 1,94 ± 0,16 - 0,99 ± 0,11 ma) com- mences with weak pyroclastic explosions producing scoria ash fall deposits with an average thickness of 40-50 cm, and followed by lava flows forming plateau basalts with well-developed columnar joints. Monogenetic volcanism begins with the second stage (B-II, 300 ± 3 - 50 ± 9 ka) and accompanied with the most voluminous lavas of Kula volcanism. The last stage products of the KVF (B-III, 25 ± 7 - 4 ± 2 ka) are a a type basaltic lava flows and char- acterized by rough and sharp edged blocks, vesiculated and broken surfaces, but with dense interior of columnar joint structures. The KVF consists of 80 cinder cones, 5 maars, 8 spatter cones and 6 tumuli. The volcanic products of KVF are alkaline in character and classified as basanite and phonotephrite according to chemical compositions. The dominant mineralogical assemblage in basaltic lavas is comprised of clinopyroxene, olivine, hornblende (for B-II and B-III stage), plagioclase and feldspathoids. The volume of the pyroclastic deposits is estimated by detailed morphological investigations in the field as well as by using the topographic maps. Cinder cones have a median basal diameter (Wco) of 556 m, a median height (Hco) of 45 m, and a median volume (VC) of 5.4*106 m3. The total erupted volume (VT) is estimated as 3.25 km3 DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent). Basal diameter / cone height values (Wco/Hco) and slope angles (θ) of the cones range between 3-39 and 2.3° and 45°, respectively. Mean diameter / depth (Do/d) of maars changes between 8 and 40. The total ejecta volume (VE) and total juvenile component volume (VJ) are estimated to be 0.36 km3 (DRE) and 0.34 km3 (DRE), respectively. The effusive activity from vents produced at least 2.3 km3 of basaltic lava flows. The total volume of all volcanic products is ~5.9 km3. The morpho- logical variance of cinder cones between B-II and B-III is due to the degradation rate.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Jeoloji
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
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APA Sen E, AYDAR E, BAYHAN H, GOURDAUD A (2014). Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. , 219 - 252.
Chicago Sen Erdal,AYDAR ERKAN,BAYHAN Hasan,GOURDAUD ALAIN Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. (2014): 219 - 252.
MLA Sen Erdal,AYDAR ERKAN,BAYHAN Hasan,GOURDAUD ALAIN Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. , 2014, ss.219 - 252.
AMA Sen E,AYDAR E,BAYHAN H,GOURDAUD A Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. . 2014; 219 - 252.
Vancouver Sen E,AYDAR E,BAYHAN H,GOURDAUD A Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. . 2014; 219 - 252.
IEEE Sen E,AYDAR E,BAYHAN H,GOURDAUD A "Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu." , ss.219 - 252, 2014.
ISNAD Sen, Erdal vd. "Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu". (2014), 219-252.
APA Sen E, AYDAR E, BAYHAN H, GOURDAUD A (2014). Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. Yerbilimleri, 35(3), 219 - 252.
Chicago Sen Erdal,AYDAR ERKAN,BAYHAN Hasan,GOURDAUD ALAIN Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. Yerbilimleri 35, no.3 (2014): 219 - 252.
MLA Sen Erdal,AYDAR ERKAN,BAYHAN Hasan,GOURDAUD ALAIN Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. Yerbilimleri, vol.35, no.3, 2014, ss.219 - 252.
AMA Sen E,AYDAR E,BAYHAN H,GOURDAUD A Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. Yerbilimleri. 2014; 35(3): 219 - 252.
Vancouver Sen E,AYDAR E,BAYHAN H,GOURDAUD A Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu. Yerbilimleri. 2014; 35(3): 219 - 252.
IEEE Sen E,AYDAR E,BAYHAN H,GOURDAUD A "Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu." Yerbilimleri, 35, ss.219 - 252, 2014.
ISNAD Sen, Erdal vd. "Alkali Bazalt ve Piroklastik Çökellerin Volkanolojik Özellikleri, Kula Volkanları, Batı Anadolu". Yerbilimleri 35/3 (2014), 219-252.