Yıl: 2014 Cilt: 39 Sayı: 5 Sayfa Aralığı: 299 - 306 Metin Dili: Türkçe

BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ

Öz:
Bitki doku kültürlerinden elde edilen ikincil metabolitler, insan sağlığı açısından önemlidirler. Bu nedenle, son on yılda ikincil metabolitlerin sentezlenmesi ve fermentörlerde üretimi üzerindeki çalışmalar hız kazanmıştır. İkincil metabolitler biyoaktif özellikleri olan bileşenlerdir. Özellikle tıp ve eczacılık alanlarında kullanılırlar. Gıda endüstrisinde ise katkı maddesi, fonksiyonel gıda bileşeni veya besin takviyesi açısından önemlidirler. İkincil metabolitlerin bitkiler tarafından üretilmesi meteorolojik koşullara, coğrafi konuma ve yetiştirme koşullarına bağlıdır ve pek çok bitki ancak belirli mevsimlerde yetişip olgunlaşabilir. Bitki yerine bitki hücrelerinin uygun koşullarda biyoreaktörlerde üretilmesi bitkisel unsurların doğanın sunduğu parametrelerden bağımsız üretimini sağlar. Dolayısıyla, ikincil metabolitlerin tam bitkiden bağımsız üretimi piyasaya arzda süreklilik sağlar, üretim verimini artırır ve ikincil metabolitler belirli spesifikasyonlara sahip endüstriyel ürünler niteliğine kavuşur. Bitkilerin totipotensi özelliği, bir bitki hücresinden organizmanın üretilebilmesine olanak sağlar. Bitki doku kültürleri hayvan dokularıyla karşılaştırıldığında totipotensi özelliğinden dolayı hedef alınan metabolitler daha çok ve daha hızlı üretilebilirler. Ancak, bitki doku kültürlerinin ikincil metabolit sentezlediği mekanizmalar tamamen bilinmemektedir. İkincil metabolit üretimi ile ilgili bilimsel çalışmaların çoğu laboratuar ölçeği ile sınırlı kalmıştır. Biyoreaktörlerde bitki doku kültürlerinden ikincil metabolit üretimi tarıma dayalı endüstrinin katma değer açısından çok önemli bir unsuru olmaya adaydır. Burada, bu konuda bilimsel çalışma yapmayı hedeşeyenler için bitki doku kültürlerinin gelişim ve ikincil metabolizmalarını etkileyen unsurlarla bitki doku hücrelerinde ikincil metabolizmayı etkileyen stres mekanizmaları ve stres sonucu bitki doku kültürünün uğradığı değişimler özetlenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelime:

SECONDARY METABOLITE SYNTHESIS IN PLANT TISSUE CULTURES

Öz:
Synthesis and manufacture of secondary metabolites have gained popularity due to their importance to human health. Secondary metabolites are known to have bioactive properties, and they are widely used in medical treatments, and thus are important in the pharmaceutical industry. Secondary metabolites are also used as food ingredients, functional food components and food additives. Plant tissue cultures allow manufacture of continuous, standardized production of secondary metabolites independent of seasonal variations, geographic position, atmospheric and soil growth conditions. Secondary metabolite production from plant tissues is faster and with higher yields compared to the animal tissues due to totipotency of plants which allows the plant cell to produce the organism itself. However, secondary metabolite syntheses mechanisms in plant tissue cultures are not well-understood, and in most cases, research on plant tissue cultures is limited to laboratory-scale in vitro studies. The present work is a review of the growth conditions, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, the stress mechanisms that induce secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plant tissue cultures, and the changes that occur in these cultures upon application of stress.
Anahtar Kelime:

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
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APA GÜVEN A, GÜRSUL I (2014). BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. , 299 - 306.
Chicago GÜVEN ALPER,GÜRSUL Işıl BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. (2014): 299 - 306.
MLA GÜVEN ALPER,GÜRSUL Işıl BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. , 2014, ss.299 - 306.
AMA GÜVEN A,GÜRSUL I BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. . 2014; 299 - 306.
Vancouver GÜVEN A,GÜRSUL I BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. . 2014; 299 - 306.
IEEE GÜVEN A,GÜRSUL I "BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ." , ss.299 - 306, 2014.
ISNAD GÜVEN, ALPER - GÜRSUL, Işıl. "BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ". (2014), 299-306.
APA GÜVEN A, GÜRSUL I (2014). BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. GIDA, 39(5), 299 - 306.
Chicago GÜVEN ALPER,GÜRSUL Işıl BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. GIDA 39, no.5 (2014): 299 - 306.
MLA GÜVEN ALPER,GÜRSUL Işıl BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. GIDA, vol.39, no.5, 2014, ss.299 - 306.
AMA GÜVEN A,GÜRSUL I BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. GIDA. 2014; 39(5): 299 - 306.
Vancouver GÜVEN A,GÜRSUL I BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ. GIDA. 2014; 39(5): 299 - 306.
IEEE GÜVEN A,GÜRSUL I "BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ." GIDA, 39, ss.299 - 306, 2014.
ISNAD GÜVEN, ALPER - GÜRSUL, Işıl. "BİTKİ DOKU KÜLTÜRLERİNDE SEKONDER METABOLİT SENTEZİ". GIDA 39/5 (2014), 299-306.