Yıl: 2017 Cilt: 17 Sayı: 3 Sayfa Aralığı: 531 - 542 Metin Dili: Türkçe

An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?

Öz:
Çalışmanın amacı: Heidemann tarafından 1910 yılında Kuzey Amerika'da ilk kez tanımlanan Leptoglossus occidentalis İkinci Dünya Savaşından sonra hızlı bir şekilde yayılmaya başlamış, Avrupa'da ilk kez 1999 yılında görülmesine rağmen on yıl içerisinde tüm kıtayı sarmıştır. Tohumu yenen değerli bir tür olması itibarıyla Ülkemizdeki ilk zarar gözlemleri İzmir-Kozak Havzasında fıstıkçamlarında görülmüş, 2005 yılında başlayan tohum verimindeki azalma, 2009 yılında zirve noktasına ulaşmıştır. İlk dönemde görülen erken dökülmeler ve kozalaklardaki dolu tohum oranları bazen % 90'lara varan oranlara ulaşmıştır. Erken dönem kozalak dökümüne neden olması ve olgunlaşan kozalakların endosperm kısımlarına zarar vermesi nedeniyle tohum oluşumunu ve tohumun çimlenmesini önemli ölçüde azaltmaktadır. Ormancılık çalışmaları açısında irdelendiğinde; böcek zararı nedeniyle tohum kaynağındaki azalmalar ormanlarımızdaki doğal gençleştirme çalışmalarını olumsuz etkileyecek, çalışmaların başarısızlıkla sonuçlanmasına neden olabilecektir. Çalışmada, ülkemizdeki fıstıkçamı meşcerelerinden kozalak örnekleri alınarak böceğin meydana getirdiği zarar şiddetinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma alanı: Türkiye'de fıstıkçamı alanlarından doğal ya da plantasyon ayrımı yapılmaksızın, yükselti ve bakı farkı gözetilmeksizin 42 lokaliteden olgun fıstıkçamı kozalakları toplanmıştır. Materyal ve Yöntem: Kozalakların ağırlık ve en-boy ölçüleri alınmış, iklim dolabında 55 0C'de tohumlar çıkarılarak L. occidentalis'in fıstıkçamı tohumlarında meydana getirdiği zararlar ve iç fıstık randımanları belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar: Fıstıkçamı kozalaklarında boş tohum oluşumu yörelere göre % 14 ile % 98 arasında değişmektedir. Boş tohum oluşumu bakımından doğal veya plantasyon ormanlarında arasında fark görülmemektedir. Araştırma vurguları: Ormancılık faaliyetlerimizi teknik ve mali olarak etkileme potansiyeli yüksek olan bu böceğe karşı acilen mücadele stratejileri geliştirilmelidir
Anahtar Kelime:

İstilacı bir tür: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) ormancılık faaliyetlerini nasıl etkiler?

Öz:
Aim of study: Leptoglossus occidentalis which is first identified by Heidemann at North America in 1910 spread quickly after WW II. Although it was first seen in 1999 in Europe has swept the continent in 10 years. First damage observation in Turkey reported in Kozak Basin of Bergama on cones of stone pine trees which has valuable edible seeds. The seed yield loss started in 2005 and reached to a peak in 2009. In addition to high early age conelet loss, rate of emptiness of cones has sometimes reached to 90 %. The bug causes decrement in seed formation and seed germination ability significantly by causing early stage conelet loss and destroying endosperm parts of mature cones. In respect of forestry activities decrement of seed resources caused due to bug damage will have negative impact on natural regeneration activities in Turkey and probably will end in failure. In this study, it was aimed to determine the severity of damage caused by the collecting of cone samples from the stone pine forests in our country. Area of study: Without making any discrimination either planted or natural or any altitude or any aspect, stone pine cones have been collected from 42 localities which are distributed all around Turkey. Material and Methods: Weight and size of cones have been measured and seeds extracted by holding at 55 C in climate cabinet, then damage on seeds of L. occidentalis and unshelled seed yield determined. Main results: Empty seed formation in stone pine cones varies between %14 and 98%, depending on the region. There is no difference between natural or plantation forests in terms of empty seed formation. Research highlights: All necessary control strategies should be developed against this bug which has high potential as technic and cost for affecting forestry
Anahtar Kelime:

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APA PARLAK S (2017). An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(3), 531 - 542.
Chicago PARLAK SALİH An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 17, no.3 (2017): 531 - 542.
MLA PARLAK SALİH An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.17, no.3, 2017, ss.531 - 542.
AMA PARLAK S An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi. 2017; 17(3): 531 - 542.
Vancouver PARLAK S An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi. 2017; 17(3): 531 - 542.
IEEE PARLAK S "An invasive species: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) how does it affect forestry activities?." Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 17, ss.531 - 542, 2017.