Yıl: 2018 Cilt: 24 Sayı: 3 Sayfa Aralığı: 216 - 225 Metin Dili: İngilizce İndeks Tarihi: 14-06-2019

The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood

Öz:
Epilepsy is an important health issue. The interest in ketogenic diet (KD) treatment in children and adolescents with drug-resistant epilepsy has increased in recent years. It was thought that KD was a last option of treatment in patients who were unresponsive to 2 or 3 anticonvulsant drugs. KD with limited protein, low carbohydrate, and high fat content was thought as a last option of treatment, previously. However, nowadays it is the most selected therapy worldwide in epileptic children and adolescents. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood due to low carbohydrate and high lipid content of KD. Through the elevation of ketone bodies, the brain uses ketone bodies as energy sources, which results in decreased in epileptic seizures. Medical nutritional therapy during treatment of childhood epilepsies should also provide normal growth and development. For this reason, full compliance with the diet is important. The effect, place, and importance of ketogenic nutrition therapy in drug-resistant epilepsies of childhood are discussed in this review.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Nörolojik Bilimler

Çocukluk Çağı Dirençli Epilepsilerinde Ketojenik Diyet Uygulamalarının Etkisi

Öz:
Epilepsi önemli bir sağlık sorunudur. Son yıllarda dirençli epileptik çocuk ve adölesanlarda ketojenik diyet (KD) uygulamalarına olan ilgi giderek artmaktadır. KD 2-3 çeşit antikonvülzan ilaçla nöbet kontrolü sağlanamadığı durumlarda son çare tedavi yöntemi olarak düşünülmektedir. Proteinden sınırlı, düşük karbonhidrat ve yüksek yağ içeriğine sahip KD uygulamaları daha önceleri son çare olarak uygulanırken günümüzde sıklıkla kullanılan bir tedavi haline gelmiştir. Diyetteki karbonhidrat içeriğinin düşük ve yağ içeriğinin yüksek olması nedeniyle kanda keton cisimlerinin artışı söz konusudur. Keton cisimlerinin artışıyla beyin keton cisimlerini enerji kaynağı olarak kullanmakta ve epileptik nöbetlerde azalma görülmektedir. Çocukluk döneminde epilepsi tedavisi süresince yapılan beslenme tedavisi normal büyüme ve gelişmeyi sağlamalıdır. Bunun için de diyete uyumun tam olması oldukça önemlidir. Bu derlemede çocukluk çağı dirençli epilepsilerinde KD’nin etkisi, yeri ve önemi irdelenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Nörolojik Bilimler
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • Franzon RC, Montenegro MA, Guimarães CA, Guerreiro CA, Cendes F, Guerreiro MM. Clinical, electroencephalographic, ad behavioral features of temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood. J Child Neurol 2004;19:418-423.
  • Kossoff EH, Zupec-Kania BA, Amark PE, et al. Optimal clinical management of children receiving the ketogenic diet: recommendations of the International Ketogenic Diet Study Group. Epilepsia 2009;50:304-317.
  • Bailey EE, Pfeifer HH, Thiele EA. The use of diet in the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2005;6:4-8.
  • Sharma S, Jain P. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2014;17:253-258.
  • Kossoff EH, Zupec-Kania BA, Rho JM. Ketogenic diets: an update for child neurologists. J Child Neurol 2009;24:979-988.
  • Shaw V, Lawson M. Clinical Paediatric Dietetics. 3rd ed. British Journal of Nutrition. pp. 604;2007. Available from: https:// www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/ view/3A4DB36B5217C01C4FDAFD04971C0C9E/S0007114507871698a. pdf/div-class-title-target-target-shaw-v-and-lawson-m-editors-span-classitalic- clinical-paediatric-dietetics-span-3rd-ed-oxford-blackwell-publishing- -2007-59-50-hardback-pp-604-isbn-
  • Bough KJ, Rho JM. Anticonvulsant mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2007;48:43-58.
  • Masino SA, Rho JM. Mechanisms of ketogenic diet action. 4th ed. Bethesda. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US), 2012.
  • Rubenstein JE, Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Vining EP, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. Experience in the use of the ketogenic diet as early therapy. J Child Neurol 2005;20:31-34.
  • Dhamija R, Eckert S, Wirrell E. Ketogenic diet. Can J Neurol Sci 2013;40:158- 167.
  • Thavendiranathan P, Mendonca A, Dell C, et al. The MCT ketogenic diet: effects on animal seizure models. Exp Neurol 2000;161:696-703.
  • Dutton SB, Sawyer NT, Kalume F, et al. Protective effect of the ketogenic diet in Scn1a mutant mice. Epilepsia 2011;52:2050-2056.
  • Bough KJ, Yao SG, Eagles DA. Higher ketogenic diet ratios confer protection from seizures without neurotoxicity. Epilepsy Res 2000;38:15-25.
  • Chen W, Kossoff EH. Long-term follow-up of children treated with the modified Atkins diet. J Child Neurol 2012;27:754-758.
  • Pfeifer HH, Lyczkowski DA, Thiele EA. Low glycemic index treatment: implementation and new insights into efficacy. Epilepsia 2008;49(Suppl 8):42-45.
  • Coppola G, Veggiotti P, Cusmai R, et al. The ketogenic diet in children, adolescents and young adults with refractory epilepsy: an Italian multicentric experience. Epilepsy Res 2002;48:221-227.
  • Klein P, Janousek J, Barber A, Weissberger R. Ketogenic diet treatment in adults with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2010;19:575-579.
  • Taha AY, Ryan MA, Cunnane SC. Despite transient ketosis, the classic highfat ketogenic diet induces marked changes in fatty acid metabolism in rats. Metabolism 2005;54:1127-1132.
  • Bromfield E, Dworetzky B, Hurwitz S, et al. A randomized trial of polyunsaturated fatty acids for refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2008;12:187-190.
  • Auvin S. Fatty acid oxidation and epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2012;100:224-228.
  • DeGiorgio CM, Miller P, Meymandi S, Gornbein JA. n-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for epilepsy, cardiac risk factors, and risk of SUDEP: clues from a pilot, doubleblind, exploratory study. Epilepsy Behav 2008;13:681-684.
  • Sullivan PG, Rippy NA, Dorenbos K, Concepcion RC, Agarwal AK, Rho JM. The ketogenic diet increases mitochondrial uncoupling protein levels and activity. Ann Neurol 2004;55:576-580.
  • Chmiel-Perzyńska I, Kloc R, Perzyński A, Rudzki S, Urbańska EM. Novel aspect of ketone action: β-hydroxybutyrate increases brain synthesis of kynurenic acid in vitro. Neurotox Res 2011;20:40-50.
  • Lefevre F, Aronson N. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children: A systematic review of efficacy. Pediatrics 2000;105:46.
  • Levy RG, Cooper PN, Giri P, Weston J. Ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for epilepsy. The Cochrane Library 2012.
  • Keene DL. A Systematic Review of the Use of the Ketogenic Diet in Childhood Epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol 2006;35:1-5.
  • Henderson CB, Filloux FM, Alder SC, Lyon JL, Caplin DA. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy: meta-analysis. J Child Neurol 2006;21:193-198.
  • Neal EG, Chaffe H, Schwartz RH, et al. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:500- 506.
  • Neal EG, Chaffe H, Schwartz RH, et al. A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia 2009;50:1109-1117.
  • Kossoff EH, Turner Z, Bluml RM, Pyzik PL, Vining EP. A randomized, crossover comparison of daily carbohydrate limits using the modified Atkins diet. Epilepsy Behav 2007;10:432-436.
  • Seo JH, Lee YM, Lee JS, Kang HC, Kim HD. Efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet according to lipid: nonlipid ratios--comparison of 3: 1 with 4:1 diet. Epilepsia 2007;48:801-805.
  • Suo C, Liao J, Lu X, et al. Efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet in Chinese children. Seizure 2013;22:174-178.
  • Sharma S, Gulati S, Kalra V, Agarwala A, Kabra M. Seizure control and biochemical profile on the ketogenic diet in young children with refractory epilepsy--Indian experience. Seizure 2009;18:446-449.
  • Thammongkol S, Vears DF, Bicknell-Royle J, et al. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet: which epilepsies respond? Epilepsia 2012;53:55-59.
  • Caraballo RH, Flesler S, Armeno M, et al. Ketogenic diet in pediatric patients with refractory focal status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 2014;108:1912-1916.
  • Dressler A, Trimmel-Schwahofer P, Reithofer E, et al. The ketogenic diet in infants--Advantages of early use. Epilepsy Res 2015;116:53-58.
  • Caraballo R, Vaccarezza M, Cersósimo R, et al. Long-term follow-up of the ketogenic diet for refractory epilepsy: Multicenter Argentinean experience in 216 pediatric patients. Seizure 2011;20:640-645.
  • Hartman AL, Vining EP. Clinical aspects of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2007;48:31-42.
  • Kossoff EH. More fat and fewer seizures: dietary therapies for epilepsy. Lancet Neurol 2004;3:415-420.
  • Bergqvist AG, Schall JI, Gallagher PR, Cnaan A, Stallings VA. Fasting versus gradual initiation of the ketogenic diet: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of efficacy. Epilepsia 2005;46:1810-1819.
  • Freeman J, Veggiotti P, Lanzi G, Tagliabue A, Perucca E; Institute of Neurology IRCCS C. Mondino Foundation. The ketogenic diet: From molecular mechanisms to clinical effects. Epilepsy Res 2006;68:145-180.
  • Hartman AL, Rubenstein JE, Kossoff EH. Intermittent fasting: a “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures? Epilepsy Res 2013;104:275- 279.
  • Stafstrom CE, Rho J. Epilepsy and the ketogenic diet. Springer Science & Business Media, 2004.
  • Wirrell EC. Ketogenic ratio, calories, and fluids: do they matter? Epilepsia 2008;49(Suppl 8):17-19.
  • Raju KN, Gulati S, Kabra M, et al. Efficacy of 4:1 (classic) versus 2.5:1 ketogenic ratio diets in refractory epilepsy in young children: A randomized open labeled study. Epilepsy Res 2011;96:96-100.
  • Nylen K, Likhodii S, Abdelmalik PA, Clarke J, Burnham WM. A comparison of the ability of a 4:1 ketogenic diet and a 6.3:1 ketogenic diet to elevate seizure thresholds in adult and young rats. Epilepsia 2005;46:1198-1204.
  • Huttenlocher PR. Ketonemia and seizures: metabolic and anticonvulsant effects of two ketogenic diets in childhood epilepsy. Pediatric Res 1976;10:536- 540.
  • Liu YM, Wang HS. Medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet, an effective treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy and a comparison with other ketogenic diets. Biomed J 2013;36:9-15.
  • Miranda MJ, Turner Z, Magrath G. Alternative diets to the classical ketogenic diet--Can we be more liberal? Epilepsy Res 2012;100:278-285.
  • Stafstrom CE. Dietary approaches to epilepsy treatment: old and new options on the menu. Epilepsy Curr 2004;4:215-222.
  • Neal EG, Cross JH. Efficacy of dietary treatments for epilepsy. J Human Nutr Diet 2010;23:113-119.
  • Chomtho K, Suteerojntrakool O, Chomtho S. Effectiveness of Medium Chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet in Thai Children with Intractable Epilepsy. J Med Assoc Thai 2016;99:159-165.
  • Liu YM. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic therapy. Epilepsia 2008;49(Suppl 8):33-36.
  • Kumada T, Miyajima T, Oda N, Shimomura H, Saito K, Fujii T. Efficacy and tolerability of modified Atkins diet in Japanese children with medicationresistant epilepsy. Brain Dev 2012;34:32-38.
  • Sharma S, Jain P. The modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy Res Treat 2014;404202:1-6.
  • Kossoff EH, Dorward JL. The modified Atkins diet. Epilepsia 2008;49(Suppl 8):37-41.
  • Kossoff EH, McGrogan JR, Bluml RM, Pillas DJ, Rubenstein JE, Vining EP. A modified Atkins diet is effective for the treatment of intractable pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsia 2006;47:421-424.
  • Kossoff EH, Dorward JL, Turner Z, Pyzik PL. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month. J Child Neurol 2011;26:147-151.
  • Kossoff EH, Rowley H, Sinha SR, Vining EP. A prospective study of the modified Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy in adults. Epilepsia 2008;49:316- 319.
  • Bell SJ, Sears B. Low-glycemic-load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2003;43:357-377.
  • Muzykewicz DA, Lyczkowski DA, Memon N, Conant KD, Pfeifer HH, Thiele EA. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the low glycemic index treatment in pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsia 2009;50:1118-1126.
  • Bergqvist AG, Schall JI, Stallings VA. Vitamin D status in children with intractable epilepsy, and impact of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2007;48:66- 71.
  • Berry-Kravis E, Booth G, Sanchez AC, Woodbury‐Kolb J. Carnitine levels and the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2001;42:1445-1451.
  • 64. Peterson SJ, Tangney CC, Pimentel-Zablah EM, Hjelmgren B, Booth G, Berry-Kravis E. Changes in growth and seizure reduction in children on the ketogenic diet as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:718-725.
  • Nation J, Humphrey M, MacKay M, Boneh A. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter? J Child Neurol 2014;29:1496-1501.
  • Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Furth SL, Hladky HD, Freeman JM, Vining EP. Kidney Stones, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors,and the Ketogenic Diet. Epilepsia 2002;43:1168-1171.
  • Sampath A, Kossoff EH, Furth SL, Pyzik PL, Vining EP. Kidney Stones and the Ketogenic Diet:Risk Factors and Prevention. J Child Neurol 2007;22:375-378.
  • 68. Kwiterovich PO Jr, Vining EP, Pyzik P, Skolasky R Jr, Freeman JM. Effect of a high-fat ketogenic diet on plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in children. JAMA 2003;290:912-920.
  • Liu YM, Lowe H, Zak MM, Kobayashi J, Chan VW, Donner EJ. Can children with hyperlipidemia receive ketogenic diet for medication-resistant epilepsy? J Child Neurol 2013;28:479-483.
  • Bergqvist AG. Long-term monitoring of the ketogenic diet: Do’s and Don’ts. Epilepsy Res 2012;100:261-266.
  • Barañano KW, Hartman AL. The ketogenic diet: uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2008;10:410-419.
  • Kossoff EH, Hartman AL. Ketogenic diets: new advances for metabolismbased therapies. Curr Opin Neurol 2012;25:173-178.
  • Freeman JM, Kossoff EH, Hartman AL. The ketogenic diet: one decade later. Pediatrics 2007;119:535-543.
  • Polsky D, Weiner J, Bale JF Jr, Ashwal S, Painter MJ. Specialty care by child neurologists A workforce analysis. Neurology 2005;64:942-948.
APA ÖZATA UYAR G, Sanlier N (2018). The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. , 216 - 225.
Chicago ÖZATA UYAR GİZEM,Sanlier Nevin The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. (2018): 216 - 225.
MLA ÖZATA UYAR GİZEM,Sanlier Nevin The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. , 2018, ss.216 - 225.
AMA ÖZATA UYAR G,Sanlier N The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. . 2018; 216 - 225.
Vancouver ÖZATA UYAR G,Sanlier N The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. . 2018; 216 - 225.
IEEE ÖZATA UYAR G,Sanlier N "The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood." , ss.216 - 225, 2018.
ISNAD ÖZATA UYAR, GİZEM - Sanlier, Nevin. "The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood". (2018), 216-225.
APA ÖZATA UYAR G, Sanlier N (2018). The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. Türk Nöroloji Dergisi, 24(3), 216 - 225.
Chicago ÖZATA UYAR GİZEM,Sanlier Nevin The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. Türk Nöroloji Dergisi 24, no.3 (2018): 216 - 225.
MLA ÖZATA UYAR GİZEM,Sanlier Nevin The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. Türk Nöroloji Dergisi, vol.24, no.3, 2018, ss.216 - 225.
AMA ÖZATA UYAR G,Sanlier N The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. Türk Nöroloji Dergisi. 2018; 24(3): 216 - 225.
Vancouver ÖZATA UYAR G,Sanlier N The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood. Türk Nöroloji Dergisi. 2018; 24(3): 216 - 225.
IEEE ÖZATA UYAR G,Sanlier N "The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood." Türk Nöroloji Dergisi, 24, ss.216 - 225, 2018.
ISNAD ÖZATA UYAR, GİZEM - Sanlier, Nevin. "The Effect of Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Drug-resistant Epilepsies of Childhood". Türk Nöroloji Dergisi 24/3 (2018), 216-225.