Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level

Yıl: 2019 Cilt: 34 Sayı: 1 Sayfa Aralığı: 145 - 159 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544 İndeks Tarihi: 13-04-2020

Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level

Öz:
Teacher cognition and teacher action are two interrelated concepts of teaching and thus ought to be studied together in-depth to understand the nature of teaching and its effect on educational achievement. Examining the relationship between language teachers’ cognitions and their actions has the potential to inform and guide current and future instructional practices in language teaching settings. From this point forth, this correlational study aims to answer in what way language teachers’ language learning cognitions may predict their language teaching practices. The data were collected from 606 instructors teaching English in various higher education institutions in Turkey by means of a cross-sectional inventory and then analyzed primarily through canonical correlation analysis. During the data analysis process, multivariate normality; linearity (among variables and linear composites); homoscedasticity; and multicollinearity were also evaluated. The general results indicated that the participants having competence-oriented approaches and executive learner preferences would exhibit adherence to traditional (conservative) pedagogy, but divergence from communicative practices in instructional planning and error correction. Similarly, the participants disfavoring legislative learners would tend to diverge from communicative practices in instructional planning and error correction; on the contrary they would reflect a tendency towards traditional (conservative) pedagogy.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları

Yabancı Dil Öğretmenlerinin Bilişleri ile Eylemleri Arasındaki İlişkiler: Üniversite Öğretim Elemanlarından Bulgular

Öz:
Öğretmen bilişi ve öğretmen eylemi, öğretimin birbiriyle ilişkili iki temel kavramıdır ve bu nedenle öğretimin doğasını ve başarı üzerindeki etkisini anlayabilmek için birlikte ve derinlemesine incelenmeleri gerekir. Dil öğretmenlerinin bilişleri ve eylemleri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek, dilin öğretildiği ortamlarda yürütülen mevcut ve gelecekteki uygulamaları bilgilendirme ve yönlendirme potansiyelini taşır. Bu noktadan hareketle, bu ilişkisel çalışma, dil öğretmenlerinin dil öğrenmeye dair bilişlerinin dil öğretim uygulamalarını hangi biçimlerde yordayabileceğini araştırmayı amaçlamıştır. Veriler, Türkiye’nin çeşitli yükseköğretim kurumlarında görevli 606 öğretim elemanından, kesitsel tarama envanteri kullanılarak toplanmış, kanonik korelasyon yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizi aşamasında çok değişkenli normallik, doğrusallık (değişkenler ve doğrusal bileşenler arasında), eş varyanslık ve çoklu doğrusal bağlantı boyutları da test edilmiştir. Çalışmanın genel sonuçları, dil öğrenmede öncelikler konusunda edinç odaklı bir yaklaşım benimseyen ve önceden belirlenmiş kuralları söylendiği gibi uygulayan yürütücü öğrencileri tercih eden katılımcıların, geleneksel eğitim anlayışına daha yatkın olabileceğini ve öğretimi planlama ve yanlış düzeltme konusunda iletişimsel uygulamalardan uzaklaşabileceğini ortaya koymuştur. Benzer şekilde, kendi önceliklerine karar verebilen kural koyucu öğrencileri tercih etmeyen katılımcıların da öğretimi planlama ve yanlış düzeltme konusunda iletişimsel uygulamalardan uzaklaşabileceği ve geleneksel eğitim anlayışına daha yatkın olabileceği gözlenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
1
3
1
  • Andrews, S. (2003). Teacher language awareness and the professional knowledge base of the L2 teacher. Language Awareness, 12(2), 81-95.
  • Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81-109.
  • Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London: Continuum. Burns, A., Freeman, D., Edwards, E. (2015). Theorizing and studying the language-teaching mind: Mapping research on language teacher cognition. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 585-601.
  • Burns, A., & Knox, J. (2005). Realisation(s): Systemic-functional linguistics and the language classroom. In N. Bartels (Ed.), Applied linguistics and language teacher education (pp. 235-259). New York: Springer.
  • Chan, Y. (2008). Elementary school EFL teachers’ beliefs and practices of multiple assessments. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 7(1), 37-62.
  • Choi, J. (2008). Teacher-learners’ beliefs about proficiency goals and teaching methods for Korean secondary English education. English Teaching, 63(1), 3-27.
  • Crookes, G. (2015). Redrawing the boundaries on theory, research, and practice concerning language teachers’ philosophies and language teacher cognition: Toward a critical perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 485–499.
  • Davis, M. M., Konopak, B. C., & Readence, J. E. (1993). An investigation of two chapter in teachers’ beliefs about reading and instructional practices. Reading Research and Instruction, 33(2), 105-118.
  • Ezzi, N. A. A. (2012). Yemeni teachers’ beliefs of grammar teaching and classroom practices. English Language Teaching, 5(8), 170-184.
  • Farrell, T. S. C., & Kun, S. T. K. (2007). Language policy, language teachers’ beliefs, and classroom practices. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 381-403.
  • Farrell, T. S. C., & Lim, P. C. P. (2005). Conceptions of grammar teaching: A case study of teachers’ beliefs and classroom practices. TESL-EJ, 9(2), 1-13.
  • Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage
  • Flores, B. B. (2001). Bilingual education teachers’ beliefs and their relation to self-reported practices. Bilingual Research Journal, 25(3), 251-275.
  • Gabillon, Z. (2012). Discrepancies between L2 teacher and L2 learner beliefs. English Language Teaching, 5(12), 94- 99.
  • Golombek, P. R. (2015). Redrawing the boundaries of language teacher cognition: Language teacher educators’ emotion, cognition, and activity. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 470–484.
  • Graden, E. C. (1996). How language teachers’ beliefs about reading are mediated by their beliefs about students. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 387-395.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333-340.
  • Johnson, K.E. (1992). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices during literacy instruction for nonnative speakers of English. Journal of Reading Behaviour, 14(1), 83-108.
  • Johnson, K.E., (1994). The emerging beliefs and instructional practices of pre-service ESL teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(4), 439-452.
  • Johnson, K.E. (2015). Reclaiming the relevance of L2 teacher education. The Modern Language Journal. 99(3), 515- 528.
  • Johnston, B., & Goettsch, K. (2000). In search of the knowledge base of language teaching: Explanations by experienced teachers. Canadian Modern Language Review, 56(3), 437-468.
  • Kagan, D. (1992). Implications of research on teacher beliefs. Educational Psychologist, 27, 65-90.
  • Karavas-Doukas, E. (1996). Using attitude scales to investigate teachers’ attitudes to the communicative approach. ELT Journal, 50(3), 187-198.
  • Khonamri, F., & Salimi, M. (2010). The interplay between EFL high school teachers’ beliefs and their instructional practices regarding reading strategies. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 4(1), 96-107.
  • Kubanyiova, M. (2012). Teacher development in action: Understanding language teachers’ conceptual change. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Kubanyiova, M. (2015). The role of teachers’ future self guides in creating L2 development opportunities in teacherled classroom discourse: Reclaiming the relevance of language teacher cognition. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 565-584.
  • Kubanyiova, M., & Feryok, A. (2015). Language teacher cognition in applied linguistics research: Revisiting the territory, redrawing the boundaries, reclaiming the relevance. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 435-449.
  • Kuzborska, I. (2011). Links between teachers’ beliefs and practices and research on reading. Reading In A Foreign Language, 23(1), 102-128.
  • Lau, K. (2007). Chinese language teachers’ orientation to reading instruction and their instructional practices. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(4), 414-428.
  • Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation (2nd ed.). Mahwah, New Jersey, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publishers.
  • Mitchell, R., Brumfit, C., & Hooper, J. (1994a). Perceptions of language and language learning in English and foreign language classrooms. In M. Hughes (Ed.), Perceptions of teaching and learning (pp. 53-65). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Mitchell, R., Brumfit, C., & Hooper, J. (1994b). Knowledge about language: Policy, rationales and practices. Research Papers in Education, 9(2), 183-205.
  • Moodie, I. A. N., & Feryok, A. (2015). Beyond cognition to commitment: English language teaching in South Korean primary schools. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 450-469.
  • Ng, J., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2003). Do teachers’ beliefs of grammar teaching match their classroom practices? A Singapore case study. In D. Deterding, A. Brown & E. L. Low (Eds.), English in Singapore: Research on grammar (pp. 128-137). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
  • Numrich, C. (1996). On becoming a language teacher: Insights from diary studies. TESOL Quarterly, 30(1), 131-149.
  • Olson, J. R., & Singer, M. (1994). Examining teacher beliefs, reflective change and the teaching of reading. Reading Research and Instruction, 34(2), 97-110.
  • Öztürk, M., & Yıldırım, A. (2015). English as a Foreign Language Instructors’ cognitions on language learning processes and factors affecting those cognitions. Education and Science, 40(182), 171-192.
  • Pennington, M. C., & Richards, J. C. (1997). Reorienting the teaching universe: The experience of five first-year English teachers in Hong Kong. Language Teaching Research, 1(2), 149-178.
  • Peterson, P. L., & Walberg H. J. (1979). (Eds.), Research on teaching: Concepts, findings, and implications. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
  • Richards, J. C., Gallo, P. B., & Renandya, W. A. (2001). Exploring teachers’ beliefs and the processes of change. The PAC Journal, 1(1), 43-64.
  • Richards, J.C., & Lockhart, C. (1996). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Richards, J. C., & Pennington, M. (1998). The first year of teaching. In J. C. Richards (Ed.), Beyond training (pp. 173-190). Cambridge: CUP.
  • Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J. Sikula, T. J. Buttery & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (2nd ed.) (pp. 102-119). New York: Macmillan.
  • Richardson, V., Anders, P., Tidwell, D., & Lloyd, C. (1991). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices in reading comprehension instruction. American Educational Research Journal, 28(3), 559-586.
  • Sato, K., & Kleinsasser, R. C. (1999). Communicative language teaching (CLT): Practical understandings. Modern Language Journal, 83(4), 494-517.
  • Smith, D.B. (1996). Teacher decision making in the adult ESL classroom. In D. Freeman & J.C. Richards. (Eds.), Teacher learning in language teaching (pp. 197-216). Cambridge: CUP.
  • Soontornwipast, K. (2010). EFL teachers’ beliefs about grammar and grammar teaching: A case study of a language institute at a Thai university. The International Journal of the Humanities, 8(8), 143-151.
  • Spada, N., & Massey, M. (1992). The role of prior pedagogical knowledge in determining the practice of novice ESL teachers. In J. Flowerdew, M. Brock & S. Hsia (Eds.), Perspectives on second language teacher education (pp. 23-37). Hong Kong: City Polytechnic.
  • Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1991). MSG Thinking Styles Inventory manual Unpublished test manual. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Thompson, A. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D. Grouws (ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 127-146). New York: Macmillan.
  • Verloop, N., Van Driel, J., & Meijer, P. C. (2001). Teacher knowledge and the knowledge base of teaching. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(5), 441-461.
  • Wilson, E. K., Konopak, B. C., & Readence, J. E. (1992). Examining content area and reading beliefs, decisions, and instruction: A case study of an English teacher. Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, 41, 475-482.
  • Woods, D. (1996). Teacher cognition in language teaching. Cambridge: CUP. Xu, L. (2012). The role of teachers’ beliefs in the language teaching-learning process. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7), 1397-1402.
  • Zacharias, N. T. (2005). Teachers’ beliefs about internationally-published materials: A survey of tertiary English teachers in Indonesia. RELC Journal, 36(1), 23-38.
  • Zheng, H. (2009). A review of research on EFL pre-service teachers’ beliefs and practices. Journal of Cambridge Studies, 4(1), 73-81.
APA ÖZTÜRK M, YILDIRIM A (2019). Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. , 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
Chicago ÖZTÜRK Mustafa,YILDIRIM ALİ Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. (2019): 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
MLA ÖZTÜRK Mustafa,YILDIRIM ALİ Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. , 2019, ss.145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
AMA ÖZTÜRK M,YILDIRIM A Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. . 2019; 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
Vancouver ÖZTÜRK M,YILDIRIM A Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. . 2019; 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
IEEE ÖZTÜRK M,YILDIRIM A "Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level." , ss.145 - 159, 2019. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
ISNAD ÖZTÜRK, Mustafa - YILDIRIM, ALİ. "Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level". (2019), 145-159. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
APA ÖZTÜRK M, YILDIRIM A (2019). Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 34(1), 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
Chicago ÖZTÜRK Mustafa,YILDIRIM ALİ Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 34, no.1 (2019): 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
MLA ÖZTÜRK Mustafa,YILDIRIM ALİ Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.34, no.1, 2019, ss.145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
AMA ÖZTÜRK M,YILDIRIM A Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 34(1): 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
Vancouver ÖZTÜRK M,YILDIRIM A Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 34(1): 145 - 159. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
IEEE ÖZTÜRK M,YILDIRIM A "Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level." Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 34, ss.145 - 159, 2019. 10.16986/HUJE.2018038544
ISNAD ÖZTÜRK, Mustafa - YILDIRIM, ALİ. "Relationships between Foreign Language Teachers’ Cognitions and Actions: Evidence from Instructors at Tertiary-level". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 34/1 (2019), 145-159. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2018038544