Yıl: 2021 Cilt: 49 Sayı: 2 Sayfa Aralığı: 97 - 105 Metin Dili: Türkçe DOI: 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476 İndeks Tarihi: 28-09-2021

Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü

Öz:
Obezite; vücutta anormal veya aşırı yağ birikimi olarak tanımlanır ve pandemik bir hastalık olarak kabul edilir. Birçokmetabolik hastalığın oluşmasına neden olan obezite, aynı zamanda ülkelerin sağlık maliyetlerini de ciddi düzeylerdeartırmaktadır. Bütüncül olarak yaklaşıldığında kalıcı tedavi çözümlerinin elzem olduğu görülmektedir. Tıbbi beslenmetedavisi, egzersiz ve davranış değişikliği kombinasyonunun en etkili tedavi yöntemi olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu yöntemlereek olarak omega-3 çoklu doymamış yağ asitlerinin vücut ağırlık kaybı üzerinde etkili olabileceği düşünülmektedir.Linoleik asit ve α-linolenik asit sentezi insan vücudunda gerçekleştirilemediği için besinler ile alınması gereklidir.Özellikle eikosapentaenoik asit (EPA) ve dokosaheksaenoik asit (DHA) gibi omega-3 çoklu doymamış yağ asitlerinin, farklımetabolik değişiklikler yoluyla vücut ağırlık kaybı üzerinde etkili olabileceği belirtilmektedir. Ancak, yapılan araştırmalarincelendiğinde omega-3 çoklu doymamış yağ asitlerinin bu etkileri belirsizliğini korumaktadır. Bu derleme yazının amacı;vücut ağırlık yönetiminde omega-3 çoklu doymamış yağ asitlerinin rolü ve önerilen etki mekanizmaları hakkında literatürdeyer alan güncel bilgilerin sunulmasıdır.
Anahtar Kelime:

The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Weight Management

Öz:
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in the body and is considered a pandemic disease. Obesity, which causes many metabolic diseases, also increases the health costs of countries seriously. It is seen that permanent treatment is essential when approached holistically. The combination of medical nutrition therapy, exercise, and behavior modification is known to be the most effective treatment method. In addition to these methods, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to be effective on weight loss. Since linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid synthesis cannot be performed in the human body, they must be provided with foods. In particular, it is suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may affect weight loss through different metabolic changes. However, these effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are still unclear when the researches are examined. The purpose of this review article is to present current information about the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in weight management and their proposed effect mechanisms in the literature.
Anahtar Kelime:

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • 1. Albracht-Schulte K, Kalupahana NS, Ramalingam L, Wang S, Rahman SM, Robert-McComb J, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in obesity and metabolic syndrome: A mechanistic update. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;58:1-16.
  • 2. World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity and overweight. Apr 1, 2020. Available at: https://www. who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-andoverweight. Accessed April 30, 2021.
  • 3. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Halk Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü. Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması (TBSA). T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın No: 1132, Ankara 2019. Erişim: https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/depo/birimler/sagliklibeslenme-hareketli-hayat-db/Yayinlar/kitaplar/TBSA_ RAPOR_KITAP_20.08.pdf Erişim tarihi: 8 Haziran 2021.
  • 4. Payahoo L, Ostadrahimi A, Farrin N, Khaje-Bishak Y. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and intake of energy and macronutrients in obese people: A randomized clinical trial. J Diet Suppl. 2018;15(5):596-9.
  • 5. Sala-Vila A, Guasch-Ferré M, Hu FB, Sánchez-Tainta A, Bulló M, Serra-Mir M, et al. Dietary α-linolenic acid, marine ω-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a population with high fish consumption: Findings from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(1):e002543.
  • 6. Razny U, Kiec-Wilk B, Polus A, Goralska J, MalczewskaMalec M, Wnek D, et al. Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: A randomized placebo controlled trial. BBA Clin. 2015;4:7-6.
  • 7. Thorsdottir I, Tomasson H, Gunnarsdottir I, Gisladottir E, Kiely M, Parra MD, et al. Randomized trial of weightloss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. Int J Obes. 2007;31(10):1560-6.
  • 8. Keshavarz SA, Mostafavi SA, Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Hosseini S, Eshraghian MR, et al. Omega-3 supplementation effects on body weight and depression among dieter women with co-morbidity of depression and obesity compared with the placebo: A randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018;25:37-6.
  • 9. DeFina LF, Marcoux LG, Devers SM, Cleaver JP, Willis BL. Effects of omega-3 supplementation in combination with diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(2):455-7.
  • 10. Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, Charlton KE, Neale EP, Probst YC, O’Shea JE, et al. Foods, nutrients or whole diets: Effects of targeting fish and LCn3PUFA consumption in a 12mo weight loss trial. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1231.
  • 11. Simopoulos AP. An increase in the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio increases the risk for obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):128.
  • 12. Saini RK, Keum YS. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Dietary sources, metabolism, and significance-A review. Life Sci. 2018;203:255-13.
  • 13. Song X, Tian S, Liu Y, Shan Y. Effects of Omega-3 PUFA Supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in patients with T2DM: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Dev Nutr. 2020;4(Suppl 2):77.
  • 14. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Qualified Health Claims: Letters of Enforcement Discretion. Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Sep 8, 2004. Available at: https://www. fda.gov/food/food-labeling-nutrition/qualified-healthclaims-letters-enforcement-discretion Accessed July 29, 2021.
  • 15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). EFSA Journal. 2012;10(7):2815.
  • 16. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. Dec, 2015. Available at: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ Accessed July 29, 2021.
  • 17. Garaiova I, Guschina IA, Plummer SF, Tang J, Wang D, Plummer NT. A randomised cross-over trial in healthy adults indicating improved absorption of omega-3 fatty acids by pre-emulsification. Nutr J. 2007;6:4.
  • 18. Schlesinger S, Neuenschwander M, Schwedhelm C, Hoffmann G, Bechthold A, Boeing H, et al. Food groups and risk of overweight, obesity, and weight gain: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(2):205-13.
  • 19. Lee CH, Fu Y, Yang SJ, Chi CC. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on nonalcoholic fatty liver: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2769.
  • 20. Gunnarsdottir I, Tomasson H, Kiely M, Martinéz JA, Bandarra NM, Morais MG, et al. Inclusion of fish or fish oil in weight-loss diets for young adults: Effects on blood lipids. Int J Obes. 2008;32(7):1105-9.
  • 21. Harden CJ, Dible VA, Russell JM, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Barker ME, et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women. Nutr Res. 2014;34(1):17-7.
  • 22. Zhang YY, Liu W, Zhao TY, Tian HM. Efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in managing overweight and obesity: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Nutr Heal Aging. 2017;21(2):187-5.
  • 23. Du S, Jin J, Fang W, Su Q. Does fish oil have an antiobesity effect in overweight/obese adults? A metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142652.
  • 24. Micallef M, Munro I, Phang M, Garg M. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are negatively associated with obesity. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(9):1370-4.
  • 25. Burrows T, Collins CE, Garg ML. Omega-3 index, obesity and insulin resistance in children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(2-2):e532-9.
  • 26. Ameur A, Enroth S, Johansson Å, Zaboli G, Igl W, Johansson ACV, et al. Genetic adaptation of fatty-acid metabolism: A human-specific haplotype increasing the biosynthesis of long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90(5):809-11.
  • 27. Huerta AE, Navas-Carretero S, Prieto-Hontoria PL, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Effects of α-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in overweight and obese women during weight loss. Obesity. 2015;23(2):313-8.
  • 28. Pérez-Matute P, Marti A, Martínez JA, Fernández-Otero MP, Stanhope KL, Havel PJ, et al. Eicosapentaenoic fatty acid increases leptin secretion from primary cultured rat adipocytes: Role of glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288(6):R1682-8.
  • 29. Pérez-Matute P, Pérez-Echarri N, Martínez JA, Marti A, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Eicosapentaenoic acid actions on adiposity and insulin resistance in control and highfat-fed rats: Role of apoptosis, adiponectinand tumour necrosis factor-α. Br J Nutr. 2007;97(2):389-9.
  • 30. Munro IA, Garg ML. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA does not promote weight loss when combined with a very-low-energy diet. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(8):1466- 8.
  • 31. Zhang X, Yeung DCY, Karpisek M, Stejskal D, Zhou ZG, Liu F, et al. Serum FGF21 levels are increased in obesity and are independently associated with the metabolic syndrome in humans. Diabetes. 2008;57(5):1246-7.
  • 32. Perona JS. Membrane lipid alterations in the metabolic syndrome and the role of dietary oils. Biochim Biophys Acta - Biomembr. 2017;1859(9):1690-13.
  • 33. Zayed EA, AinShoka AA, El Shazly KA, Abd El Latif HA. Improvement of insulin resistance via increase of GLUT4 and PPARγ in metabolic syndrome-induced rats treated with omega-3 fatty acid or l-carnitine. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018;32(11):e22218.
  • 34. Dentin R, Benhamed F, Pégorier JP, Foufelle F, Viollet B, Vaulont S, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress glycolytic and lipogenic genes through the inhibition of ChREBP nuclear protein translocation. J Clin Invest. 2005;115(10):2843-11.
  • 35. Yahagi N, Shimano H, Hasty AH, Amemiya-Kudo M, Okazaki H, Tamura Y, et al. A crucial role of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in the regulation of lipogenic gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 1999;274(50):35840-4.
  • 36. Botta M, Audano M, Sahebkar A, Sirtori CR, Mitro N, Ruscica M. PPAR agonists and metabolic syndrome: An established role? Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(4):1197.
  • 37. Zurlo F, Larson K, Bogardus C, Ravussin E. Skeletal muscle metabolism is a major determinant of resting energy expenditure. J Clin Invest. 1990;86(5):1423-7.
  • 38. Logan SL, Spriet LL. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 12 weeks increases resting and exercise metabolic rate in healthy community - dwelling older females. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144828.
  • 39. Gerling CJ, Whitfield J, Mukai K, Spriet LL. Variable effects of 12 weeks of omega-3 supplementation on resting skeletal muscle metabolism. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(9):1083-8.
  • 40. Jannas-Vela S, Roke K, Boville S, Mutch DM, Spriet LL. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial. PloS One. 2017;12(2):e0172576.
APA Atan R, ERDEM N (2021). Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. , 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
Chicago Atan Ramazan Mert,ERDEM NIHAL ZEKIYE Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. (2021): 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
MLA Atan Ramazan Mert,ERDEM NIHAL ZEKIYE Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. , 2021, ss.97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
AMA Atan R,ERDEM N Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. . 2021; 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
Vancouver Atan R,ERDEM N Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. . 2021; 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
IEEE Atan R,ERDEM N "Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü." , ss.97 - 105, 2021. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
ISNAD Atan, Ramazan Mert - ERDEM, NIHAL ZEKIYE. "Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü". (2021), 97-105. https://doi.org/10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
APA Atan R, ERDEM N (2021). Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi, 49(2), 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
Chicago Atan Ramazan Mert,ERDEM NIHAL ZEKIYE Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi 49, no.2 (2021): 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
MLA Atan Ramazan Mert,ERDEM NIHAL ZEKIYE Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi, vol.49, no.2, 2021, ss.97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
AMA Atan R,ERDEM N Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi. 2021; 49(2): 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
Vancouver Atan R,ERDEM N Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi. 2021; 49(2): 97 - 105. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
IEEE Atan R,ERDEM N "Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü." Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi, 49, ss.97 - 105, 2021. 10.33076/2021.BDD.1476
ISNAD Atan, Ramazan Mert - ERDEM, NIHAL ZEKIYE. "Ağırlık Yönetiminde Omega-3 Çoklu Doymamış Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü". Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi 49/2 (2021), 97-105. https://doi.org/10.33076/2021.BDD.1476