Yıl: 2021 Cilt: 10 Sayı: 3 Sayfa Aralığı: 257 - 268 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.5455/JCBPR.62468

Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey

Öz:
Current findings suggest that many people experience high levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms and life dissatisfaction due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the effects of the pandemic and life changes during the new normal of social restrictions in Turkey are yet to be examined. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, correlates and predictors of life satisfaction, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms during the new normal of ongoing social restrictions. This is a cross-sectional study conducted online with 352 participants living in Turkey. Measures included the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Satisfaction with Life Scales. Sociodemographic variables and questions relating to the COVID-19 were collected. The results showed that low social communication and the sense of being restricted were significant predictors of life dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. Of the participants, 91.5% were dissatisfied with their lives during the new normal of social restrictions. In addition, nearly half of the participants showed depressive symptoms (55.7%) and anxiety symptoms (54.3%). The present study suggested that social communication might be a key factor to improve psychological wellbeing. Considering the long-term effects of the pandemic on public mental health, developing effective preventive measures and intervention strategies are crucial.
Anahtar Kelime:

COVID-19 ile Yaşamak: Türkiye’de Yeni Normal Sırasında Depresyon, Kaygı ve Yaşam Doyumu

Öz:
Mevcut bulgular, birçok insanın COVID-19 salgını nedeniyle yüksek düzeyde kaygı, depresyon ve yaşam memnuniyetsizliği yaşadığını göstermektedir. Bununla birlikte, Türkiye’de yeni normalin getirdiği sosyal kısıtlamalar sırasında pandeminin ve yaşam değişikliklerinin etkileri henüz pek incelenmemiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, yeni normal döneminde devam eden sosyal kısıtlamalarda yaşam doyumunun kaygı belirtilerinin ve depresif belirtilerin yaygınlığını incelemek, ilişkili faktörlerini ve yordayıcılarını araştırmaktır. Türkiye’de yaşayan 352 katılımcı ile çevrimiçi olarak yürütülen kesitsel bir çalışmadır. Ölçüm aracı olarak Yaygın Kaygı Bozukluğu-7, Hasta Sağlığı Anketi-9 ve Yaşam Memnuniyet Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca sosyodemografik değişkenler ve COVID-19 ile ilgili sorular da cevaplandırılmıştır. Düşük sosyal iletişim ve kısıtlanmış olma duygusunun yaşam memnuniyetsizliğinin, depresif belirtilerin ve kaygı belirtilerinin anlamlı yordayıcıları olduğu gösterilmiştir. Katılımcıların %91,5’i yeni normalin getirdiği sosyal kısıtlamalar sırasında hayatlarından memnun olmadığını belirtmiştir. Ayrıca, katılımcıların yaklaşık yarısının depresif belirtiler (%55,7) ve kaygı belirtileri (%54,3) gösterdiği bulunmuştur. Bu çalışma, sosyal iletişimin psikolojik iyilik halini iyileştirmede anahtar bir faktör olabileceğini öne sürmektedir. Pandeminin halkın ruh sağlığı üzerindeki uzun vadeli etkileri düşünüldüğünde, etkili önleyici tedbirler ve müdahale stratejileri geliştirmek çok önemlidir.
Anahtar Kelime:

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • Allahverdi, F.Z. (2020). The relationship between the items of the social media disorder scale and perceived social media addiction. Current Psychology, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020- 01314-x
  • Ammar, A., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Trabelsi, K., Masmoudi, L., Brach, M., … & Hoekelmann, A. (2020). Covid-19 home confinement negatively impacts social participation and life satisfaction: A worldwide multicenter study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 6237. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176237
  • Aneshensel, C. S., & Stone, J. D. (1982). Stress and depression: A test of the buffering model of social support. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39(12), 1392-1396. https://doi.org/10.1001/ archpsyc.1982.04290120028005
  • Barzilay, R., Moore, T. M., Greenberg, D. M., DiDomenico, G. E., Brown, L. A., White, L. K., … & Gur, R. E. (2020). Resilience, COVID-19-related stress, anxiety and depression during the pandemic in a large population enriched for healthcare providers. Translational Psychiatry, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398- 020-00982-4
  • Benke, C., Autenrieth, L. K., Asselmann, E., & Pané-Farré, C. A. (2020). Lockdown, quarantine measures, and social distancing: Associations with depression, anxiety and distress at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic among adults from Germany. Psychiatry Research, 293, 113462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. psychres.2020.113462
  • Boyraz, G., Legros, D. N., & Tigershtrom, A. (2020). COVID-19 and traumatic stress: The role of perceived vulnerability, COVID-19-related worries, and social isolation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 76, 102307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. janxdis.2020.102307
  • Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(20)30460-8
  • Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
  • Carvalho Aguiar Melo, M., & de Sousa Soares, D. (2020). Impact of social distancing on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: An urgent discussion. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(6), 625–626. https://doi. org/10.1177/0020764020927047
  • Chen, J., Zhang, S. X., Wang, Y., Jahanshahi, A. A., Dinani, M. M., Madavani, A. N., & Nawaser, K. (2020). The curvilinear relationship between the age of adults and their mental health in Iran after its peak of COVID-19 cases. medRxiv. https://doi. org/10.1101/2020.06.11.20128132
  • Chen, F., Zheng, D., Liu, J., Gong, Y., Guan, Z., & Lou, D. (2020). Depression and anxiety among adolescents during COVID-19: A cross-sectional study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 88, 36–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.061
  • Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-357. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
  • Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsem, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment 49(1), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
  • Dubey, S., Biswas, P., Ghosh, R., Chatterjee, S., Dubey, M. J., Chatterjee, S., ... & Lavie, C. J. (2020). Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 14(5), 779-788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. dsx.2020.05.035
  • Fiori, K. L., Antonucci, T. C., & Cortina, K. S. (2006). Social network typologies and mental health among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(1), P25-P32. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/61.1.p25
  • Fiori, K. L., Mcilvane, J. M., Brown, E. E., & Antonucci, T. C. (2006). Social relations and depressive symptomatology: Self-efficacy as a mediator. Aging and Mental Health, 10(3), 227-239. https://doi. org/10.1080/13607860500310690
  • Fullana, M. A., Hidalgo-Mazzei, D., Vieta, E., & Radua, J. (2020). Coping behaviors associated with decreased anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Journal of Affective Disorders, 275, 80–81. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.027
  • Galea, S., Merchant, R. M., & Lurie, N. (2020). The mental health consequences of COVID-19 and physical distancing: The need for prevention and early intervention. JAMA Internal Medicine, 180(6), 817-818. https://doi.org/10.1001/ jamainternmed.2020.1562
  • Gao, J., Zheng, P., Jia, Y., Chen, H., Mao, Y., Chen, S., . . . & Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during the COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE, 15(4), e0231924. https:// doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924
  • Hair Jr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2013). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Essex, England: Pearson.
  • Hall-Lande, J. A., Eisenberg, M. E., Christenson, S. L., & NeumarkSztainer, D. (2007). Social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescence. Adolescence, 42(166), 265-286. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17849936/
  • Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1206–1212. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1007.030703
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Huang, Y., & Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Research, 288, 112954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. psychres.2020.112954
  • Karaşar, B., & Canli, D. (2020). Psychological resilience and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. Psychiatria Danubina, 32(2), 273–279. https://doi.org/10.24869/PSYD.2020.273
  • Konkan, R., Şenormanci, Ö., Güçlü, O., Aydin, E., & Sungur, M. Z. (2013). Validity and reliability study for the Turkish adaptation of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. Noropsikiyatri Arsivi, 50(1), 53–58. https://doi.org/10.4274/ npa.y6308
  • Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ‐9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606-613. https://doi.org/10.1046/ j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x
  • Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., … Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(1), 8–19 https://doi. org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002
  • Mækelæ, M. J., Reggev, N., Dutra, N., Tamayo, R. M., SilvaSobrinho, R. A., Klevjer, K., & Pfuhl, G. (2020). Perceived efficacy of COVID-19 restrictions, reactions and their impact on mental health during the early phase of the outbreak in six countries. Royal Society Open Science, 7(8), 200644. https://doi. org/10.1098/rsos.200644
  • Morgul, E., Bener, A., Atak, M., Akyel, S., Aktaş, S., Bhugra, D., . . . & Jordan, T. R. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and psychological fatigue in Turkey. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 67(2), 128-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020941889
  • Oishi, S., Diener, E., Suh, E., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Value as a moderator in subjective well‐being. Journal of Personality, 67(1), 157-184. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00051
  • Oosterhoff, B., Palmer, C. A., Wilson, J., Shook, N. (2020). Adolescents’ Motivations to Engage in Social Distancing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Associations with Mental and Social Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(2), 179-185. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.05.004
  • Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3-72. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3
  • Özdin, S., & Bayrak Özdin, Ş. (2020). Levels and predictors of anxiety, depression and health anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkish society: The importance of gender. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(5), 504–511. https://doi. org/10.1177/0020764020927051
  • Pieh, C., Budimir, S., & Probst, T. (2020). The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Austria. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 136, 110186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jpsychores.2020.110186
  • R Core Team. (2016). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. https://www.r-project.org/
  • Republic of Turkey’s Ministry of Health, (2020). Coronavirus Case Table. https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/TR-66935/genelkoronavirus-tablosu.html
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Interior, (2020). Circular to 81 Provincial Governorships: Restaurant, Cafe etc. Workplaces; Park, Picnic Areas; Promenade and Clothing Markets. https:// www.icisleri.gov.tr/81-il-valiligine-lokanta-restoran-kafe-vbisyerleri-park-piknik-alanlari-mesire-yerleri-ve-giyim-pazarlarigenelgesi
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Interior, (2020). Circulars on New Restrictions and Measures for Combating Coronavirus. https:// www.icisleri.gov.tr/koronavirus-ile-mucadele-kapsamindasokaga-cikma-kisitlamalari---yeni-kisitlama-ve-tedbirlergenelgeleri
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education, (2020). http:// www.meb.gov.tr/turkiye-koronavirus-salgininda-ulusal-captauzaktan-egitim-veren-2-ulkeden-biri/haber/20618/tr
  • Sari, Y. E., Kokoglu, B., Balcioglu, H., Bilge, U., Colak, E., & Unluoglu, I. (2016). Turkish reliability of the patient health questionnaire-9. Biomedical Research (India), 2016(Special Issue 1), S460–S462.
  • Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., Deniz, M. E., & Satici, S. A. (2020). Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its Association with Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00294-0
  • Seeman, T. E. (1996). Social ties and health: The benefits of social integration. Annals of Epidemiology, 6(5), 442-451. https://doi. org/10.1016/s1047-2797(96)00095-6
  • Shevlin, M., McBride, O., Murphy, J., Miller, J. G., Hartman, T. K., Levita, L., . . . & Bentall, R. P. (2020). Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and COVID-19-related anxiety in the UK general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych Open, 6(6). https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.109
  • Son, C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on college students’ mental health in the United States: Interview survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), e21279. https://doi.org/10.2196/21279
  • Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092-1097. https://doi. org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092
  • Stanton, R., To, Q. G., Khalesi, S., Williams, S. L., Alley, S. J., Thwaite, T. L., . . . & Vandelanotte, C. (2020). Depression, anxiety and stress during COVID-19: Associations with changes in physical activity, sleep, tobacco and alcohol use in Australian adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 4065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114065
  • Suzuki, K., Oi, Y., & Inagaki, M. (2020). The Relationships Among Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits, Loneliness, and Social Networking Service Use in College Students. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(6), 2047-2056. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10803-020-04701-2
  • Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(4), 317 320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212
  • Trzebiński, J., Cabański, M., & Czarnecka, J. Z. (2020). Reaction to the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Influence of Meaning in Life, Life Satisfaction, and Assumptions on World Orderliness and Positivity. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(6-7), 544-557. https:// doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1765098
  • Turkish Statistical Institute, 2019. Life Satisfaction Research. https:// tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33729
  • Umberson, D., & Karas Montez, J. (2010). Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1_suppl), S54-S66. https://doi. org/10.1177/0022146510383501
  • Usher, K., Bhullar, N., & Jackson, D. (2020). Life in the pandemic: Social isolation and mental health. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(15-16), 2756-2757. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15290
  • Van Rheenen, T. E., Meyer, D., Neill, E., Phillipou, A., Tan, E. J., Toh, W. L., & Rossell, S. L. (2020). Mental health status of individuals with a mood-disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia: Initial results from the COLLATE project. Journal of Affective Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.037
  • Vindegaard, N., & Eriksen Benros, M. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 531-542. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729
  • Windsor, T. D., Rioseco, P., Fiori, K. L., Curtis, R. G., & Booth, H. (2016). Structural and functional social network attributes moderate the association of self-rated health with mental health in midlife and older adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(1), 49-61. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610215001143
  • World Health Organization, (2020). Coronavirus Disease Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/
  • Yetim, Ü. (1993). Life satisfaction: A study based on the organization of personal projects. Social Indicators Research, 29(3), 277-289. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01079516
  • Yetim, Ü. (2003). The impacts of individualism/collectivism, selfesteem, and feeling of mastery on life satisfaction among the Turkish university students and academicians. Social Indicators Research, 61(3), 297-317. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021911504113
  • Zandifar, A., Badrfam, R., Yazdani, S., Arzaghi, S. M., Rahimi, F., Ghasemi, S., ... & Qorbani, M. (2020). Prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, stress and perceived stress in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 19(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00667-1
  • Zhang, J., Lu, H., Zeng, H., Zhang, S., Du, Q., Jiang, T., & Du, B. (2020). The differential psychological distress of populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 49–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.031
  • Zhang, S. X., Wang, Y., Rauch, A., & Wei, F. (2020). Health, Distress and Life Satisfaction of People in China One Month into the COVID-19 Outbreak. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi. org/10.2139/ssrn.3555216
APA UYSAL B, GÖRMEZ V, EREN S, MORGÜL E, ÖCAL N, KARATEPE H, SÖNMEZ D, TAŞTEKNE F, TEPEDELEN M, YANIK M (2021). Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. , 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
Chicago UYSAL BURCU,GÖRMEZ Vahdet,EREN Senem,MORGÜL Ebru,ÖCAL Nilgün Belkıs,KARATEPE Hasan Turan,SÖNMEZ Dilruba,TAŞTEKNE Feyzanur,TEPEDELEN Mehmed Seyda,YANIK MEDAİM Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. (2021): 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
MLA UYSAL BURCU,GÖRMEZ Vahdet,EREN Senem,MORGÜL Ebru,ÖCAL Nilgün Belkıs,KARATEPE Hasan Turan,SÖNMEZ Dilruba,TAŞTEKNE Feyzanur,TEPEDELEN Mehmed Seyda,YANIK MEDAİM Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. , 2021, ss.257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
AMA UYSAL B,GÖRMEZ V,EREN S,MORGÜL E,ÖCAL N,KARATEPE H,SÖNMEZ D,TAŞTEKNE F,TEPEDELEN M,YANIK M Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. . 2021; 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
Vancouver UYSAL B,GÖRMEZ V,EREN S,MORGÜL E,ÖCAL N,KARATEPE H,SÖNMEZ D,TAŞTEKNE F,TEPEDELEN M,YANIK M Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. . 2021; 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
IEEE UYSAL B,GÖRMEZ V,EREN S,MORGÜL E,ÖCAL N,KARATEPE H,SÖNMEZ D,TAŞTEKNE F,TEPEDELEN M,YANIK M "Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey." , ss.257 - 268, 2021. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
ISNAD UYSAL, BURCU vd. "Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey". (2021), 257-268. https://doi.org/10.5455/JCBPR.62468
APA UYSAL B, GÖRMEZ V, EREN S, MORGÜL E, ÖCAL N, KARATEPE H, SÖNMEZ D, TAŞTEKNE F, TEPEDELEN M, YANIK M (2021). Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi, 10(3), 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
Chicago UYSAL BURCU,GÖRMEZ Vahdet,EREN Senem,MORGÜL Ebru,ÖCAL Nilgün Belkıs,KARATEPE Hasan Turan,SÖNMEZ Dilruba,TAŞTEKNE Feyzanur,TEPEDELEN Mehmed Seyda,YANIK MEDAİM Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi 10, no.3 (2021): 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
MLA UYSAL BURCU,GÖRMEZ Vahdet,EREN Senem,MORGÜL Ebru,ÖCAL Nilgün Belkıs,KARATEPE Hasan Turan,SÖNMEZ Dilruba,TAŞTEKNE Feyzanur,TEPEDELEN Mehmed Seyda,YANIK MEDAİM Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol.10, no.3, 2021, ss.257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
AMA UYSAL B,GÖRMEZ V,EREN S,MORGÜL E,ÖCAL N,KARATEPE H,SÖNMEZ D,TAŞTEKNE F,TEPEDELEN M,YANIK M Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2021; 10(3): 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
Vancouver UYSAL B,GÖRMEZ V,EREN S,MORGÜL E,ÖCAL N,KARATEPE H,SÖNMEZ D,TAŞTEKNE F,TEPEDELEN M,YANIK M Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2021; 10(3): 257 - 268. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
IEEE UYSAL B,GÖRMEZ V,EREN S,MORGÜL E,ÖCAL N,KARATEPE H,SÖNMEZ D,TAŞTEKNE F,TEPEDELEN M,YANIK M "Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey." Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi, 10, ss.257 - 268, 2021. 10.5455/JCBPR.62468
ISNAD UYSAL, BURCU vd. "Living with COVID-19: Depression, Anxiety and Life Satisfaction during the New Normal in Turkey". Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi 10/3 (2021), 257-268. https://doi.org/10.5455/JCBPR.62468