BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421)

Yıl: 2021 Cilt: 13 Sayı: 4 Sayfa Aralığı: 1205 - 1237 Metin Dili: Türkçe DOI: 10.9737/hist.2021.1032 İndeks Tarihi: 08-02-2022

BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421)

Öz:
Osmanlı saray vakanüvistlerinin eserleri, Sultan I.Mehmed’in (1413-1421) saltanatı döneminde Bizansimparatoru II. Manuil Palaiologos (1391-1425) ilekurduğu diplomatik ilişkilerin mahiyeti üzerine detaylıbilgiler vermekten uzaktır. Oysaki imparator, AnkaraSavaşı (28 Temmuz 1402) öncesindeki gibi hemAnadolu’ya hem de Rumeli’ye hâkim olmanınmücadelesi veren Osmanlı sultanının karşısında bunuengellemek adına güç birliği yapan Anadolu Türkbeylikleri ve Balkanlı Hristiyan devletlerinineşgüdümlü faaliyetlerinde bir çok kez kilit rol oynadı.İmparatorun müttefikleri Karamanoğlu II. MehmedBey (?-1423) ve Candaroğlu İsfendiyar Bey (1392- 1440) gibi Anadolu’daki Türk beyleri, Sırp despotuStefan Lazareviç ve Vlah voyvodası Mircea idi. Dukas,Sphrantzes, Halkokondyles, Kritovulos gibi Bizanslıtarihçilerin kronikleri, Anonim Grekçe Kısa Kronikler,II. Manuil’in mektupları, Filozof Konstantin’in StefanLazareviç biyografisi, Burgundiyalı elçi Ghillebert deLannoy’un kayıtları, Venedik ile Ragusa senatokararlarının bilgileri ile birleştirildiğinde bu ittifakınvarlığı kendini hissettirmektedir. Söz konusu veriler,Fetret döneminde (1402-1413) bu ittifakın tek seferlikolmadığını, aksine Sultan I. Mehmed’in tahta çıkışısonrasında ve hatta Sultan II. Murad’ın (1421-1451)tahta çıkış sürecinde devreye girdiğini göstermektedir.Osmanlı kronikleri, bu güç odakları arasındaki bu bağhakkında sessiz kaldıkları gibi aynı zamandasultanların bunlara karşı yürüttükleri askerioperasyonları birbirinden bağımsız olaylarmış gibisunmaktadır. Bu bakımdan yukarıda sözünü ettiğimizkaynak grubu, Osmanlı kroniklerinin bıraktığıboşlukları doldurması bakımından büyük önemesahiptir. Bu makalenin amacı, Bizanslı, Türk ve Balkanlı müttefiklerin Osmanlı tarihinin 1413-1423yılları arasında oynadıkları önemli rolü bu kaynaklarınverileri ışığında yeniden ele almaktır.
Anahtar Kelime:

The Period of So-called Peace in Byzantine-Ottoman Relations (1413-1421)

Öz:
Ottoman chronicles, written by palace historians, arefar from providing detailed information on the natureof the diplomatic relations that Sultan Mechmed Iestablished with the Byzantine emperor Manuel IIPalaiologos during his reign. However, the Byzantineemperor played repeatedly a key role in the coordinatedactivities of the Anatolian Turkish principalities andBalkan Christian states, who joined forces to preventthe Ottoman sultans, who struggled to dominate bothAnatolia and Rumelia, as before the battle of Ankara.These actors accompanying the Emperor in thisalliance were Turkish emirs in Anatolia such asKaramanoglu Mechmed II Beg (?-1423) andCandaroğlu İsfendiyar Beg (1392-1440), and Serbianprince Stephan Lazarevic in the Balkans and Vlahvojvoda Mircea. Chronicles written by Byzantinehistorians such as Ducas, Sphrantzes, Halkokondyles,and Anonymous Greek Short Chronicles, the epistles,Philosopher Constantine, Stephen Lazarevic’sbiographer, the records of the Burgundian diplomatGhillebert de Lannoy, who had been sent as anambassador to the Byzantine palace, the reports ofVenetian ship-owners (operated in Levant) which areechoed in the Senatorial as well as of the Venetianrepresentatives (bailos) in Constantinople and finallythe records of Ragusan Senate, when combined,provide very important data on the existence of amultilateral alliance that reveals the coordinatedactivities of these forces. These data indicate that thisalliance, which came into effect during the Fetretperiod, was not one-time; on the contrary, it was longenough to continue after Mechmed I’s ascension to thethrone and even during the process of Sultan Murad II(1421-1451) enthronement. Ottoman historians do notonly remain silent about this bond between these powers but also present the military operations carriedout by the sultans against them as independent events.In this respect, this group of sources mentioned above is of great importance in terms of filling the gaps leftby Ottoman chronicles. The aim of this article is torevisit the crucial role played by the Byzantine, Turkishand Balkan allies in Ottoman history between 1413- 1423 in the light of the information provided by thesesources.
Anahtar Kelime:

Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • Ahmad Ibn Arabshah, Tamerlane. The Life of the Great Amir, translated by J. H Sanders, Luzac and Co., London 1936.
  • Anonim Osmanlı Kroniği (1299–1512), Ed. Necdet Öztürk, Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları Vakfı, İstanbul 2000.
  • “Ανωνύμου πανηγυρικός εις Μανουηλ και Ιωάννη Η΄ τουε Παλαιολόγους”, Σπυρήδων Λάμπρος, Παλαιολόγεια και Παλοποννησιακά, C. III, Ed. Σπυρίδων Λάμπρος, Επιτροπή εκδόσεως των καταλοίπων Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου, Aθήνα 1926, s. 132-199.
  • Âşıkpaşazâde, Tevarih-i Âl-i Osman, Âli Bey neşri, Matbaa-yı Âmire, İstanbul 1332.
  • Critobuli Imbriotae Historia, Ed. Diether D. Reinsch, Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae, de Gruyter, Berlin 1983.
  • Δημήτριος Χρυσολοράς, “Σύγκρισης παλαιῶν ἀρχόντων”, Παλαιολόγεια και Παλοποννησιακά, C. III, Ed. Σπυρίδων Λάμπρος, Επιτροπή εκδόσεως των καταλοίπων Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου, Aθήνα 1926, s. 222-245.
  • Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum sive Acta et Diplomata Res Venetas, Graecas atque Levantis Illustrantia, Ed. G. M. Thomas- R. Predeli, a. 1351-1454, C. II, Sumptibus Societatis, Venetia 1889.
  • Diplomatarium relationum Reipublicae Ragusanae cum regno Hungariae, Ed. Gelcich, Jozsef-Lajos Thalloczy, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest 1887.
  • Dukas, Τουρκο-βυζαντινή Ιστορία, Ed. Vasile Grecu, Editura Academiei Republicii populare romîne (Scriptores byzantine 1), Bucuresti 1958.
  • Filozof Konstantin: Lebenschreibung des Despoten Stefan Lazarević von Kostantin dem Philosophen, Ed. Maximilien Braun, Mouton, Göttingen 1956.
  • Gazawat-ı Sultan Murad bin Mehemmed Han, İzladi ve Varna Savaşları (1443-1444) Üzerinde Anonim Gazavatname, yay. Halil İnalcık- Mevlüd Oğuz, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara 1989.
  • Georgios Sphrantzes, Chronicon Minus, Ed. Paul Migne, Patrologia Graeca, C. CLVI, Paris 1866, s.1025-1080.
  • Γεωργίου Γεμιστοῦ εἰς Μανουήλ Παλαιλόγον περὶ τῶν ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ πραγμάτων, Παλαιολόγεια και Παλοποννησιακά, C. III, Ed. Σπυρίδων Λάμπρος, Επιτροπή εκδόσεως των καταλοίπων Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου, Aθήνα 1926, s. 246-265.
  • Hoca Sadeddin, Tacü’t-tevarih, C. I-II, Ed. İsmet Parmaksızoğlu, Başbakanlık Kültür Müsteşerlığı Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul 1974.
  • Laonici Chalcocandylae Historiarum demonstrationes, Ed. Jenö Darkó, C. I-II, Editiones criticae scriptorum graecorum et romanorum, Budapest (1890 -) Budapest 1922-1927.
  • Lütfi Paşa, Tevarih-i Al-i Osman, Ed. M. Münir Aktepe, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1993.
  • Müneccimbaşı, Camiü’d-düvel, Osmanlı Tarihi (1299-1481), Ed. Ahmet Ağırakça, İnsan Yayınları, İstanbul 1995.
  • Neşrî, Cihânnümâ, C. I-II, Ed. Faik Reşit Unat-Mehmed Altay Köymen, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara 1995.
  • Oeuvres de Ghillebert de Lannoy, Voyageur, Diplomate et Moraliste, Ed. H. Potvin, Louvain 1878.
  • Oruç b. Âdil, Tevârih-i Âl-i Osman, Ed. Franz Babinger, Hannover 1925.
  • “Πλήθωνος συμβουλευτικός προς τον δεσπότην Θεόδωρον περί της Πελοποννήσου”, Παλαιολόγεια και Παλοποννησιακά, C. IV, Ed. Σπυρήδων Λάμπρος, Επιτροπή εκδόσεως των καταλοίπων Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου, Αθήνα 1930, s. 113-135.
  • Pseudo-Ruhi, “Ruhî Tarîhi - Oxford nüshası”, Ed. Yaşar Yücel - Halil Erdoğan Cengiz, Belgeler, C. XIV/18, (1989–1992)
  • Stefan Lazareviç, Yıldırım Bayezid’in Emrinde Bir Sırp Despotu, çev. Hüseyin Mevsim, İstanbul, Kitap Yayınevi, 2008.
  • Şikârî, Karamannâme [Zamanın kahramanı Karamanîler’in tarihi], Ed. Metin Sözen-Necdet Sakaoğlu, Karaman Valiliği- Karaman Belediyesi, İstanbul 2005.
  • Το Χρονικό των Τόκκων. Τα Ιωάννινα κατά τας αρχάς του ΙΕ αιώνος, Ed. Giuseppe Schirò, Εταιρεία Ηπειρωτικών Μελετών, Ioannina 1965.
  • Χρονικόν των Tούρκων Σουλτάνων (του βαρβερινού ελληνικού Κώδικα 111) και το ιταλικό του πρότυπο, [Ελληνικά, Παράρτημα 14], Ed. Ελισάβεθ Ζαχαριάδου, Εταιρεία Μακεδονικών Σπουδών, Θεσσαλονίκη 1960.
  • Χρονικόν περί των Τούρκων Σουλτάνων (κατά τον Βαρβερινόν ελληνικόν κώδικα 111), Εd. Γεώργιος Ζωράς Σπουδαστήριον Βυζαντινής και Νεοελληνικής Φιλολογίας, Αθήνα 1958.
  • ALDERSON, Anthony Dolphin, The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, The Clarendon Press, Oxford 1956.
  • BALFOUR, David, Politico-historical works of Symeon. Politico-Historical Works of Symeon, Archbishop of Thessalonica (1416/17 to 1429), Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1979.
  • BARKER, John, W., “On the Chronology of the Activities of Manuel II Palaeologus in the Peloponnesus in 1415” Byzantinische Zeitschrift, C. LV, München 1962, s. 39-55.
  • BARKER, John, W., Manuel II Paleologus (1391-1425): A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick 1969.
  • DENNIS, George, The Letters of Manuel Palaeologus, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington 1977.
  • DIEHL, Charles, Figures byzantines, C. II, A. Colin, Paris 1908.
  • DJURIC, Ivan, Le Crépuscule de Byzance, Maisonneuve & Larose, Paris 1996.
  • DÖLGER, Franz, “Die Krönung Johannes VIII. zum Μitkaiser,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift, C. XXXVI, 1936, s. 318-319.
  • DÖLGER, Franz, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des oströmischen Reiches von 565-1453, C. V, C. H. Beck, München 1965.
  • ELAM, Nilgün, “Musa Çelebi’nin Rumeli’ye Geçişinde Hıristiyan Aktörlerin Rolü (1403- 1410)”, History Studies. International Journal of History Studies, C. III, S. 1 (2011), s. 83-111.
  • EYİCE, Semavi “Anadolu Hisarı”, Türk Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. III (1991), s. 147-149.
  • FİLİPOVİČ, Nedim, Princ Musa i Sejh Bedreddin, Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1971. GILL, Joseph, “John VIII Palaeologus. A character study,” Studi bizantini e neoellenici, C. IX, 1957, s.152-170.
  • HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches, C. I, C. A. Hartleben, Pest 1833.
  • HEYWOOD, Colin J., «Küçük Mustafa», Encyclopedia of Ιslam, 2nd ed., C. VII, 1992, s.712- 713.
  • HEYWOOD, Colin J., «Mustafa Çelebi. Düzmece» Encyclopedia of Ιslam, 2nd ed. C. VII, 1992, s.710-712.
  • IMBER, Colin, The Ottoman Empire 1300-1481, İsis, İstanbul 1989.
  • İNALCIK Halil, “Ottoman Methods of Conquest,” Studia Islamica, C. II, Paris 1954, s.103- 129.
  • İNALCIK Halil, Fatih Devri üzerinde Tetkikler ve Vesikalar, C. I, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara 1954.
  • İNALCIK Halil, “Critica” Archivum Ottomanicum, C. III, 1971, s. 251-304.
  • İNALCIK Halil,“The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades (1329-1451)”, History of the Crusades, ed. Kenneth M. Setton, Madison-Wisconsin-London 1989, s. 222-310.
  • İNALCIK Halil, “Mehemmed I” Encyclopedia of Ιslam, 2 nd ed., C. VI, İstanbul 1991, s.973- 978.
  • İNALCIK Halil, “Murad II” İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. VIII, İstanbul 1997, s. 598-615.
  • İNALCIK Halil, Devlet-i ʿAliyye, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Üzerine Araştırmalar-I, İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul 2009.
  • İNALCIK Halil, Kuruluş Dönemi Osmanlı Sultanları, (1302–1481), İSAM Yayınları, İstanbul 2010.
  • JIRECEK, Constantine, Geschichte der Serben (1371-1537), c. II, F. A. Perthes, Gotha 1918, repr. Adolf M. Hakkert, 1967.
  • JORGA, Nicholae, Notes et Extraits pour servir à l’Histoire des Croisades au XVe siècle, C. I-IV, Ernest Leroux, Paris 1899-1902.
  • JORGA, Nicholae, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, in Europa, C. I, Perthes, Gotha 1900.
  • KASTRITSIS, Dimitris, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-1413, Brill, Leiden 2007.
  • KHOURY, Théodore, «L’empereur Manuel II Paleologue», Proche Orient Chrétien, C. XV, 1965, s. 127-144.
  • KILIÇ, Şahin, Bizans Kısa Kronikleri. Osmanlı Tarihinin Bizanslı Tanıkları (Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Ankara 2011.
  • KIRLIDÖKME-MOLLAOĞLU, Ferhan, Selanik Başpiskoposu Symeon’un Tarihi Nutku (1387-1429) The historical discourse of the archibishop of thessaloniki (Selanik) Symeon (1387- 1429) (Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Ankara 1998.
  • KIRLIDÖKME-MOLLAOĞLU, Laonikos Chalkokondyles'in Kroniği ve Değerlendirilmesi (V.-VII. Bölümler), (Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Ankara 2005.
  • KURAT, Akdes Nimet, Die türkische Prosopographie bei Laonikos Chalkokandyles, Neimann & Moschinski, Hamburg 1933.
  • ΚΟΥΓΕΑΣ, Σωκράτης, “Notizbuch eines Beamten der Metropolis in Thessalonike aus dem. Anfang des XV. Jahrhundert,” Βyzantinische Ζeitschrift, C. XXIII, 1919, München, s.143-163.
  • ΛΑΣΚΑΡΗΣ, Μιχαήλ, Θ., Ναοί και μοναί Θεσσαλονίκης το 1405 εις το Οδοιπορικόν του έκ. Σμολένσκ 'Ιγνατίου, Τόμος Κωνσταντίνου Άρμενοπούλου, (= Έπιστημονική Έπετηρίς, τόμος ς'), Θεσσαλονίκη 1952, s. 315-344.
  • ΛΑΣΚΑΡΗΣ, Μιχαήλ, Θ., “Ἰωάννης Η’ ὁ Παλαιολόγος ἐν Θεσσαλονίκῃ κατὰ τὴν πολιορκίαν τοῦ 1416,” Τόμος Κ. Αρμενοπούλου, έπί τή έξακοσιετηρίδι τής Έξαβίβλου αυτού (1345-1945) (= Έπιστημονική Έπετηρίς, τόμος ς') Θεσσαλονίκη 1952.
  • LOENERTZ, Raymond J., “Pour histoire du Peloponnese au XIVe siècle (1382-1404),” Revue des Etudes Byzantines, C. I, Paris 1943, s. 152-196.
  • LOENERTZ, Raymond J., “Autour du Chronicon majus attribué á Georges Sphrantzès,” Miscelana G. Mercati, III, Rome 1946, s. 288-308.
  • LOENERTZ, Raymond J., “Epître de Manuel II Paléologue aux moines David et Damien en 1416,” Studi bizantini e neoellenici, C. IX, 1957, s. 294-304.
  • MATSCHKE, Klaus Peter, Die Schlacht bei Ankara und das Schicksal von Byzanz. Studien zur spätbyzantinischen Geschichte zwischen 1402 und 1422, Böhlau, Weimar 1981.
  • MELIKOFF, Irene, “Djunayd” Encyclopedia of Ιslam, 2nd ed., C. II, Leiden 1991, s. 599-600.
  • MÉNAGE, Victor, Louise, “The Annals of Murad II,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, C. XXXIX, 1976, s. 570-584.
  • MÉNAGE, Victor, “Djandarli”, Encyclopedia of Ιslam, 2 nd ed., C. II, Leiden 1991, s. 444-445.
  • MILLER, William, The Latins in the Levant. A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566), John Murray, London 1908.
  • MORAVCSIK, Gyula, Byzantinoturcica, Sprachreste der Türkvölker in den byzantinischen Quellen, C. II, Kir. M. Pázmány Péter tudományegyetemi görög filológiai intézet, Budapest 1943.
  • NICOL, Donald M., The Last Centuries of Byzantium, Hart-Davis, London 1972.
  • NICOL, Donald M., Church and Society in the Last Centuries of Byzantium, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1979.
  • PEARS, Edwin, The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks, Longmans, Green and co., London 1903.
  • RUNCIMAN, Steven, The Fall of Constantinople 1453, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1965.
  • SCHREINER, Peter, Die byzantinischen Kleinkroniken, C. I-III, Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1975, 1977, 1979.
  • SETTON, Kenneth M., The Papacy and the Levant (1204-1571) C. I-II, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1976-1978.
  • STANOJEVIC, Stanoje, “Die Biographie Stefan Lazarević’s von Konstantin dem Philosophen als Geschichtsquelle”, Αrchiv für Slavische Philologie, C. XVIII, 1896, s. 409-72.
  • TAESCHNER, Franz, “Beiträge zur frühosmanischen Epigraphik und Archäologie”, Der Islam, C. XX, 1932, s. 109-186.
  • TAESCHNER, Franz, “The Ottoman Turks to 1453”, Cambridge Medieval History, C. 4: The Byzantine Empire, Part 1: Byzantium and Its Neighbours, 2 nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1966, 753-775.
  • TURAN, Osman, İstanbul’un Fethinden Önce Yazılmış Tarihi Takvimler, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1984.
  • UZUNÇARŞILI, İsmail Hakkı, Osmanlı Tarihi, C. I, 5. Baskı, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1988.
  • UZUNÇARŞILI, İsmail Hakkı, “Mehmed I”, İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. VII, İstanbul 1997, s.496-506.
  • THIRIET, Freddy, Regestes des deliberations du Senat de Venise concernant la Romanie (1400-1430), C. II, Mouton, Paris 1959.
  • VARLIK, Çetin, Germiyanoğulları Tarihi (1300-1429), Sevinç Matbaası, Ankara 1974. WALTER, Gérard, La ruine de Byzance, 1204-1453, Albin Michel, Paris 1958.
  • WERNER, Ernst, Die Geburt einer Grossmacht--die Osmanen (1300-1481): Ein Beintrag zur Genesis des türkischen Feudalismus, Bohlau, Berlin 1966.
  • WITTEK, Paul, Das Fürstentum Menteshe, Studie zur Geschichte Westkleinasiens im 13.-15.
  • Jh. Mit Dokumenten und Registern, Abteilung İstanbul des Archaologischen Institutes des Deutschen Reiches, Istanbul 1934.
  • WITTEK, Paul, Menteşe Beyliği 13- 15. Asırda Garbı Küçük Asya Tarihine Ait Tetkik, Çev: Orhan Şaik Gökyay, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1944 (Istanbuler Mitteilungen, İstanbul 1967).
  • ΧΡΙΣΤΟΦΙΛΟΠΟΥΛΟΥ, Αικατερίνη, Εκλογή, αναγόρευσις και στέψις του Βυζαντινού αυτοκράτορος, Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα 2003.
  • XIVREY, Jules Berger de, Mémoire sur la vie et les ouvrages de l'Empereur Manuel Paléologue, Imprimerie nationale, Paris 1851.
  • ΞΑΝΘΥΝΑΚΗΣ, Αντώνιος, Η βασιλεία του Οθωμανικού Σουλτάνου Μουράτ Β’ (1421-1451)
  • (Πανεπιστήμιο Κρήτης Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Rethymnon 2003.
  • YÜCEL, Yaşar, XIII.-XV. Yüzyıllar Kuzey-Batı Anadolu tarihi. Çoban-oğulları Candaroğulları Beylikleri, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1980.
  • YÜCEL, Yaşar, Trade and Crusade. Venetian Crete and the Emirates of Menteshe and Aydın (1300-1415), Instituto Ellenico, Venice 1983, s.83-89.
  • YÜCEL, Yaşar, “Ottoman Diplomacy and the Danube Frontier”, HUS, Okeanos, Essays Presented to Ihor Sevcenko, C. VII, 1983, s.680-690.
  • ZΑΚΥΤΗIΝΟΣ, Dionysios A., Le despotat grec de Morée, C. I, Société d’édition “Les Belles Lettres,” Paris, 1932, repr. Variorum, London 1975.
APA EL M N (2021). BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). , 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
Chicago EL M Nilgün BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). (2021): 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
MLA EL M Nilgün BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). , 2021, ss.1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
AMA EL M N BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). . 2021; 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
Vancouver EL M N BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). . 2021; 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
IEEE EL M N "BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421)." , ss.1205 - 1237, 2021. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
ISNAD EL M, Nilgün. "BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421)". (2021), 1205-1237. https://doi.org/10.9737/hist.2021.1032
APA EL M N (2021). BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). History Studies, 13(4), 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
Chicago EL M Nilgün BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). History Studies 13, no.4 (2021): 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
MLA EL M Nilgün BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). History Studies, vol.13, no.4, 2021, ss.1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
AMA EL M N BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). History Studies. 2021; 13(4): 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
Vancouver EL M N BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421). History Studies. 2021; 13(4): 1205 - 1237. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
IEEE EL M N "BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421)." History Studies, 13, ss.1205 - 1237, 2021. 10.9737/hist.2021.1032
ISNAD EL M, Nilgün. "BİZANS-OSMANLI İLİŞKİLERİNDE SÖZDE BARIŞ DÖNEMİ (1413-1421)". History Studies 13/4 (2021), 1205-1237. https://doi.org/10.9737/hist.2021.1032