Proje Grubu: TÜBİTAK ÇAYDAG Sayfa Sayısı: 163 Proje No: Proje Bitiş Tarihi: 15.11.2016 Metin Dili: Türkçe DOI: 113Y500

Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi

Öz:
Dilovası Türkiye?nin en büyük endüstriyel bölgelerinden biridir. Ilçede endüstriyel bölgeler ve yerlesim yerleri iç içe bulunmakta, aynı zamanda ilçe yogun bir trafigin etkisi altındadır. Bunun sonucu olarak bölgede kanser yüksek yogunlukla ölüm nedenlerinin basında gelmektedir. Bu çalısma ile havadaki organik ve inorganik kirleticilerin seviyeleri, kaynakları ve muhtemel saglık etkileri incelenmistir. Arazi çalısması Subat 2015 tarihinde baslamıs ve Subat 2016?de sonlandırılmıs ve PAHlar ve PCBler zamansal ve mekânsal olarak incelenmistir. Ayrıca Dilovası Belediyesi?nin bahçesinde kurulan sabit bir istasyonda sıralı PM2,5 örnekleyici kullanılarak EC/OC, 14C, metaller, çesitli anyon ve katyon derisimleri ve aynı istasyonda O3 ve NOx miktarlarının zamansal degisimleri incelenmistir. Arazi çalısması 23 noktada PUF disk pasif örnekleyiciler kullanılarak yapılmıstır. Toplam PAH konsantrasyonu 4,2 ile 3842 ng m-3 aralıgında degismektedir (ORT±SS; 285 ± 431 ng m-3). Fenantren en fazla elde edilen PAH türü olurken, bunu floranten ve piren izlemektedir. Toplam PCB konsantrasyonu 177 ile 41781 pg m-3 aralıgında degismektedir (ORT±SS; 4152 ± 6072 pg m-3). PCB-28, -18, -31 ve -33 en fazla elde edilen PCBlerdir. PMF sonuçlarına gör PAHlar için 5, PCBler içinse 4 farklı kaynak belirlenmistir. Bunlar PAHlar için dizel ve benzinli araç emisyonları, biyokütle ve kömür yanması, demir-çelik endüstrisi gibi endüstriyel faaliyetlerden kaynaklı emisyonlar ve yanmamıs petrol/petrol ürünleri emisyonları olarak belirlenmistir. PCBler içinse kaynaklar demir-çelik üretimi, kömür ve biyokütle yanması, teknik PCB karısımları ve endüstri olarak belirlenmistir. Sabit istasyondan elde edilen PM2,5 kütlesini etkileyen faktörler yine PMF kullanılarak incelenmistir. Buna göre 6 faktör bulunmus, bunlar yol tozu (%23), tasıt emisyonları (%20), petrol yanması (%19), kömür yanması (%14), toz (%14), ikincil inorganik aerosol (%10) olarak belirlenmistir. Aynı sonuçlar kullanılarak bölgeyi etkileyen uzun mesafeli kaynaklar potansiyel kaynak katkı fonksiyonu (PKKF) kullanılarak incelenmis ve Cezayir, Batı Sahra, Rusya, Iran ve Lübnan örnekleme bölgesini etkileyen ülkeler olarak bulunmustur. Aynı noktalarda kuru çökelme örneklemesi de yapılmıs ve PAHlar için hesaplanan kuru çökelme akısı degerlerinin 829 ile 7424 ng m?2 gün?1 aralıgında (2950 ± 1349 ng m?2 gün?1) degistigi gözlenmistir. PCBler içinse bu degerler 47,9 ile 535 ng m?2 gün?1 aralıgında degismektedir (191 ± 102 ng m?2 gün?1). Sabit istasyonda ortalama EC, OC ve TC konsantrasyonları sırasıyla 15,8±17,7, 2,8±2,3 ve 19,2±18,9 μg m-3 olarak bulunmustur. EC/OC konsantrasyonları özellikle kasım ayının ortasından baslayarak önemli derecede artıs göstermektedir. Bu sonuç sıcaklıgın düsmesine baglı olarak evsel ısınma faaliyetlerinin ve buna baglı olarak da karbon emisyonlarının artmasıyla, ayrıca karısım yüksekliginin düsmesi ve emisyonların atmosferde dagılamaması ile açıklanabilir. PAHlar, PCBler ve metaller için saglık riski degerlendirmesi yapılmıstır. En yüksek maruziyet-risk seviyeleri konsantrasyon degerleriyle paralel olarak PAHlar ve PCBler için sırasıyla kıs ve yaz döneminde tespit edilmistir. Tahmini kitlesel maruziyet-risk seviyelerinin hepsi ve ortalama maruziyet-risk seviyelerinin çogu kabul edilebilir kanserojen risk degerinin (10-6) üzerinde bulunmustur. Hedeflenen kanserojen metallere bakıldıgında ise Ni ve Pb için risk söz konusu degildir. As için hesaplanan tahmini risk degerleri, bütün mevsimlerde kabul edilebilir risk degerinin üzerinde bulunurken, Cd ve Co için hesaplanan tahmini risk degerlerinin bazıları kabul edilebilir degerin üzerinde bulunmustur. Bulunan risk degerleri kabul edilebilir degerin oldukça üstündedir. Bu sonuçlar ile Dilovası havasının mevcut kirleticiler açısından insan saglıgı için yüksek risk içerdigini söylemek mümkündür.
Anahtar Kelime: PMF NOx Ozon Iyonlar metaller EC/OC Pasif Örnekleme PCBler PAHlar Dilovası

Konular: Çevre Mühendisliği
Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
  • Akcha, F. vd., 2003, PAHs: An Ecotoxicological Perspective. Metabolic Activation of PAHs: Role of DNA Adduct Formation in Induced Carcinogenesis, P.E.T Douben 65–79.
  • 1- PAHs and PCBs in an Eastern Mediterranean megacity, Istanbul: Their spatial and temporal distributions, air-soil exchange and toxicological effects (Makale - Diger Hakemli Makale),
  • Albinet, A., Leoz-Garziandia, E., Budzinski, H., Villenave, E., Jaffrezo, J.L. 2008. “Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two French alpine valleys: Part 1: Concentrations, sources and gas/particle partitioning.” Atmospheric Environment 42, 43–54.
  • 2- Investigation of Spatial and Temporal Distributions of PAHs in the atmosphere of Dilovasi. (Bildiri - Uluslararası Bildiri - Sözlü Sunum),
  • Alsberg, T., Håkansson, S., Strandell, M., Westerholm, R., 1989. “Profile analysis of urban air pollution.” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 7, 143-152.
  • Amador-Munoz, O., Villalobos-Pietrini, R., Agapito-Nadales, M.C., Munive-Colin, Z., Hernandez-Mena, L., Sanchez-Sandoval, M., Gomez-Arroyo, S., Bravo- Cabrera, J.L., Guzman-Rincon, J., 2010. “Solvent extracted organic matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons distributed in size-segregated airborne particles in a zone of Mexico City: seasonal behavior and human exposure.” Atmospheric Environment 44, 122-130.
  • ATSDR, 2000, “Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.” Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA.
  • ATSDR, 2007. “Toxicological profile for arsenic, Department of Health and Human Services.” Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA.
  • ATSDR, 2005. “Toxicological profile for nickel, Department of Health and Human Services.” Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA.
  • Aydin, Y.M., Kara, M., Dumanoglu, Y., Odabasi, M., Elbir, T. 2014. “Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air of an industrial region in Turkey.” Atmospheric Environment 97, 271-285.
  • Birch, M., Cary, R. 1996. “Elemental carbon-based method for monitoring occupational exposures to particulate diesel exhaust”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 25(3), 221-241.
  • Bozlaker, A., Muezzinoglu, A., Odabasi, M. 2008a. “Atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and air–soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial region in Turkey.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 153, 1093–1102.
  • Bozlaker, A., Odabasi, M., Muezzinoglu, A. 2008b. “Dry deposition and soil–air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area”. Environmental Pollution 156, 784–793.
  • Brown S.G., Frankel A., Hafner H.R., 2007. “Source apportionment of VOCs in the L.A. area using positive matrix factorization”, Atmospheric Environment, 41, 227-237.
  • CalEPA, 2005. “Air toxics hot spots program risk assessment guidelines. Part2: Technical support document for describing available cancer potency factors.” Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Oakland, CA.
  • Carpenter, D. O., 1998, “Polychlorinated biphenyls and human health.” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health no. 11 (4):291-303.
  • Cavalli, F., Viana, M., Yttri, K.E., Genberg, J., and Putaud J.P. 2010. “Toward a standardised thermal-optical protocol for measuringatmospheric organic and elemental carbon: the EUSAAR protocol”, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 3, 79–89.
  • Cempel, M., Nikel, G., 2006, “Nickel: A review of its sources and environmental toxicology.” Polish J. Environ. Stud. 15, 375-382.
  • Chueinta, W., Hopke, P.K., Paatero, P. 2000. “Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and suburban residential areas in Thailand by positive matrix factorization”. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 3319–3329.
  • Çetin, B. Öztürk, F., Keleş, M. Yurdakul, S. 2017. “PAHs and PCBs in an Eastern Mediterranean Megacity, Istanbul: Their Spatial and Temporal Distributions, Air-Soil Exchange and Toxicological Effects.” Environmental Pollution, 220, 1322-1332.
  • Çetin, B. 2016. “Investigation of PAHs, PCBs and PCNs in soils around a Heavily Industrialized Area in Kocaeli, Turkey: Concentrations, distributions, sources and potential health risks. Science of the Total Environment 560-561, 160-169.
  • Çetin, B. 2014. “Soil Concentrations and Source Apportionment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Trace Elements around a Heavily Industrialized Area in Kocaeli, Turkey.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21, 8284-8293.
  • Çetin, B., Odabasi, M. 2007. “Particle-phase dry deposition and air-soil gas-exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Izmir, Turkey.” Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 4986-4992.
  • Çetin, B., Yatkin, S., Bayram, A., Odabasi, M. 2007. “Ambient concentrations and source apportionment of PCBs and trace elements around an industrial area in Izmir, Turkey.” Chemosphere, 69 1267-1277.
  • Chaemfa, C., Barber J. L., Gocht T., Harner T., Holoubek I., Klanova J., Jones K. C. 2008. “Field calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for PCBs and OC pesticides”. Environmental Pollution, 156, 1290-1297.
  • Chow, J., Watson J. 2002. “PM2.5 carbonate concentrations at regionally representative interagency monitoring of protected visual environment sites.” Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 107(D21), 8344.
  • Christofanelli, P., Calzolari F., Bonafe U., Lanconell C., Lupi A., Busetto M., Vitale V., Colombo T., Bonasoni P. 2011. “Five-year analysis of background carbon dioxide and ozone variations during summer seasons at the Mario Zucchelli station (Antartica).” Tellus, 63B, 831-842.
  • Christofanelli, P., Bonasoni P. 2009. “Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area:Influence of the transport processes.” Environmental Pollution 157, 1399-1406.
  • Cindoruk, S. S., Tasdemir, Y. 2010. “Ambient air levels and trends of polychlorinated biphenyls at four different sites.” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 59, 542–554
  • Davies, H., Delistraty, D. 2016. “Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA)”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 (3), 2033–2041.
  • Demiray, AD., Yolcubal I., Akyol N.H., Çobanoğlu G. 2012. “Biomonitoring of airborne metals using Lichen Xanthoria parietina in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.” Ecological Indicators 18, 632- 643.
  • Doğruparmak, SÇ., Özbay, B. Investigating Correlations and Variations of Aİr Pollutant Concentrations under Conditions of Rapid Industrialization – Kocaeli (1987-2009). Clean- Soil, Air, Water, 39, 597-604, (2011).
  • EPA PMF 3.0 Fundamentals and User Guide, 2008.US EPA Office of Research and Development Washington, DC 20460.
  • Esen, F., Tasdemir, Y., Vardar, N. 2008. “Atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, their possible sources and gas-to-particle partitioning at a residential site of Bursa, Turkey”. Atmospheric Research 88, 243-255.
  • Evci, Y. M. Esen, F. Tasdemir, Y., 2016. “Monitoring of Long-Term Outdoor Concentrations of PAHs with Passive Air Samplers and Comparison with Meteorological Data.” Archieves of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 71, 246-256.
  • Fan, X., Brook, J.R., Mabury, S.A. 2004. “Measurement of organic and elemental carbon associated with PM2.5 during Pacific 2001 study using an integrated organic gas and particle sampler.” Atmosperic Environment 38, 5801-5810.
  • Farrar, N. J., Harner T., Shoeib M., Sweetman A., Jones K. C. 2005. “Field deployment of thin film passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants: a study in the urban atmospheric boundary layer.” Environmental Science and Technology, 39, 42–48.
  • Fraser, M.P., Yue, Z.W., Tropp, R.J., Kohl, S.D., Chow, J.C. 2002. “Molecular composition of organic fine particulate matter in Houston, TX.” Atmospheric Environment 36, 5751– 5758.
  • Gaga, EO., Ari A., Döğeroğlu T., Çakırca EE., Machin NE. 2012. “Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrialized city, Kocaeli, Turkey: study of seasonal variations, influence of meteorological parameters and health risk estimation.” Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14, 2219-2229.
  • Gioia, R., Steinnes E., Thomas G. O., Meijer S. N., Jones K. C. 2006. “Persistent organic pollutants in European background air: derivation of temporal and latitudinal trends.” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8, 700–710.
  • Gouin, T., Harner T., Blanchard P., Mackay D. 2005. Passive and active air samplers as complementary methods for investigating persistent organic pollutants in the Great Lakes basin, Environmental Science and Technology, 39, 9115–9122.
  • Gregoris, E., Argiriadis, E., Vecchiato, M., Zambon, S., Pieri, SD., Donateo, A., Continit, D., Piazza, R., barbante, C., Gambaro, A. 2014. “Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.” Science of the Total Environment 476-477, 393-405.
  • Güngörmüş, E., Tuncel, S., Tecer, L.H., Sofuoglu, S.C. 2014. “Inhalation and dermal exposure to atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated carcinogenic risks in a relatively small city.” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 108, 106-113.
  • Hamzaoğlu, O, Etiler, N., Yavuz, C.I., Cağlayan, Ç. 2011. “The causes of deaths in an industry-dense area: example of Dilovası (Kocaeli)”. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 41, 369-375.
  • Harner, T., Farrar N.J., Shoeib M., Jones K.C., Gobas F.A.P.C. 2003. “Characterization of polymer-coated glass as a passive air sampler for persistent organic pollutants.” Environmental Science and Technology 37, 2486-2493.
  • Harner, T., Pozo K., Gouin T., Macdonald A.-M., Hung H., Cainey J., Peters A. 2006. “Global pilot study for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using PUF disk passive air samplers.” Environment Pollution, 144, 445–452.
  • He, Z., Kim, Y.J., Ogunjobi, K.O., Kim, J.E., Ryu, S.Y. 2004. “Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics of PM2.5 particles in Northeastern Asia in summer 2002.” Atmospheric Environment 38, 1795–1800.
  • Hogarh, J.N., Seike, N., Kobara, Y., Habib, A., Nam, J-J., Lee, J-S., Li, Q., Liu, X., Li, J., Zhang, G., Masunaga, S. 2012. “Passive air monitoring of PCBs and PCNs across East Asia: A comprehensive congener evaluation for source characterization.” Chemosphere 86, 718-726. http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready-bin/traj. “The Air Resources Laboratory, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (ARL, NOAA)”.
  • Hu, D., Hornbuckle, K.C. 2010. “Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments”, Environmental Science and Technolgy, 15, 44(8), 2822–2827.
  • IARC, 2004, “Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking, In: IARC, (Ed.), Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of humans.” Lyon, France, pp. 1-1438.
  • Jang, E., Alam, M.S., Harrison, R.M. 2011. “Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air using positive matrix factorization and spatial distribution analysis.” Atmospheric Environment 79, 271-285.
  • Jeong, C.-H., Lee, D.-H., Kim, E., Hopke, F.K. 2004. “Measurement of real-time PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols at the multiple monitoring sites.” Atmospheric Environment 38, 5247–5256.
  • Johnson, B.L., Hicks, H.E., Cibulas, W., Faroon, O., Ashizawa, A.E., De Rosa, C.T., Cogliano, V.J.; Clark, M. 1999, “Public health implications of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).” Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
  • Jin, R.H., Park, S.U., Park, J.E., Kim, J.G. 2012. “Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in River Sediments: Distribution and Source Identification Using Multivariate Factor Analysis.” Archieves of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 62, 411-423.
  • Kavouras, I.G., Koutrakis, P., Tsapakis, M., Lagoudaki, E., Stephanou, E.G., Von Baer, D., Oyola, P., 2001. “Source apportionment of urban particulate Aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using multivariate methods.” Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2288-2294.
  • Keyte, I.J., Harrison, R.M., Lammel, G. 2013. “Chemical reactivity and long-range transport potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – a review.” Chemical Society Reviews 42, 9333-9391.
  • Kim, K.S., Hirai, Y., Kato, M., Urano,K., Masunaga, S., 2004. “Detailed PCB congener petterns in incinerator flue gas and commercial PCB formulations (Kanechlor).” Chemosphere 55, 539-553.
  • Larsen, R.K., Baker, J.E., 2003. “Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: a comparison of three methods.” Environmental Science and Technology 37, 1873-1881.
  • Lauwerys, R., Lison, D., 1994. “Health risks associated with cobalt exposure-an overview.” Science of the Total Environment 150, 1-6.
  • Lee, R.G.M., Coleman, P., Jones, J.L., Jones, K.C., Lohmann, R. 2005. “Emission Factors and Importance of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PAHs and PM10 from the Domestic Burning of Coal and Wood in the U.K.” Environmental Science and Technology 39, 1436-1447.
  • Li, W., Peng, Y., Shi, J., Qiu, W., Wang, J., Bai, Z., 2011. “Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban Northeast Region of China: profiles, distributions and sources.” Atmospheric Environment, 45, 7664-7671.
  • Li, Y.M., Jiang, G.B., Wang, Y.W., Wang, P., Zhang, Q.H. 2008. “Concentrations, profiles and gas‐particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in the ambient air of an E‐waste dismantling area, southeast China.” Chinese Science Bulletin 53, 521‐528.
  • Liu, W., Hopke, P.K., Han, Y., Yi, S.M., Holsen, T.M., Cybart, S., Kozlowski, K., Milligan, M., 2003. “Application of receptor modeling to atmospheric constituents at Potsdam and Stockton, NY.” Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4997-5007.
  • Luch, A., Baird, W.M., 2010. “Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. In: A. M. Editor-in-Chief: Charlene, (Ed.), Comprehensive Toxicology (Second Edition).” Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 19-96.
  • İmamoğlu, İ., Gedik K., Demircioğlu F., Akduman N. 2009. “Türkiye’nin Poliklorlu Bifeniller Kaynaklı Kirlilik Durumuyla İlgili Çalışmalar.” Çevre Bilim ve Teknoloji, 3 (2), 15-38.
  • Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld J., Pandis S., Barnes I., Dentener F., Facchini M., Van Dingenen R., Ervens B., Nenes, A., Nielsen C. 2005. “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5(4), 1053-1123.
  • Karademir, A. 2004. “Health risk assessment of PCDD/F emissions from a hazardous and medical waste incinerator in Turkey.” Environment International, 30, 1027-1038.
  • Kavcar, P. Odabasi, M., Kitis, M., İnal, F., Sofuoglu, S.C. 2006. “Occurrence, oral exposure and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in drinking water for Izmir.” Water Research 40(17), 3219-3230.
  • Kaya, E., Dumanoglu, Y., Kara, M., Altıok, H., Bayram, A., Elbir, T., Odabaşı, M. 2012. “Spatial and temporal variation and air-soil exchange of atmospheric PAHs and PCBs in an industrial region.” Atmospheric Pollution Research, 3, 435-449.
  • Khairy, M.A., LohmannR. 2013. “Source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment of Alexandria, Egypt.” Chemosphere 91, 895–903.
  • Lee, H.S., Kang, B.W. 2001. “Chemical characteristics of principal PM2.5 species in Chongju, South Korea.” Atmospheric Environment 35, 739–746.
  • Koçak, M., Mihalopoulos, N., Kubilay, N. 2009. “Origin and source regions of PM10 in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere”, Atmospheric Research, 92, 464-474.
  • Kuzu, SL., Saral, A., Demir, S., Coltu, H., Can, M., Beyaz, T. 2013. “Estimation of atmospheric PCB releases from industrial facilities in Turkey.” Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4, 420-426.
  • Lewis, C.W., Klouda, G.A., Ellenson, W.D. 2000. “Radiocarbon measurements on PM2.5 ambient air”, presented at NARSTO 2000 Conference: Tropospheric Aerosols: Science and Decisions in an International Community, Quereto, Mexico, 23-26.
  • Manoli, E., Kouras, A., Karagkiozidou, O., Argyropoulos, G., Voutsa, D., Samara, C., 2016. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at traffic and urban background sites of northern Greece: source apportionment of ambient PAH levels and PAH-induced lung cancer risk. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 23, 3556-3568.
  • Min, Y., Lee, M., kim, D., Heo, J. 2013. “Annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs levels in satellite cities of Seoul, Korea during 2003– 2009.” Atmospheric Environment 77, 222-230.
  • Motelay-Massei, A., Ollivon, D., Garban, B., Tiphagne-Larcher, K., Zimmerlin, I., Chevreuil, M., 2007. “PAHs in the bulk atmospheric deposition of the Seine river basin: source identification and apportionment by ratios, multivariate statistical techniques and scanning electron microscopy.” Chemosphere 67, 312-321.
  • Mari, M., Schuhmacher M., Feliubadalo J. Domingo J. L. 2008. “Air concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs using active and passive air samplers.” Chemosphere, 70, 1637- 1643.
  • Nisbet, I.C., LaGoy, P.K. 1992. “Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 16, 290-300.
  • OEHHA, 1996. “Toxic Air Contaminant document: Lead, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.”
  • Ockenden, W.A., Corrigan B., Howsam M., Jones K.C. 2001. “Further developments in the use of semipermeable membrane devices as passive air samplers: application to PCBs.” Environmental Science and Technology 35, 4536-4543.
  • Odabasi, M., Muezzinoglu, A., Bozlaker, A. 2002. “Ambient concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of trace elements in Izmir, Turkey.” Atmospheric Environment 36, 5841- 5851.
  • Odabasi, M., Bayram, A., Elbir, T., Seyfioglu, R., Dumanoglu, Y., Bozlaker, A., Demircioglu, H., Altiok, H., Yatkin, S., Cetin, B. 2009. “Electric Arc Furnaces for Steel-Making: Hot Spots for Persistent Organic Pollutants.” Environmental Science and Technology 43, 5205-5211.
  • Odabasi, M., Dumanoglu, Y., Falay, E.Ö., Tuna, G., Altiok, H., Kara, M., Bayram, A., Tolunay, D., Elbir, T. 2016. “Investigation of spatial distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a heavily polluted industrial region using tree components.” Chemosphere 160, 114-125.
  • Öztürk, F., Zararsız, A., Dutkiewicz, V.A., Husain, L., Hopke, P.K., Tuncel, G. 2012. “Temporal Variations and Sources of Eastern Mediterranean Aerosols Based on 9-Year Long Observation.” Atmospheric Environment 61, 463-75.
  • Öztürk F, Keles M. 2016. “Wintertime Chemical Compositions of Coarse and Fine Fractions of Particulate Matter in Bolu, Turkey, Environmental Science and Pollution Research (ESPR) 23, 14157-14172.”
  • Öztürk, F., Bahreini, R., Wagner, N., Dubé, W., Young, C., Brown, S.S., Brock, C, Ulbrich, I.M., Jimenez, J.L., Cooper, O.R., Middlebrook, A.M., 2013. “Vertically Resolved Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Sub-micron Aerosols in a Suburban Area near Denver, Colorado, in winter”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(24), 13591, 13605.
  • Paatero P., Tapper U. 1994. “Positive matrix factorization: A non-negative factor model with optimal utilization of error estimates of data value”, Environmetrics, 5, 111-126.
  • Paatero, P., 2000. “User’s guide for positive matrix factorization programs PMF2 and PMF3, Part 1: tutorial.”
  • Pacyna J, Pacyna E. 2001. “An assessment of global and regional emissions of tracemetals to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources worldwide.” Environmental Reviews 9, 269- 298.
  • Park, S.S., Kim, Y.J., Fung, K. 2002. “PM2.5 carbon measurements in two urban areas: Seoul and Kwangju, Korea.” Atmospheric Environment 36, 1287–1297.
  • Plaisance, H., Galloo J.C., Guillermo R. 1997. “Source identification and variation in the chemical composition of precipitation at two rural sites in France, Science of the Total Environment, 206, 79-93.”
  • Polissar, A.V., Hopke, P.K. and Poirot, R.L., 2001. “Atmospheric aerosol over Vermont: chemical composition and sources.” Environmental Science and Technology 35, 4604–4621.
  • Pekey, B. ve Özaslan, U. 2013. “Spatial Distribution of SO2, NO2, and O3 Concentrations in an Industrial City of Turkey Using a Passive Sampling Method”. Clean-Soil Air Water 41, 423-428.
  • Pekey, B. Karakaş, D. Ayberk, S. 2007. “Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Izmit Bay, Turkey”. Chemosphere 67, 537-547.
  • Pozo, K., Harner T., Wania F., Muir D.C.G., Jones K.C., Barrie L.A. 2006. “Toward a global network for persistent organic pollutants in air: Results from the GAPS study.” Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 4867–4873.
  • Pozo, K., Harner T., Rudolph A., Oyala G., Estellano V.H., Ahumada-Rudolph R., Garrido M., Pozo K., Mabilia R., Focardi S. 2012. “Survey of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of rural, urban and industrial areas of Concepciόn, Chile, using passive air samplers”. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 3, 426-434.
  • Pozo, K., palmeri, M., Estellano, V.H., Mulder, M.D., Efstathiou, C.I., Sara, G.L., Romeo, T., Lammel, G., Focardi, S. 2016. “Assessing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Sicily Island atmosphere, Mediterranean, using PUF disk passive air samplers.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(20), 20796-20804.
  • Puxbaum, H., Gomiscek, B., Kalina, M., Bauer, H., Salam, A., Stopper, S., Preining, O., Hauck, H. 2004. “A dual site study of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol chemistry in the larger region of Vienna, Austria.” Atmospheric Environment 38,3949–3958.
  • Rajput, N., Lakhani, A., 2010. “Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban atmosphere of Agra, India.” Atmosfera 23, 165-183
  • Reddy, C.M., Pearson, A., Xu, L., McNichol, A.P., Benner, B.A., Jr., Wise, S.A., Louda, G.A., Currie, L.A., Eglinton, T.I. 2002. “Radiocarbon as a tool to apportion the sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Black Carbon in Environmental Samples”. Environmental Science and Technology 36, 1774-1782.
  • Rockne, K., Granberg, K., Thai, L., Miller, J., Willoughby, T. 2011. “Receptor modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated harbor airshed.” In ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts
  • Ruge, Z., Muir, D., Helm, P., Lohmann, R. 2015. “Concentrations, Trends, and Air–Water Exchange of PAHs and PBDEs Derived from Passive Samplers in Lake Superior in 2011.” Environmental Science and Technology, 49 (23), 13777–13786.
  • Sadiktsis, I., Bergvall, C., Johansson, C., Westerholm, R. 2012. “Automobile tires-a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.” Environmental Science and Technology 46, 3326–3334.
  • Saraga D.E. , Sfetsos A Andronopoulos S, Chronis A., Maggos T., Vlachogiannis D., Bartzis J.G., 2009. “An investigation of the parameters influencing the determination of the number of particulate matter sources and their contribution to the air quality of an indoor residential environment.” Environmental Science and Engineering, Part 2, 453-464.
  • Seinfeld, J., Pandis S. 2006. “Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.” John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Shen, L., Wania F., Lei Y.D., Teixeira C., Muir D.CG., Bidleman T.F. 2004. “Hexachlorocyclohexanes in the North American atmosphere.” Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 965-975.
  • Shoeib, M., Harner T. 2002. “Characterization and comparison of three passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants,” Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 4142–4151.
  • Simcik M.F., Basu, I. Sweet, C.W. Hites, R.A. 1999. “Temperature dependence and temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the Great Lakes atmosphere.” Environmental Science and Technology 33, 1991–1995.
  • Sivaslıgil, A. 2007. “Gebze-Dilovası’nda Partikül Madde Kirliliği; Kirletici Kaynakların Dökümü Ve Partikül Madde Kanserojenik PAH Analizi.” Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü, Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Stone E.A., Lough G.C., Schauer J.J., Praveen P.S., Corrigan C.E., Ramanathan V., 2007. “Understanding the origin of black carbon in the atmospheric brown cloud over the Indian Ocean”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D22S23.
  • Takasuga, T., Senthilkumar, K., Matsumura, T., Shiozaki, K., Sakai, S.I. 2006. “Isotope dilution analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and global commercial PCB formulations by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry”, Chemosphere 62, 469-484.
  • Tanner, R.L., Parkhurst, W.J., McNichol, A.P. 2004. “Fossil Sources of Ambient Aerosol Carbon Based on 14C Measurements”. Aerosol Science and Technology, 38(S1), 133-139.
  • Telli-Karakoç, F., Tolun, L., Henkelmann, B., Klimm, C., Okay, O., Schramm, K.W. 2002. “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in the Bay of Marmara sea: İzmit Bay”. Environmental Pollution, 119, 383-397.
  • Tolun, L.G., Okay, O.S., Gaines, A.F., Tolay, M., Tüfekçi, H., Kıratlı, N. 2001. “The pollution status and the toxicity of surface sediments in İzmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey”. Environment International, 26, 163-168.
  • Tsapakis, M., Stephanou, E.G. 2005a. “Occurrence of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: study of sources and ambient temperature effect on the gas/particle concentration and distribution.” Environmental Pollution 133, 147- 156.
  • Tsapakis, M., Stephanou, E.G. (2005b). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Eastern Mediterranean. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 6584-6590.
  • Ugranli, T. Gungormus, E., Kavcar, P., Demircioğlu, E., Odabasi, M., Sofuoglu, S.C., Lammel, G., Sofuoglu, A. 2016. “POPs in a major conurbation in Turkey: ambient air concentrations, seasonal variation, inhalation and dermal exposure, and associated carcinogenic risks.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(22), 22500-22512.
  • USEPA, 1996. “PCBs: Cancer dose-response assessment and application to environmental mixtures,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 1997. Exposure factors handbook, EPA/600/P-95/002Fa. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development National Center for Environmental Assessment.
  • USEPA, 1998, Integrated risk information system (IRIS) on arsenic, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 1999, Integrated risk information system (IRIS) on nickel refinery dust, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 2006, Air quality criteria for lead: Volume I of II, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA-600/R-5/144aF.
  • USEPA, 2005, Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, Risk Assessment Forum, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 2006, Integrated Risk Information System: Cobalt, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 2007, Slope factors (SF) for carcinogens. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 2008. Health Effects of PCBs. Retrieved on 20.12.2008. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwh/t-soc/pcbs.html.
  • USEPA, 2008, National ambient air quality standards for lead; Final rule, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 2010, Development of a relative potency factor (RPF) approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures (external review draft), US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • USEPA, 2010, Recommended toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs) for human health risk assessments of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin-Like Compounds. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • Vardar, N. Esen, F. Tasdemir, Y. 2008. “Seasonal concentrations and partitioning of PAHs in a suburban site of Bursa, Turkey”. Environmental Pollution, 155, 298–307.
  • Vasilakos, C., Levi, N., Maggos, T., Hatzianestis, J. Michopoulos, J., Helmis, C. 2007. “Gas–particle concentration and characterization of sources of PAHs in the atmosphere of a suburban area in Athens, Greece.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 140, 45-51.
  • Vasilatou, V., Diapoli, E., Abatzoglou, D., Bakeas, E.B., Scoullos, M., Eleftheriadis, K. 2017. “Characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition at the Demokritos suburban station, in Athens Greece. The influence of Saharan dust.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 10.1007/s11356-017-8684-3.
  • Vilavert, L., vd., 2014, Seasonal surveillance of airborne PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs using passive samplers to assess human health risks, Science of The Total Environment no. 466– 467 (0):733-740.
  • Volkamer, R., Ziemann P., Molina, M. 2009. “Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2): seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(6), 1907-1928.
  • Vu, V., Lee, B., Kim, J., Lee,C., Kim, I. 2011. “Assessment of carcinogenic risk due to inhalation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 from an industrial city: A Korean casestudy.” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189, 349–356.
  • Wada O., 2004, “What are trace elements?” J. Jpn. Med. Assoc. 47, 351-358.
  • Wang, W., Simonich, S., Giri, B., Chang, Y., Zhang, Y., Jia, Y., Tao, S., Wang, R., Wang, B., Li, W., Cao, J., Lu, X. 2011. “Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing– Tianjin region, North China.” Science of the Total Environment 409, 2942-2950.
  • Wania, F., Shen L., Lei Y.D., Teixeira C., Muir D. 2003. “Development and calibration of a resin-based passive sampling system for monitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere.” Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 1352–1359.
  • Watson, JG., Chow, J.C. 2015 “Receptor Models and Measurements for Identifying and Quantifying Air Pollution Sources.” Introduction to Environmental Forensic. Ye, B., Ji, X., Yang, H., Yao, X., Chan, C.K., Cadle, S.H., Chan, T., Mulawa, P.A. 2003. “Concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 in Shangai for a 1-year period.” Atmospheric Environment 37, 99– 510.
  • Yılmaz Civan, M., 2010, Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in Bursa atmosphere: seasonality and health effects, Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi (Tez).
  • Yılmaz Civan, M., Elbir, T., Seyfioglu, R., Oguz Kuntasal, O., Bayram, A., Dogan, G., Yurdakul, S. v.d. 2015. “Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric VOCs, NO2, SO2, and O3 derişims at a heavily industrialized region in Western Turkey, and assessment of the carcinogenic risk levels of benzene.” Atmospheric Environment 103, 102-113.
  • Yolcubal, I., Gunduz, OC., Sonmez, F. (2016). “Assessment of impact of environmental pollution on groundwater and surface water qualities in a heavily industrialized district of Kocaeli (Dilovasi), Turkey.” Environmental Earth Sciences 75, 170-193.
  • Zhou, S., Wang Z., Gao R., Xue L., Yuan C., Wang T., Gao X., Wang X., Nie W., Xu Z., Zhang Q., Wang W. 2012. “Formation of secondary organic carbon and long-range transport of carbonaceous aerosols at Mount Heng in South China.” Atmospheric Environment, 63, 203-212.
  • Zuo, Q., Duan, Y.H., Yang, Y., Wang, X.J., Tao, S., 2007. “Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil in Tianjin, China.” Environmental Pollution 147, 303-310.
APA ÇETİN B, ODABAŞI M, SOFUOĞLU S, ÖZTÜRK F, YURDAKUL S (2016). Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi. , 1 - 163. 113Y500
Chicago ÇETİN Banu,ODABAŞI Mustafa,SOFUOĞLU Sait Cemil,ÖZTÜRK FATMA,YURDAKUL SEMA Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi. (2016): 1 - 163. 113Y500
MLA ÇETİN Banu,ODABAŞI Mustafa,SOFUOĞLU Sait Cemil,ÖZTÜRK FATMA,YURDAKUL SEMA Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi. , 2016, ss.1 - 163. 113Y500
AMA ÇETİN B,ODABAŞI M,SOFUOĞLU S,ÖZTÜRK F,YURDAKUL S Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi. . 2016; 1 - 163. 113Y500
Vancouver ÇETİN B,ODABAŞI M,SOFUOĞLU S,ÖZTÜRK F,YURDAKUL S Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi. . 2016; 1 - 163. 113Y500
IEEE ÇETİN B,ODABAŞI M,SOFUOĞLU S,ÖZTÜRK F,YURDAKUL S "Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi." , ss.1 - 163, 2016. 113Y500
ISNAD ÇETİN, Banu vd. "Dilovası Endüstri Bölgesi ve Çevresinde Hava Kirliliğine Neden olan Organik ve İnorganik Kirleticilerin Düzeylerinin ve Kaynaklarının Belirlenmesi". (2016), 1-163. https://doi.org/113Y500
  • 1- PAHs and PCBs in an Eastern Mediterranean megacity, Istanbul: Their spatial and temporal distributions, air-soil exchange and toxicological effects (Makale - Diger Hakemli Makale),
  • 2- Investigation of Spatial and Temporal Distributions of PAHs in the atmosphere of Dilovasi. (Bildiri - Uluslararası Bildiri - Sözlü Sunum),