Yıl: 2009 Cilt: 38 Sayı: 2 Sayfa Aralığı: 161 - 186 Metin Dili: Türkçe İndeks Tarihi: 29-07-2022

Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları

Öz:
Enerji ve Çevre konularında karar analizi tekniklerinin kullanılması son yıllarda Yöneylem Araştırması literatüründe sıklıkla karşımıza çıkan bir durumdur. Yapılan çalışmalara bakıldığında, karar analizi tekniklerinin özellikle elektrik enerjisi planlamasında kullanıldığı ve bu alanda yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarına olan ilginin gittikçe arttığı gözlemlenmektedir. Bu çalışma, karar analizinin güncel tekniklerinden olan ELECTRE (Elimination and Choice Translating Reality) ve PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation) yöntemlerinin Türkiye enerji sektöründe uygulanmasını amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada, çeşitli hidroelektrik santral projelerinin ELECTRE yöntemi ile sıralandığı ve çeşitli rüzgar santrali projelerinin PROMETHEE tekniği kullanılarak sıralandığı iki adet uygulama bulunmaktadır. Çalışma, Türkiye enerji sektöründe genellikle karar vericinin yargısına yüksek derecede bağlı olan kararların, analitik yöntemler kullanılarak daha rasyonel bir şekilde alınabileceğini göstermek amacındadır.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: İş Mühendislik, Makine İşletme Enerji ve Yakıtlar

KİŞİSEL ÖĞRENME VE YARATICILIK: PSİKOLOJİK GÜÇLENDİRMENİN ARACILIK ROLÜ

Öz:
Bu çalışma, kişisel öğrenmeninpsikolojik güçlendirme ve yaratıcılıkile ilişkisini incelemektedir. Dahaönceki çalışmalar iş yerindeöğrenmenin çalışan yetkinliğinigeliştirerek yaratıcılığı etkilediğini göstermektedir.ancak bu çalışmalar iş yerindeki kişiler arasıilişkilere odaklanan kişisel öğrenmeyi ve bununkapsamlı etkisini dikkate almamaktadır. Buaraştırma, kişisel öğrenmenin sadece iş yetkinliğiile değil ayrıca işin anlamı, özerkliği ve işteki etkiile ilişkili olacağını iddia etmektedir. Dolayısıylabu çalışma kişisel öğrenmenin psikolojikgüçlendirme aracılığıyla yaratıcılık ile ilişkiliolacağını savunmaktadır. Bu hipotezi test etmekiçin araştırma ve geliştirme odaklı şirketlerdeçalışanlar üzerinde bir saha araştırması yapılmış ve107 çalışandan ve 57 yöneticiden soru formuyoluyla veri toplanmıştır. Birden fazla kaynak(çalışan, yönetici) kullanılarak toplanan verileranaliz edildiğinde kişisel öğrenmenin psikolojikgüçlendirme üzerinden yaratıcılık ile dolaylı ilişkiliolduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu bulgular ışığında, teorikve pratik katkılar tartışılmıştır. Temel olarak kişiselöğrenmenin de önemli bir eğitim konusuolabileceği ve bu tür bir öğrenmenin çalışanlarıniçsel ve otonom motivasyonlarını yükselterekçalışanların yaratıcılığını arttıracağı belirtilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: İş Mühendislik, Makine İşletme Enerji ve Yakıtlar

PERSONAL LEARNING AND CREATIVITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT

Öz:
This study examines the relationship between personal learning and psychological empowerment and creativity. While prior studies have indicated that the workplace learning influences creativity through employee’s enhanced competence, they fail to recognize personal learning, an interpersonal aspect of learning, and its extended effects. The study asserts that personal learning is not only related with competence, but it is also related with the meaning of work, impact and autonomy of the job. Thus, the study hypothesize that personal learning is related to creativity through psychological empowerment. To test this hypothesis, a field survey is conducted on employees working at research and development-oriented firms, and data are collected from 107 employees and 57 superivors through survey forms. By using a multi-source (employee, supervisor) data collection, it is found that personal learning is indirectly related with creativity through psychological empowerment. In the light of these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Basically, it is noted that personal learning can be considered as an important training topic, and such learning can enhance creativity of employees by increasing their internal and autonomous motivations.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: İş Mühendislik, Makine İşletme Enerji ve Yakıtlar

Multi criteria decision analysis approaches in energy projects evaluation process and Turkey applications

Öz:
The use of Decision Analysis techniques in Energy & Environment issues has been encountered often in Operations Research literature recently. When we look at the studies, it is seen that Decision Analysis techniques are especially used in electric energy planning. Also, it can be noticed that there is a growing interest on renewable energy resources. This study aims to apply two contemporary Decision Analysis techniques, ELECTRE (Elimination and Choice Translating Reality) and PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation) in energy industry of Turkey. In the study, there are two applications. In the first application, various hydroelectric plant projects are ranked using ELECTRE method. The second application ranks multiple wind plant projects using PROMETHEE technique. The study aims to present that decisions in the Turkish energy industry which are highly dependent on the judgment of the decision maker, can be made in a more rational manner with the use of analytical techniques.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: İş Mühendislik, Makine İşletme Enerji ve Yakıtlar
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Araştırma Makalesi Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • Alge, B.J., G.A. Ballinger, S. Tangirala, J.L. Oakley, (2006), "Information Privacy in Organizations: Empowering Creative and Extrarole Performance", Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 221–232, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.221
  • Amabile, T., (1983), "The social psychology of creativity: A componential Conceptualization", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357–376, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.2.357
  • Beccali, M., M. Cellura, M. Mistretta (2003) “Decision-Making in Energy Planning: Application of the ELECTRE Method at Regional Level for the Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology”, Renewable Energy, 28, 2063–87.
  • Amabile, T., (1997), "Motivating Creativity in Organizations: On Doing What You Love and Loving What You Do", California Management Review, 40(1), 39–58. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165921
  • Benayoun, R., B. Roy, B. Sussman (1966) “ELECTRE: Une Méthode Pour Guider Le Choix En Présence De Points De Vue Multiples”, Note De Travail 49, SEMA-METRA International, Direction Scientifique.
  • Amabile, T., R. Conti, H. Coon, J. Lazenby, M. Herron, (1996), "Assesing the Work Environment for Creativity", Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1154–1184, https://doi.org/10.2307/256995
  • Brans, J.P., B. Mareschal (2005) “PROMETHEE Methods”, in Figueira, J, Greco, S, Ehrgott, M (eds.), Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis-State of the Art Surveys, Springer, New York, 163-195.
  • Anderson, N., K. Potočnik, J. Zhou, (2014), "Innovation and Creativity in Organizations", Journal of Management, 40(5), 1297–1333, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314527128
  • Dağdeviren, M., E. Eraslan (2008) “Promethee Sıralama Yöntemi İle Tedarikçi Seçimi”, Gazi Üniversitesi Mühendislik Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(1), 69-75.
  • Ashforth, B.E., F. Mael, (1989), "Social Identity Theory and the Organization", Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39, https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1989.4278999
  • Dargam, F.C.C., E.W. Perz (1998) “A Decision Support System for Power Plant Design”, European Journal of Operational Research, 109, 310–20.
  • Baas, M., C.K.W. De Dreu, B.A. Nijstad, (2008), "A Meta-Analysis of 25 Years of Mood- Creativity Research: Hedonic Tone, Activation, or Regulatory Focus?", Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779–806. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012815
  • Diakoulaki, D., C. Zopounidis, G. Mavrotas, M. Doumpos (1999) “The Use of A Preference Disaggregation Method İn Energy Analysis And Policy Making”, Energy, 24, 157–66.
  • Bates, D., M. Mächler, B. Bolker, S. Walker, (2015), "Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4", Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1-48, https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01
  • Dunning, D.J., S. Lockfort, Q.E. Ross, P.C. Beccue, J.S. Stonebraker (2001) “New York Power Authority Uses Decision Analysis to Schedule Refueling of its Indian Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant”, Interfaces, 31(5), 121–35.
  • Becker, T.E., (2005), "Potential Problems in the Statistical Control of Variables in Organizational Research: A Qualitative Analysis With Recommendations", Organizational Research Methods, 8(3), 274–289, https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105278021
  • Dünya Enerji Konseyi Türk Milli Komitesi (2007) 2005-2006 Türkiye Enerji Raporu, Ankara.
  • Bednall, T.C., K. Sanders, P. Runhaar, (2014), "Stimulating Informal Learning Activities Through Perceptions of Performance Appraisal Quality and Human Resource Management System Strength: A Two-Wave Study", Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(1), 45–61, https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2012.0162
  • Figueira, J., V. Mousseau, B. Roy (2005) “Electre Methods”, in: Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: State of the Art Surveys, J. Figueria, S., Greco, M. Ehrgott) (eds.), Boston, Springer, 133-162.
  • Bliese, P.D., M.A. Maltarich, J.L. Hendricks, (2018), "Back to Basics with Mixed-Effects Models: Nine Take-Away Points", Journal of Business and Psychology, 33(1), 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-017-9491-z
  • Georgopoulou, E., D. Lalas, L. Papagiannakis (1997) “A Multicriteria Decision Aid Approach for Energy Planning Problems: The Case of Renewable Energy Option”, European Journal of Operational Research, 103, 38–54.
  • Bouty, I., (2000), I"nterpersonal and Interaction Influences on Informal Resource Exchanges Between R&D Researchers Across Organizational Boundaries", Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 50–65, https://doi.org/10.2307/1556385
  • Georgopoulou, E., Y. Sarafidis, S. Mirasgedis, S. Zaimi, D.P. Lalas (2003) “A Multiple Criteria Decision-Aid Approach in Defining National Priorities for Greenhouse Gases Emissions Reduction in the Energy Sector”, European Journal of Operational Research, 146, 199–215.
  • Byron, K., S. Khazanchi, D. Nazarian, (2010), "The Relationship Between Stressors and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis Examining Competing Theoretical Models", Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 201–212, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017868
  • Goumas, M.G., V.A Lygerou, L.E. Papayannakis (1999) “Computational Methods for Planning and Evaluating Geothermal Energy Projects”, Energy Policy, 27, 147–54.
  • Carlson, K.D., J. Wu, (2011), "The Illusion of Statistical Control", Organizational Research Methods, 15(3), 413–435, https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428111428817
  • Haralambopoulos, D.A., H. Polatidis (2003)“Renewable Energy Projects: Structuring A Multicriteria Group Decision-Making Framework”, Renewable Energy, 28, 961–73.
  • Choi, J.N., R.H. Price, (2005), "The Effects of Person-Innovation fit on Individual Responses to Innovation", Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(1), 83–96, https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904X22953
  • Hobbs, B.F., P.T. Chao, B.N. Venkatesh (1997) “Using Decision Analysis to Include Climate Change in Water Resources Decision Making”, Climatic Change, 37, 77–202.
  • Colquitt, J.A., J. LePine, R.A. Noe, (2000), "Toward an Integrative Theory of Training Motivation", Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 687–707, https://doi.org/10.1080/15389580903370047
  • Hokkanen, J., P. Salminen (1997) “ELECTRE III And IV Decision Aids in an Environmental Problem”, Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 6, 215–26.
  • de Lange, A.H., T.W. Taris, P. Jansen, M.A.J. Kompier, I.L.D. Houtman, P.M. Bongers, (2009), "On the Relationships Among Work Characteristics and Learning-Related Behavior: Does Age Matter?", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(7), 925–950. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.649
  • Huang, J.P., K.L. Poh, B.W Ang (1995) “Decision Analysis in Energy and Environmental Modeling”, Energy, 20, 843–855.
  • Döner, A.S., (2016), "İnovasyon Beşiği Teknoparklarda İlişki Dinamikleri", Kastamonu Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(2), 419–430.
  • Kalu, T. Ch. U. (1998) “Domestic Petroleum-Related Expertise Utilization and Nigeria’s Oil Industrial Survival: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis”, European Journal of Operational Research, 110, 457–73.
  • Dulebohn, J.H., W.H. Bommer, R.C. Liden, R.L. Brouer, G.R. Ferris, (2012), "A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Consequences of Leader-Member Exchange: Integrating the Past With an Eye Toward the Future", Journal of Management, 38(6), 1715–1759. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311415280
  • Lahdelma, R., P. Salminen, J. Hokkanen (2002) “Locating A Waste Treatment Facility By Using Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis with Ordinal Criteria”, European Journal of Operational Research, 142, 45–56.
  • Eraut, M., (2004), "Informal Learning in the Workplace", Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2), 247–273, https://doi.org/10.1080/158037042000225245
  • Linares, P. (2002) “Multiple Criteria Decision Making And Risk Analysis As Risk Management Tools For Power Systems Planning”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 17, 895–900.
  • Ergeneli, A., G.S. Arı, S. Metin, (2007), "Psychological Empowerment and its Relationship to Trust in Immediate Managers", Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 41–49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.09.012
  • Loulou, R., A. Kanudia (1999) “Minimax Regret Strategies For Greenhouse Gas Abatement: Methodology And Application”, Operations Research Letters, 25, 219–30.
  • Fonseca, T., P. de Faria, F. Lima, (2019), "Human Capital and Innovation: The Importance of the Optimal Organizational Task Structure", Research Policy, 48(3), 616–627, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2018.10.010
  • Macharis, C., J.P. Brans, B. Mareschal (1998) “The GDSS PROMETHEE Procedure – A PROMETHEE-GAIA Based Procedure For Group Decision Support”, Journal of Decision Systems, 7, 283–307.
  • Gagné, M., E.L. Deci, (2005), "Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331–362, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.322
  • Mills, D., L. Viacic, I. Lowe (1996) “Improving Electricity Planning-Use of A Multicriteria Decision Making Model”, International Transactions in Operational Research, 3, 293–304.
  • George, J.M., J. Zhou, (2001), "When Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness are Related to Creative Behavior: An Interactional Approach", Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 513–524, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.513
  • Pan, J.P., Y. Teklu, S. Rahman, A.D. Castro (2000) “An İnterval-Based MADM Approach to the Identification of Candidate Alternatives in Strategic Resource Planning”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 15, 1441–6.
  • Gino, F., L. Argote, E. Miron-Spektor, G. Todorova, (2010), "First, get your feet wet: The Effects of Learning from Direct and Indirect Experience on Team Creativity". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 111(2), 102–115, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.11.002
  • Ramanathan, R. (2001) “A Note on the use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process for Environmental Impact Assessment”, Journal of Environmental Management, 63, 27–35.
  • Gong, Y., J-C. Huang, J-L. Farh, (2009), "Employee Learning Orientation, Transformational Leadership, and Employee Creativity: The Mediating Role of Employee Creative Self- Efficacy", Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 765–778, https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.43670890
  • Rogers, M. (2000) “Using Electre III to Aid The Choice of Housing Construction Process within Structural Engineering”, Construction Management and Economics, 18, 333-342.
  • Hackman, J.R., G.R. Oldham (1976), "Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 16(2), 250–279, Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0030507376900167
  • Roy, B. (1968) “Classement Et Choix En Présence De Points De Vue Multiples (La Méthode ELECTRE)”, RIRO, 8, 57–75.
  • Haggard, D.L., T.W. Dougherty, D.B. Turban, J.E. Wilbanks, (2011), "Who Is a Mentor? A Review of Evolving Definitions and Implications for Research", Journal of Management, 37(1), 280–304, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310386227
  • Salminen, P., J. Hokkanen, R. Lahdelma (1998) “Comparing Multicriteria Methods in The Context of Environmental Problems”, European Journal of Operational Research, 104, 485–96.
  • Hayes, A.F., (2013), Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, New York: Guilford Press.
  • Vaillancourt, K., J.P. Waaub (2004) “Equity İn İnternational Greenhouse Gases Abatement Scenarios: A Multicriteria Approach”, European Journal of Operational Research, 153, 489–505.
  • Hofmann, D.A., M.B. Gavin, (1998), "Centering Decisions in Hierarchical Linear Models: Implications for Research in Organizations", Journal of Management, 24(5), 623–641, https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639802400504
  • Voropai, N.I., E. Ivanova (2002) “Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Techniques in Electric Power System Expansion Planning”, International Journal of Electrical Power Energy Systems, 24, 71–8.
  • İpek, İ., (2019), "Organizational Learning in Exporting: A Bibliometric Analysis and Critical Review of the Empirical Research", International Business Review, 28(3), 544–559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2018.11.010
  • Wang, X., Z. Feng (2002) “Sustainable Development of Rural Energy and its Appraising System in China”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 6, 395–404.
  • İzmir Kalkınma Ajansı, (2018), İzmir Yenilik Ekosistemi 2018 İzleme Raporu, İzmir. Retrieved from https://www.izka.org.tr/docs/strateji-analiz/01_yenilik_gostergeleri.pdf
  • Zhou, P., B.W. Ang, K.L. Poh (2006) “Decision Analysis in Energy and Environmental Modeling: an Update”, Energy, 31, 2604–2622.
  • Kline, R.B. (2010), Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, Third Edition, Guilford Press.
  • Kwan, H.K., Y. Mao, H. Zhang (2010), "The Impact of Role Modeling on Protégés’ Personal Learning and Work-to-Family Enrichment", Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2), 313–322, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.04.009
  • Lanaj, K., C-H. Chang, R.E. Johnson (2012), "Regulatory focus and Work-Related Outcomes: A Review and Meta-Analysis", Psychological Bulletin, 138(5), 998–1034, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027723
  • Lankau, M.J., T.A. Scandura, (2002), "An Investigation of Personal Learning in Mentoring Relationships: Content, Antecedents, and Consequences", Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 779–790, https://doi.org/10.2307/3069311
  • Little, T.D., W.A. Cunningham, G. Shahar, K. F. Widaman, (2002), "To Parcel or Not to Parcel: Exploring the Question, Weighing the Merits", Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 151–173. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1
  • Little, T.D., M. Rhemtulla, K. Gibson, A.M. Schoemann, (2013), "Why the items versus parcels controversy needn’t be one", Psychological Methods, 18(3), 285–300, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033266
  • Liu, D., P.P. Fu, (2011), "Motivating Protégés’ Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation", Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1195–1208, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024716
  • Liu, D., S. Wang, S. J. Wayne, (2015), "Is Being a Good Learner Enough? An Examination of the Interplay Between Learning Goal Orientation and Impression Management Tactics on Creativity", Personnel Psychology, 68(1), 109–142, https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12064
  • Ma, H-H., (2006), "A Synthetic Analysis of the Effectiveness of Single Components and Packages in Creativity Training Programs", Creativity Research Journal, 18(4), 435– 446, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326934crj1804_3
  • MacKinnon, D.P., C.M. Lockwood, L.J. Williams, (2004), "Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods", Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3901
  • Manuti, A., S. Pastore, A.F. Scardigno, M.L. Giancaspro, D. Morciano, (2015), "Formal and Informal Learning in the Workplace: a Research Review", International Journal of Training and Development, 19(1), 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1111/ijtd.12044
  • Maurer, I., V. Bartsch, M. Ebers, (2011), "The Value of Intra-Organizational Social Capital: How it Fosters Knowledge Transfer, Innovation Performance, and Growth", Organization Studies, 32(2), 157–185, https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840610394301
  • Merriam, S.B., B. Heuer, (1996), "Meaning‐Making, Adult learning and Development: A Model with Implications for Practice", International Journal of Lifelong Education, 15(4), 243–255, https://doi.org/10.1080/0260137960150402
  • Morrison, E.W., (1993), "Newcomer Information Seeking: Exploring Types, Modes, Sources, and Outcomes", Academy of Management Journal, 36(3), 557–589, https://doi.org/10.5465/256592
  • Noe, R.A., A.D.M. Clarke, H.J. Klein, (2014), "Learning in the Twenty-First-Century Workplace", Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 245–275, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091321
  • Noe, R.A., M.J. Tews, A.M. Dachner, (2010), "Learner Engagement: A New Perspective for Enhancing our Understanding of Learner Motivation and Workplace Learning", Academy of Management Annals, 4(1), 279–315, https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2010.493286
  • Oldham, G.R., A. Cummings, (1996), "Employee Creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work", Academy of Management Journal, 39(3), 607–634, https://doi.org/10.2307/256657
  • Ostroff, C., Kozlowski, S. W. J., (1993), "The Role of Mentoring in the Information Gathering Processes of Newcomers during Early Organizational Socialization", Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42(2), 170–183, https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1012
  • Preacher, K.J., J.P. Selig, (2012), "Advantages of Monte Carlo Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects", Communication Methods and Measures, 6(2), 77–98, https://doi.org/10.1080/19312458.2012.679848
  • R Core Team, (2016), "R Development Core Team", R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, https://doi.org/http://www.R-project.org
  • Raudenbush, S.W., A.S. Bryk, (2002), Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Reiter-Palmon, R., J.J. Illies, (2004), "Leadership and creativity: Understanding Leadership from a Creative Problem-Solving Perspective", The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 55–77, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.12.005
  • Rigolizzo, M., T. Amabile, (2015), "Entrepreneurial Creativity: The Role of Learning Processes and Work Environment Supports", In C. E. Shalley, M. A. Hitt ve J. Zhou (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship (pp. 61–78), Oxford University Press, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199927678.013.0018
  • Rosing, K., M. Frese, A. Bausch, (2011), "Explaining the Heterogeneity of the Leadership- Innovation Relationship: Ambidextrous Leadership", The Leadership Quarterly, 22(5), 956–974, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.07.014
  • Rosseel, Y., (2012), "lavaan : An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling", Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v048.i02
  • Ryan, M.R., E. Deci, (2000), "Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation", American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003- 066X.55.1.68
  • Schermuly, C.C., B. Meyer, (2016), "Good Relationships at Work: The Effects of Leader- Member Exchange and Team-Member Exchange on Psychological Empowerment, Emotional Exhaustion, and Depression", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(5), 673–691, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2060
  • Scott, G., L.E. Leritz, M.D. Mumford, (2004), "The Effectiveness of Creativity Training: A Quantitative Review", Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 361–388, https://doi.org/10.1080/10400410409534549
  • Seibert, S.E., G. Wang, S.H. Courtright, (2011), "Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological and team Empowerment in Organizations: A Meta-Analytic Review", Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(5), 981–1003, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022676
  • Selig, J.P., K.J. Preacher, (2008), "Monte Carlo Method for Assessing Mediation: An Interactive tool for Creating Confidence intervals for Indirect effects", Retrieved December 13, 2018, from http://quantpsy.org/medmc/medmc.htm
  • Sevsay, H., M. Mıynat, H. Aktaş, (2017), "Teknoloji Geliştirme Bölgesi Yatırımları Finansman Modellerinin İncelenmesi", Yönetim ve Ekonomi: Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(2), 447–467, https://doi.org/10.18657/yonveek.318308
  • Shalley, C.E., J. Zhou, G.R. Oldham, (2004), "The Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity: Where Should We Go from Here?", Journal of Management, 30(6), 933–958, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.007
  • Siu, H.M., H.K.S. Laschinger, E. Vingilis, (2005), "The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Empowerment", The Journal of Nursing Education, 44(10), 459–469.
  • Snijders, T.A.B., R.J. Bosker, (1999), Multilevel Analysis: An introduction to basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling, SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Sonnentag, S., C. Niessen, S. Ohly, (2005), "Learning at Work: Training and Development", In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2004 (pp. 249–289), Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, https://doi.org/10.1002/0470013311.ch8
  • Spain, S.M., P. Harms, J.M. Lebreton, (2014), "The Dark Side of Personality at Work Dark Personality: What is Known", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 60, 41–60, https://doi.org/10.1002/job
  • Spector, P.E., (1986), "Perceived Control by Employees: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Concerning Autonomy and Participation at Work", Human Relations, 39(11), 1005–1016, https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678603901104
  • Spector, P.E., (2019), "Do Not Cross Me: Optimizing the Use of Cross-Sectional Designs", Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(2), 125–137, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869- 018-09613-8
  • Spreitzer, G.M., (1995), "Psychological Empowerment In the Workplace: Dimensons, Measurement and Validation", Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442–1465. https://doi.org/10.2307/256865
  • Stone, D.N., E.L. Deci, R.M. Ryan, (2009), "Beyond Talk: Creating Autonomous Motivation through Self-Determination Theory", Journal of General Management, 34(3), 75–91, https://doi.org/10.1177/030630700903400305
  • Sun, L-Y., W. Pan, I.H.S. Chow, (2014), "The role of Supervisor Political Skill in Mentoring: Dual Motivational Perspectives", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(2), 213–233, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1865
  • Sun, L-Y., Z. Zhang, J. Qi, Z.X. Chen, (2012), "Empowerment and creativity: A cross-level investigation", Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 55–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.11.005
  • Thomas, K.W., B.A. Velthouse, (1990), "Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An “Interpretive” Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation", Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666–681. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1990.4310926
  • Tierney, P., S.M. Farmer, (2002), "Creative Self-Efficacy: Its Potential Antecedents and Relationship to Creative Performance", Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1137– 1148. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069429
  • trainingmag.com, (2017), "2017 Training: Industry Report", Trainingmag.Com, 20–33, Retrieved from https://pubs.royle.com/publication/?i=448382#%7B%22issue_id %22:448382,%22 page%22:22%7D
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu, (2015), "Girişimlerde Mesleki Eğitim", Retrieved May 16, 2019, from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24671
  • Tynjälä, P., (2008), "Perspectives into learning at the workplace", Educational Research Review, 3(2), 130–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2007.12.001
  • Van den Broeck, A., D.L. Ferris, C.H. Chang, C.C. Rosen, (2016), "A Review of Self- Determination Theory’s Basic Psychological Needs at Work", Journal of Management, 42(5), 1195–1229, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316632058
  • Vroom, V.H., (1964), Work and motivation. John Wiley and Sons.
  • Wallace, J.C., P.D. Johnson, K. Mathe, J. Paul, (2011), "Structural and Psychological Empowerment Climates, Performance, and the Moderating Role of Shared Felt Accountability: A Managerial Perspective", Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 840– 850, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022227
  • Zhang, X., K.M. Bartol, (2010), "Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creative Process Engagement", Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107–128, https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.48037118
APA Atici K, ŞİMŞEK A, ULUCAN A, ÖZTÜRK E (2009). Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. , 161 - 186.
Chicago Atici Kazim Baris,ŞİMŞEK Aysun,ULUCAN Aydın,ÖZTÜRK Engin Bağış Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. (2009): 161 - 186.
MLA Atici Kazim Baris,ŞİMŞEK Aysun,ULUCAN Aydın,ÖZTÜRK Engin Bağış Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. , 2009, ss.161 - 186.
AMA Atici K,ŞİMŞEK A,ULUCAN A,ÖZTÜRK E Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. . 2009; 161 - 186.
Vancouver Atici K,ŞİMŞEK A,ULUCAN A,ÖZTÜRK E Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. . 2009; 161 - 186.
IEEE Atici K,ŞİMŞEK A,ULUCAN A,ÖZTÜRK E "Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları." , ss.161 - 186, 2009.
ISNAD Atici, Kazim Baris vd. "Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları". (2009), 161-186.
APA Atici K, ŞİMŞEK A, ULUCAN A, ÖZTÜRK E (2009). Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 38(2), 161 - 186.
Chicago Atici Kazim Baris,ŞİMŞEK Aysun,ULUCAN Aydın,ÖZTÜRK Engin Bağış Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 38, no.2 (2009): 161 - 186.
MLA Atici Kazim Baris,ŞİMŞEK Aysun,ULUCAN Aydın,ÖZTÜRK Engin Bağış Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.38, no.2, 2009, ss.161 - 186.
AMA Atici K,ŞİMŞEK A,ULUCAN A,ÖZTÜRK E Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 2009; 38(2): 161 - 186.
Vancouver Atici K,ŞİMŞEK A,ULUCAN A,ÖZTÜRK E Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 2009; 38(2): 161 - 186.
IEEE Atici K,ŞİMŞEK A,ULUCAN A,ÖZTÜRK E "Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları." Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 38, ss.161 - 186, 2009.
ISNAD Atici, Kazim Baris vd. "Enerji projelerinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinde çok kriterli karar verme yaklaşımları ve Türkiye uygulamaları". Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 38/2 (2009), 161-186.