Yıl: 2020 Cilt: 50 Sayı: 3 Sayfa Aralığı: 611 - 619 Metin Dili: İngilizce DOI: 10.3906/sag-2004-145 İndeks Tarihi: 24-04-2020

Antiviral treatment of COVID-19

Öz:
Currently, there is not any specific effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Although most of the COVID-19 patients havemild or moderate courses, up to 5%–10% can have severe, potentially life threatening course, there is an urgent need for effective drugs.Optimized supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy. There have been more than 300 clinical trials going on, various antiviraland immunomodulating agents are in various stages of evaluation for COVID-19 in those trials and some of them will be publishedin the next couple of months. Despite the urgent need to find an effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19 through randomizedcontrolled studies, certain agents are being used all over the world based on either in-vitro or extrapolated evidence or observationalstudies. The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .Nitazoxanide and ivermectin were also included in this review as theyhave recently been reported to have an activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and are licensed for the treatment of some other humaninfections.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Cerrahi
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
194
260
185
  • 1. Hoffmann C. Treatment. In: Kamps BS, Hoffmann C, eds. Covid Reference, Edition 2020-2. SteinHauser Verlag; Amedeo, Germany; 2020. Website www.covidreference.com [accessed 12 April 2020].
  • 2. McCreary EK, Pogue JM. Coronavirus disease 2019 treatment: a review of early and emerging options. Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2020; 7(4): ofaa105. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa105
  • 3. Kalil AC. Treating COVID-19–Off-Label Drug Use, Compassionate Use, and Randomized Clinical Trials During Pandemics. JAMA 2020. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4742
  • 4. Uyeki TM, Bernstein HH, Bradley JS, Englund JA, File TM et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of America: 2018 update on diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management of seasonal influenzaa. Clinical Infectious Disesases 2019; 68: e1. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy866
  • 5. Chan KS. Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome with lopinavir/ritonavir: a multicentre retrospective matched cohort study. Hong Kong Medical Journal 2003; 9: 399-406.
  • 6. Schrezenmeie E, Dörner T. Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology . Nature Reviews Rheumatology 2020; 16 (3): 155- 166. doi: 10.1038/s41584-020-0372-x
  • 7. Liu J, Cao R, Xu M, Wang X, Zhang H et al. Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Cell Discovery 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0.15
  • 8. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research 2020; 30: 269- 71. doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0
  • 9. Lu CC, MY, Chen, Chang YL. Potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19: What we know so far. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 2020. doi: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000318
  • 10. Yao X, Ye F, Zhang Z,Cui C, Huang B et al. In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical Infectious Diseases 2020; ciaa237. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa237
  • 11. Barlow A, Landolf KM, Barlow B, Yeung SYA, Heavner JJ et al. Review of emerging pharmacotherapy for the reatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Pharmacotherapy 2020. doi: 10.1002/ phar.2398
  • 12. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Bioscience Trends 2020; 14: 72. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.01047
  • 13. Chen J. A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) Journal of Zhejiang University 2020. doi: 10.3785/j.issn.1008- 9292.2020.03.03
  • 14. Gautret P, LagierJG, Parola P, Hoang VT, Meddeb L et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
  • 15. Gautret P, LagierJG, Parola P, Hoang VT, Meddeb L et al. Clinical and microbiological effect of a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in 80 COVID-19 patients with at least a six-day follow up: an observational study. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 2020. doi: 10.1016/ j.tmaid.2020.101663
  • 16. Chen CY, Wang FL, Lin CC. Chronic hydroxychloroquine use associated with QT prolongation and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Clinical Toxicology. 2006; 44: 173-175. doi: 10.1080/15563650500514558
  • 17. Kezerashvili A, Khattak H, Barsky A, Nazari R, Fisher JD. Azithromycin as a cause of QT-interval prolongation and torsade de pointes in the absence of other known precipitating factors. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 2007; 18: 243-246. doi: 10.1007/s10840-007-9124-y
  • 18. Furuta Y, Komeno T, Nakamura T. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B 2017; 93 (7): 449-463. doi: 10.2183/pjab.93.027
  • 19. Du YX, Chen XP. Favipiravir: pharmacokinetics and concerns about clinical trials for 2019-nCoV infection. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2020. doi: 10.1002/cpt.1844
  • 20. Sissoko D, Laouenan C, Folkesson E, M’Lebing AB, Beavogui AH et al. Experimental treatment with favipiravir for Ebola virus disease (the JIKI trial): a historically controlled, singlearm proof-of-concept trial in Guinea. PLoS Medicine 2016; 13: e1001967. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001967
  • 21. Bai CQ, Mu JS, Kargbo D, Song YB, Niu WK et al. Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Ebola Virus Disease Patients Treated With Favipiravir (T-705)-Sierra Leone, 2014. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2016; 63: 1288-1294. doi: 10.1093/cid/ ciw571
  • 22. Choy KT, Wong AYL, Kaewpreedee P, Sia SF, Chen D et al. Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Antiviral Research 2020; 178: 104786. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104786.
  • 23. Cai Q, Yang M, Liu D, Chen J, Shu D et al. Experimental treatment with favipiravir for COVID-19: an open-label control study. Engineering 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.03.007
  • 24. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J et al. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States . New England Journal of Medicine 2020; 382: 929-936. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
  • 25. Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, Diaz G, Asperges E et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine 2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007016
  • 26. Choy KT, Wong AYL, Kaewpreedee P, Sia SF, Chen D et al. Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Antiviral Research 2020; 178: 104786. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104786
  • 27. Chu CM, Cheng VC, Hung IFN,Wong MM, Chan KH et al. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: Initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax 2004; 59: 252-256. doi: 10.1136/thorax.2003.012658
  • 28. Yao TT, Qian JD, Zhu Y, Wang Y, Wang GQ. A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus–A possible reference for coronavirus disease‐19 treatment option. Journal of Medical Virology 2020. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25729
  • 29. Park SY, Lee JS, Son JS, Ko JH, Peck KR et al. Post-exposure prophylaxis for Middle East respiratory syndrome in healthcare workers. Journal of Hospital Infection 2019; 101 (1): 42-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2018.09.005
  • 30. Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, Low JG, Tan SY et al. Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3204
  • 31. Ye XT, Luo L, Xia SC, Sun QF, Ding JG et al. Clinical efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2020; 24: 3390-3396. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202003_20706
  • 32. Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wanget J et al. A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine 2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282
  • 33. Baden LR, Rubin EJ. Covid-19–The Search for Effective Therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282
  • 34. Wu J, Li W, Shi X, Chen Z, Jiang B et al. Early antiviral treatment contributes to alleviate the severity and improve the prognosis of patients With novel coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Journal of Internal Medicine 2020. doi: 10.1111/joim.13063
  • 35. Rossignol JF. Nitazoxanide, a new drug candidate forthe treatment of Middle East respiratorysyndrome coronavirus. Journal of Infection and Public Health 2016; 9: 227-230. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.04.001
  • 36. Jasenosky L D, Cadena C, Mire CE, Borisevich V, Haridas V et al. The FDA-approved oral drug nitazoxanide amplifies host antiviral responses and inhibits Ebola virus. iScience 2019; 19: 1279-1290. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2019.07.003
  • 37. Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagstaff KM. The FDA approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Research 2020. doi: 10.1016/j. antiviral.2020.104787
  • 38. Ketkar H, Yang L, Wormser GP, Wang P. Lack of efficacy of ivermectin for prevention of a lethal Zika virus infection in a murine system. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2019; 95(1): 38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.03.012
APA ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S, ÜNAL S (2020). Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. , 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
Chicago ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ Serap,ÜNAL Serhat Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. (2020): 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
MLA ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ Serap,ÜNAL Serhat Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. , 2020, ss.611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
AMA ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S,ÜNAL S Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. . 2020; 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
Vancouver ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S,ÜNAL S Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. . 2020; 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
IEEE ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S,ÜNAL S "Antiviral treatment of COVID-19." , ss.611 - 619, 2020. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
ISNAD ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ, Serap - ÜNAL, Serhat. "Antiviral treatment of COVID-19". (2020), 611-619. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-145
APA ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S, ÜNAL S (2020). Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(3), 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
Chicago ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ Serap,ÜNAL Serhat Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 50, no.3 (2020): 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
MLA ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ Serap,ÜNAL Serhat Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol.50, no.3, 2020, ss.611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
AMA ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S,ÜNAL S Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020; 50(3): 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
Vancouver ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S,ÜNAL S Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020; 50(3): 611 - 619. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
IEEE ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ S,ÜNAL S "Antiviral treatment of COVID-19." Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50, ss.611 - 619, 2020. 10.3906/sag-2004-145
ISNAD ŞİMŞEK YAVUZ, Serap - ÜNAL, Serhat. "Antiviral treatment of COVID-19". Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 50/3 (2020), 611-619. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-145