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The place and characteristics of architectural structures in the developing production, industry and energy fields are important at the point of architecture being a versatile and interdisciplinary practice. Industrial-energy facilities are buildings that are mostly established in areas outside the city and designed to be protected against environmental factors, where energy and industrial activities are carried out. Since it is a production-oriented system, it includes many different operational processes. These buildings are used for a wide range of purposes such as manufacturing, storage, and distribution. The design of an industrial building plays an important role in determining the productivity, efficiency and safety of the facility. In this view, material selection has been evaluated as a critical factor in architectural design of industrial-energy facilities. It affects the environmental sustainability, structural performance, and aesthetic appeal of the built environment. The materials used in the construction of an industrial building should also be carefully selected. These buildings experience heavy wear and tear, and therefore need to be durable and long-lasting. Steel and concrete are popular materials because of their strength and durability, while also being flexible in accommodating the changing needs of the business. This paper presents a scientific approach to material selection that considers sustainability, performance, and aesthetics criteria. Studies on the structure and other characteristics of industrial-energy facilities, which constitute the main problematic of the study, has been examined, and it has been aimed to reveal the theory and knowledge at the point of the experience of the authors. In this context, the aim of the study is to reveal the architectural features, commonly used materials and material selection criteria of industrial-energy facilities by determining them through theoretical knowledge, analysis, observation and professional experience.
Healthcare facilities have evolved from strictly functional to therapeutic places, integrating spiritual and psychological components of health. Design issues must be given specific attention to establish a therapeutic atmosphere that promotes successful therapy and stress alleviation. Color and light have a tremendous influence on the human mind and body, according to extensive studies, making them critical aspects of healthcare facility design. This study’s approach is to contribute to the construction of more effective therapeutic settings by investigating the effects of color and light on human wellness and providing design alternatives. So, it tries to provide a complete design paradigm that combines the strategic use of color and light in healthcare facility interior design. Because healthcare institutions play an important role in improving general well-being, this approach can help to create more effective healing settings. To provide the theoretical framework and collect data, this study uses a combination of library studies and descriptive research. The research initially investigates the notion of color and light, then explains their impact on physical and mental health disorders, as well as their use in therapeutic settings. The study concludes with the creation of a conceptual model and recommended design solutions for healthcare facilities.
Vineyard (Turkish: bağ) culture is a common urban phenomenon in Çukurova region communities, which have strong ties with the land, due to the favorable climate and soil conditions. Adana's historic city center and some of the vineyard settlements to the north of this area lost their rural settlement characteristic and started to be built up as a result of Hermann Jansen's planning studies that started in the 1930s, and the city continued its development as planned towards the vineyard settlements (Turkish: bağlar) to the north. Although Gazipaşa, Ziyapaşa, and Namık Kemal Neighborhoods, which were examined within the scope of the study, were planned as a result of these planning studies, they were not built according to the plan. Thus, the implemented part of the Jansen Plan was defined by the railway line located to the south of these three neighborhoods. As a result, these three neighborhoods turned into an area where vineyards began on the periphery of the planned built-up areas and became known as Bağlarbaşı (starts of vineyard area). The aim of the study is to make a morphological analysis of the transformation of the three neighborhoods formed in the area where the vineyards, which previously had a rural settlement texture, disappeared as a result of the urbanization pressure that started in the 1950s, starting from 1950 to the present day, and to examine the process dynamics and to determine the general characteristics of the vineyard culture and houses in the study area. In the study area, morphological analyses were carried out by comparing aerial photographs from 1950, 1954, 1961, current maps from 1985 and 2019, zoning plans dated 1940, 1969 and current data. In addition, the transformation was documented with photographs from various archives and oral history research was utilized. Two vineyard houses in the area were surveyed to determine their spatial characteristics. The data obtained through the studies coincide with Marcel Poëte's assertion that "the memory of a city survives in the physical structure of that city". It has been determined that today's parcel boundaries, main roads, and streets, physical formations such as thresholds and reinforcements of the three neighborhoods bear traces of the period when the neighborhoods were vineyards and gardens. In the area, a small number of vineyard houses (cottages), which are in parallel with the typological characteristics of the traditional Turkish House, have survived to the present day, albeit in ruins.
Nature-based Solutions (NbS) were introduced by the IUCN for the first time, but today have different definitions in the literature. NbS are deemed the key to urban sustainability and aim to enhance the built environment through ecological and environmental interventions to support the built environment for future extremes of climate change and related hazards. NbS include blue and green infrastructures, ecological engineering, ecosystem services and ecosystem-based adaptation. Various frameworks defined different key considerations and the literature suggests plenty of frameworks towards successful NbS applications. Current debates critique the extent to which innovative and adaptive the solutions are, whether they are implemented by considering social values and social equity, and the financial burden they often bring which strengthens the disparities between the world cities. Uncontrolled urbanization often causes cities to become an environmental problem. This paper conducts a literature review to lay out the current debates and to highlight the multidimensionality of NbS. It focuses on the potential of NbS in disaster risk reduction and so the paper draws a framework to successfully implement and provide improvements for NbS based on the theoretical ground. NbS are investments in the life quality of the residents and preventive tools in the risk management of cities. The paper attempted to frame the NbS clearer for scholars interested in the subject.
Today, livable urban spaces are very important in terms of the healthy conduct of both individual and social life. Shaped in line with human needs such as education, housing, economy, cultural and social life, the city and the livability of the city is one of the current discussion topics with its variable and dynamic structure in addition to the factors it contains. From this point of view, the concept of "livability" has been questioned in the context of urban planning. Considering the temporal resilience of cities, the semantic dimension - qualitative studies - and therefore concepts are very powerful tools. Concepts are the basis of interpretation or theorizing. The aim of the study is to develop a different perspective by revealing the measurability of more livable and happier cities and the criteria they contain through discussions and discourses on this subject. In this context, the TED platform, which is easily accessible by large masses today and popular in terms of social awareness, has been used. The content of 65 texts focusing on urban research in TED Talks between 2007 and 2023 has been analyzed and a conceptual analysis has been made through NVivo, a qualitative analysis program. The content analysis method has been used in the evaluation of the texts, and discussions and interpretations have been made based on frequency frequencies. In light of the data obtained, it has been seen that more livable cities have been associated with the codes "architectural design", "technology", "energy" and "climate" respectively. As a result; it can be said that the concept of urban livability cannot be independent of the climate crisis, ecology discussions, and energy efficiency discourses as a solution to this crisis, and architectural designs that follow the technological level of the age, and the parameters discussed in the face of changing needs and situations over time can also change.
The fringe belt phenomenon, which was conceptually put forth by Herbert Luis in 1936, developed by M.R.G. Conzen starting from 1960, and placed on a historico-geographical basis in the context of urban rent theories by J.W.R. Whitehand, has been studied by researchers with different perspectives in cities developed with distinct socio-economic and cultural dynamics in various parts of the world. This paper aims to reveal how the fringe belt concept, which emerged within the Conzenian tradition of urban morphology turn into a phenomenon, has been handled from the time it first appeared to the present, to examine the contribution of different perspectives to the fringe belt literature and to present suggestions for the development of the concept. Selected from peer-viewed journals and academic conferences, 53 different fringe belt studies were examined according to their publication periods, within the framework of spatial, economic, social, and planning perspectives previously discussed by Ünlü (2013) as well as the ecological perspective. In this context, the selected studies are examined based on the case areas, methodology, and main findings on fringe belt formation and change. Property perspective is discussed as a hybrid approach in fringe belt studies. Finally, further research proposals are emphasized in order to realize the fringe belt phenomenon as durable and sustainable urban spaces.
Today's cities are dynamic nodes where copious urban flows intersect. These flows have distinguished characteristics: the flow of money, the flow of vehicles, the flow of people who migrate, and the flow of information. The flows' amalgamation, intersection, and conflict form contemporary urban configuration and space. Many methods, such as historico-geographical, process typological, and space syntax in urban morphology studies, aspire to analyze, discuss, and design these flows. These, which have been practiced in English, Italian and French schools in Europe since the 1960s, have allowed the development of different research methodologies in the search for urban form. The article examines the postmodernist urban topo-morphological approaches, which developed in parallel with the French typo-morphological method influenced by the Italian school and the urban space perception studies of Gordon Cullen and Kevin Lynch through the Oblique Function Theory. In order to go beyond the Cartesian urban plan analysis of typo-morphological methodologies, topo-morphological approaches reexamine flows with paradigms of urban topological surface, fluid and dynamic morphologies, and architecture-landscape-infrastructure integrity. The Oblique Function Theory was theorized by architect Claude Parent and philosopher and urban theorist Paul Virilio in 1963 under the Architecture Principe group as an example of these approaches. Parent and Virilio use and utilize inclined surfaces, rejecting archetypal spatial components such as columns, walls, and roofs. The duo with inclined surfaces extrapolates the concepts of habitable circulation, mediated structure, fluid, and dynamic form in their projects with a topological perspective. Through urban sections rather than urban plans, form a topological and oblique urban order dominated and ushered by flows. The paper discusses Parent's oblique projects: Les Inclisites in 1968; Les Ponts Urbains in 1971; and Incision Urbaine in the 2000s, obtained from slightly researched archival materials and drawings to argue whether contemporary urban dynamics and flows would possibly create a contemporary urban morphology methodology and sui generis tropes with topo-morphological approaches.
This article presents the basic design course applications based on the design education of first-year interior architecture students. This study aims to emphasize the importance of education in the design-oriented thinking process with practice through the content of the basic design course. Within the scope of the study, art-based research in interior architecture education was carried out and the intersections of its results are described. In the studio, basic design elements and principles were conveyed with the techniques commonly taught in schools and architectural movements were given to students as term papers for research. The study directs the student to create 2D and 3D compositions by combining the studies he/she has done during the term and the research assignment. The findings show that students can reflect on their research on architectural movements to new three-dimensional abstract spaces by combining them with basic design education. While grounding this reflection, design process of the students is based on form and elements without color. The results also show a significant correlation between students’ practices and Gestalt Principles. This article emphasizes the importance of applying basic elements and principles of design and being integrated with field-specific studies to achieve better results in design education. This study is an experimental and original studio product. With the basic design education given only in the first semester, the students were given examples to determine and understand forms and approaches without color knowledge, especially through basic principles, using architectural movements instead of abstract expression.
Energy simulation model of the building of Eskişehir Technical University Industrial Engineering Department Academic and Administrative Staff rooms were created in this study carried in the scope of energy efficiency and performance of buildings. In the aforementioned energy simulation mode, in line with the International Measurement, Verification and Energy Needs Standards and Protocol (IPMVP) “energy consumption verification”; heating energy, indoor-outdoor environment and climate data were defined, energy consumption verification was carried out and a realistic model was achieved. Using the realistic model achieved, alternative directions were applied to alternative window wall ratios thereby calculating “reference energy consumptions” in “reference building models”. Energy consumptions, calculated by applying alternative glass types to reference models, were then compared with reference energy consumptions
Architects and planners typically rely on past experiences and exclusive methods to determine the allocation of space and planning costs. However, the actual space allocations and physical attributes of laboratory and workplace environments require further exploration, highlighting the need for more research. To address this knowledge gap, this study compared three medical research facilities' architectural, casework, and module properties to identify essential space allocations, physical attributes, and future research directions. The study utilized REVIT models to collect floor plans of three medical research facilities within the last twelve years, with variables of interest including room classification size, Building Gross Footage (BGSF), Departmental Gross Footage (DGSF), laboratory module size, and module quantity per laboratory. Space Syntax analysis was used to compare connectivity measures across the three buildings. The findings demonstrated a trend towards laboratory spaces that maximize collaboration, flexibility, and efficiency while balancing open and private workspaces. Laboratory support spaces per laboratory room increased, potentially due to a demand for greater flexibility and spatial needs. Lab workstations were relocated outside laboratory areas to enhance safety and reduce costs. The analysis also revealed a shift towards smaller lab modules with larger widths to reduce redundancy, support safer distances, reduce travel distances, and increase the number of modules per lab. Furthermore, contemporary lab workspaces had higher connectivity values, indicating a trend towards more connected, collaborative spaces that encourage meetings and spontaneous interactions. This study highlights the importance of continuously evaluating and optimizing laboratory space allocation and design to promote productivity, efficiency, and collaboration in medical research facilities. Future research should conduct longitudinal studies using empirical data to address the limitations of current research.
Since the advent and usage of artificial intelligence approaches in architecture, a significant number of studies have focused on integrating technological solutions to architectural issues. Artificial intelligence applications in architectural design range from intelligent material design to architectural plan solutions. The ubiquity and distribution of research in this field, as well as the rising use of artificial intelligence techniques to solve design challenges, require an analytical classification of the essential literature review. This article presents a descriptive and analytical review of the work on artificial intelligence applications in architecture. A strong review has been made that identifies and addresses the gaps in artificial intelligence and architecture; and the literature review is transformed into statistical plots. The study's findings indicate a growing interest in artificial intelligence in the field of architecture. There is a need for novel research to be conducted in these areas using advanced technology and techniques.
Individual residential investors are influenced by the media and their environment in their investment preferences, as they lack the experience of property investors and professional residential investors. Concerns about regret, fears of further property price rises and social circumstances put pressure on investors. Under these conditions, are individual housing investors seeing all the opportunities in the housing market? What types of buyers are taking advantage of these opportunities? This study aims to create tools to help individual residential investors identify opportunity periods in the market, analyse such opportunities retrospectively and test consumer behaviours in response to these opportunities. We analysed the opportunity for access to housing, the opportunity of lower loan interest rates and the opportunity of lower housing prices in Türkiye in the 120 months between 2013 and 2022 using the income-housing price scale. We analysed residential sales (total, credit and cash) in the opportunity periods resulting from the equations set up for the opportunity periods. We tested the criteria for selecting opportunity periods using the analysis of variation (ANOVA) method. We analysed changes in consumer preferences for credit and cash home purchases during periods of opportunity. We found that residential investors did not use the opportunity of accessing residential properties, and that cash home buyers used the opportunities of residential loan interest rates and residential price declines.
The common thread to urban movements happening worldwide in recent years is the fact that urban public space is used as a significant setting by city dwellers for expressing their “objections”. What has been experienced throughout urban movements when public spaces have been occupied enables us to grasp the meaning of occupied spaces in the city thus allowing us to get to know societies and cities. Therefore, this research has investigated the impact of urban public space on the consciousness, interaction and gathering of city dwellers as well as urban movements. Within the scope of the research, eight “rebel cities” have been analyzed, and have interviews with participants of urban movements from these cities. These are Tunis, Cairo, Barcelona, London, New York, Dublin, Paris, and Hamburg, respectively. The places where urban movements were visible in urban space and their surroundings have been analyzed using the Space Syntax method, and the gathering/unification/integration potential of public space has been spatially investigated by determining the characteristics of urban patterns. Accordingly, the city affects the formation of urban movements with its spatial pattern. In the case of Merida city, which constitutes the control sample and which was not affected by the urban movements that spread to the whole world, this finding is also supported. With the results obtained in the research, the significance of public space, as an essential element contributing to the formation of urban movements, has been proven. This study further reveals the possibility of urban spaces allowing social encounters and its importance in terms of democracy.
In this study, the spatial distribution of pharmacies is investigated in Istanbul by taking into consideration their important role for the health care delivery system. First, the growth of the number of pharmacies is compared with the growth rate of population at the city level during the last two decades within perspective of changes in health care delivery policies. Then, the growth of the number of pharmacies is compared with respect to the population growth rate of the core, intermediate and peripheral zones. The second, the changes in the pharmacy market areas are compared at the city level and in the core, intermediate and peripheral zones within the same period. Third, the regression analysis is used to show the relationships between the number of pharmacies in the districts and the population, number of hospital beds and number of physicians during the same period of time. Suggestions are made for more balanced distribution of pharmacies in order to prevent bankruptcies while sufficient accessibility provided for the customers, and for future research.
The term "citizen science" refers to scientific activity done entirely or in part by members of the public, frequently in cooperation with or under the guidance of licensed scientists. To better manage natural resources, monitor endangered species, and maintain protected areas, decision-makers, and non-governmental organizations increasingly turn to citizen science-based programs. A broad field, citizen science, offers numerous strategies for involving volunteers in research in various ways while including a whole range of research methodologies. Thus far, citizen science initiatives have been successful in advancing scientific understanding, and the advancements made by citizen scientists give a significant amount of data globally. The subject of citizen science is spreading rapidly, and its legitimacy is increasing. It also involves enhancing scientific research by utilizing a variety of subjects and data sources. Citizen science has the potential to increase stakeholder engagement, bring in new perspectives, and foster new forms of participation. Also, many initiatives are being developed in cutting-edge scientific fields. These programs now aim to solve an urgent issue or provide an answer to a research question while simultaneously enhancing community participation in science and influencing long-term policy implementation. The study utilizes to examine the citizen science projects in Izmir, Turkey according to the concepts and categorizations in the literature review in a systematic way to understand their participation levels and their potential.
As production and economic activities shaped the growth of cities during the pre-industrial era, they are still the most important factors explaining modern urbanization. Economic restructuring is being reshaped with agglomeration economies, bringing spatial restructuring with it. Regional economic growth, emergence of new centers and production foci are formed in the equilibria of positive and negative externalities of agglomeration. Positive externalities do not arise solely from internal economies of scale related to factors of production such as easy accessibility in the region. It also results from external economies of scale, including economies of localization and urbanization. On the other hand, as cities grow the attractiveness of large agglomeration and advantages of economies of scale decrease. Negative externalities in the larger agglomerations may eventually lead to decreasing returns to scale in cities. Economic view of regional science and geography considers cities maintaining equilibrium between two competing forces, i.e., centripetal forces (agglomeration) and centrifugal forces (dispersion). This study examines recent agglomeration and dispersion processes in the settlement pattern from the relationship between urbanization and economic growth. To do so, we take Izmir as a case and use general explanatory variables such as population and employment. Specifically, we investigate spatial agglomeration in the Izmir city region and metropolitan area by using population and employment data of 2009 and 2019. Based on empirical results, we discuss new sub-regions, urban centers, and clustering that emerged due to economies of scale as well as positive and negative externalities of agglomeration.
Systemic risks possess a high level of complexity and uncertainty that can be latent behind the veil of initial stress of possible disasters. They refer to, on the one hand, the functionality of interconnected systems and, on the other hand, the probability of indirect losses which can propagate through larger territories. Once considering the solid definition of resilience by the United Nations, the emphasis tends on systems’ ability to different facets of disturbance rather than the performance of the sum of each singular entity confronting the main shock. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective and a systematic review focusing on the commons of resilience and systemic risks in the frame of risk mitigation. The outcomes highlight the urgency of multidisciplinary actions, which have not been achieved yet since the 1999s earthquakes.
Starting from Gilles Deleuze's (1989, p.59) concepts of "worldization" or/and "world-image" we should consider the intersection of cinema, architecture and storytelling as an act of thinking about "world-building". Because only such action takes us through creative and political stories that will enable us to understand why the cities of the future are migrant camps. Flashdrive doesn't just give us a refugee camp story; also maps the spatio-temporal distinctions of the survival journey. It presents a migration story shaped by media dispositifs and spatial dispositifs in which power and knowledge are articulated.
Encounters with interior spaces are influenced by past experiences and state of mind. Much of how architecture is experienced therefore is not readily apparent and is sensed rather than seen. Psyche impacts this experience of lived space, from an individual’s awareness of themselves within it, to the perception of space itself. Film offers a distinctive representation of this subjective experience through its narrative form and command of visual, audio and temporal language. The emotive and visceral power of film render it an accessible and immersive medium, and as such make it uniquely placed to communicate less tangible qualities of space and character. This paper analyses the use of interior space in the film Joker (Todd Phillips, 2019). The acutely intimate discernment of the protagonist’s interior environment is the result of environmental and psychological disruption, where boundaries break down between the real and imaginary, and the surreal intrudes upon the tangible depiction of the interior. The exposition of the character’s damaged psyche within space is analysed at key points within the narrative, using collage as an exploratory, visual methodology to analyse and experiment with, to potentially reveal the less perceivable, yet invasive intangible layers of lived space. This article addresses the frequent oversight of psychological qualities of the interior in architectural discourse, through an analytical and experimental method rendering the psychological content of space visible. Defining this intangible nature of architecture as the psychosphere (or the psychological atmosphere), I term this technique the ‘psychospheric collage method’. The process consists of interrogating expressive film language and content through an architectural lens documented through sketching, storyboarding and textual enquiry. From these fragmented components I compose a new visual language capable of signifying the layered psychological atmosphere in which a character resides, thus facilitating its consideration within architectural design and enabling articulation of our intimate encounter with the interior.
The French Philosopher Michel Foucault argues that power extends to all areas at the micro level in Bentham's Panopticon theory, which was inspired by the architectural design of the Panopticon. He extends this metaphor to speak of Panoptisism as a social phenomenon used to discipline workforces through implicit strategies. Like Bentham, he does not limit his panoptic rhetoric to a mere prison setting, but instead applies it to schools, mental hospitals, hospitals and factories. The panopticon basically ensures the ubiquity of power by seeing it unseen. This article aims to reveal how panoptiism, a particular mode of disciplinary power used by Foucault, is normalized in superhero films. When surveillance and gaze practices are approached from the point of view of cinema; the question of how the gaze is positioned through the camera, where and through whose eyes the audience is looking, arises. The narrator of The Batman (2022) is Batman, and the narrative begins with the superhero reading his diary. In the film, it is determined that Gotham city has been transformed into a panoptic universe and Batman, who watches over this universe, is in the position of a guard.

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