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This article aims to reveal the social and spatial change in Bakırköy through time and to identify the drivers behind this transformation. Bakırköy has been chosen as it hosted the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires, leading to its multicultural and layered structure. It has been influenced by the dominant features of each era, shaping socio-economic changes, spatial transformations, and urban planning practices over the historical process. The interaction of these socio-spatial elements within Bakırköy encompasses broad themes such as social differentiation, economic change, and urban governance, thereby presenting case studies to examine the dynamics of urban areas in Istanbul. The research has been conducted at two levels. First, spatial changes were examined through relevant documents, literature, and historical maps. The periods were determined as the state-led development period (1923-1950), liberalization period (1950-1980), neoliberal transformation period (1980-2000), and globalization period (post-2000), with the pre-1923 period being considered separately. Subsequently, five case studies were selected to represent different functional land use at the local level. The first case study involves an area known as the İskender Çelebi Farm in the 17th century, which was chosen to represent the transformation from a food production area to industrial production in the 18th century and has become a mass housing area in the 20th century, now known as the Ataköy districts. The second and third case studies represent the transformation from industrial production areas in the 19th and early 20th centuries to residential, tourism, and shopping areas. The fourth case study focuses on the coastal strip, which was used as a public space for ‘sea baths’ in the 19th century and today exists as luxury housing projects under private ownership. The fifth case study involves an area that served as an airport in the early 20th century and is currently planned for a hospital and green spaces, although it remains a public service.Through these cases, which demonstrate the shift from the productional use of space to consumption, the study seeks to answer the following questions: First, how do demographic and economic changes play a significant role in the differentiation of urban space, and in a related context, what is the local-scale impact of changing policies on the functional change of the selected cases? The findings reveal that industrial investments, supported by transportation investments, choose their locations in the changing/transforming economic order. The decentralization of industry and the privatization or transformation of public investments into consumption-focused urban areas through public-private partnerships have also been observed. The study aims to prove that this change in space lays the groundwork for social differentiation.
This study presents a case study of the social changes brought about by participation in the Cittaslow Union in cities. The research focuses on the Perşembe district of Ordu province and aims to analyze the effects of Cittaslow on the social structure. Data collection involved the use of 100 valid surveys. The results indicate that significant social changes occurred in the Perşembe district following its participation in the Cittaslow Union. Surveys and observations show an increase in tourism activities. This is due to heightened public awareness, which has been brought about by increased official institutional efforts to inform about Cittaslow. Furthermore, the Cittaslow Union's participation in Perşembe district has resulted in the wider availability of locally sourced food, increased promotion of cycling, and a reduction in vehicle noise pollution. Furthermore, the Cittaslow Union's participation in Perşembe district has resulted in the wider availability of locally sourced food, increased promotion of cycling, and a reduction in vehicle noise pollution. These changes have had a positive impact on the district's quality of life and social structure. The community has adopted a more sustainable and participatory lifestyle because of the Union's involvement. It can be inferred that the city has benefited from the approach. The identified changes demonstrate that participation in the Cittaslow Union in the Perşembe district has positive effects on the adoption of a sustainable and participatory lifestyle within the community. This study on the effects of the Cittaslow Union in the Perşembe district can be considered an important step in promoting sustainability and social participation in cities.
In the last years of the 19th century, architects who were under the influence of the nationalist ideas that developed in the last years of the 19th century and were strengthened with the declaration of the constitutional monarchy, led to the emergence of the First National Architectural Period as a reaction. They also considered this period as an eclectic architectural style in which they reinterpreted the facade, plan and ornamental elements of Ottoman and Seljuk architecture with Western construction techniques. In this architectural process, many public buildings, hotels, bank buildings, ministry buildings, educational buildings and residences were built. Educational buildings are an important group among the new types of buildings constructed in Konya, which has maintained its political and cultural importance throughout history. In this study, the façade and spatial quality analyses of the Sanayi Mektebi, Male Teachers' High School (Dârü-l Muallimin), Girl Teachers' School (Dârü-l Muallimat) and Gazi Mustafa Kemal, Hakimiyet-i Milliye and İsmet Paşa Primary Schools, which are among the educational buildings built during the First National Architectural Period and which contributed to the identity of the city of Konya, were examined. The authenticity and conservation values of the selected educational buildings were determined and compared with each other. According to the results obtained from the façade and spatial analyses of these samples; authenticity values are determined depending on the rate of having the characteristics of the period and conservation criteria. The fact that no previous study has been carried out in this period and group of buildings using the method defined increases the originality value of the subject.
The study of design is considered as a scientific activity; however, the integration of urbanism with design thought has remained limited, which can easily be observed in the contemporary urban areas, especially in the developing countries. Thus, increasing design thinking ability and the integration of spatial planning should be a priori within urban planning and design education, and thus be practiced preventing the emergence of chaotic urban spaces. The widespread view is that basic design education increases the planning and design skills of students; therefore, it is offered during the first stage of planning education. Within the scope of the basic design courses, students experience using and transferring the formatting tools such as line, stain, texture, color, volume, light-shadow, abstraction, and perspective effectively. They learn design principles such as suitability, unity, sovereignty, contrast balance, repetition, direction, measure, range, value, motion, and hierarchy. Gestalt visual perception principles adopted by the Bauhaus school of design are often applied in basic design education. The process is completed by providing technical drawing lessons on principles and abstraction parameters. Teaching is a planned process, and objectives are determined through the cognitive-affective and psychomotor learning areas known as Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains. So, is the current education paradigm accurate and measurable? Is it possible to utilize it to improve planning and design education? For this purpose, this study researches the contribution of basic design learning outcomes to the urban planning studios and the relationship between achievement levels of students in relevant courses through knowledge and attitude tests. The research model is a case study, based on the relational analysis of quantitative data, which quantitatively propounded that the relationship between two different teaching processes is linear and positive.
Developing, experimenting, and sharing critical pedagogical approaches is becoming increasingly important in architectural education, which supposedly superposes theory and practice. In this article, the authors reveal and reflect on an enriching pedagogical approach to the traditional architectural design studio. It is acknowledged that students develop comprehensive examination and internalization abilities by developing reflective thinking and self-evaluation abilities that complement each other. Based on the pioneer educational theory of John Dewey, the researchers' selected instructional interventions. Using the action research method, four additional modes conceptualized towards disciplinary literacy -reading, mapping, discussion, and peer assessment- were injected into the traditional studio process during a semester of architectural design course. The pedagogical approach is built on questioning the two basic creativity-based abilities of learners: reflective thinking and self-assessment. The fundamental questions are: How can a reading-discussion setup designed to nurture disciplinary literacy in the design studio be a factor in developing reflective thinking ability? How can the systematic peer assessment exercise be a factor in the students' self-assessment and reflective thinking skills as a learning outcome? The results argue for the effects on students' intangible skills. The model studio setup exhibited two remarkable findings, showing that (i) the reading-discussion mode is more effective in generating reflective thinking and (ii) the systematic peer review exercise is more effective in gaining self-assessment ability. The aim is to contribute to the theory of education by making the model application in the field of architectural design studio accessible and reflective for other educators.
Rain gardens have gained importance in recent years as a green infrastructure strategy. These gardens, created to capture, filter, and absorb runoff from impervious surfaces, offer a sustainable method for addressing water-related challenges in urban areas. Incorporating rain gardens into urban areas not only addresses the challenges of heavy rainfall and flooding but also brings about ecological advantages by encouraging biodiversity, improving water quality, increasing resilience, and enhancing the aesthetic appeal of urban settings. Plant selection in rain gardens plays a crucial role in their effectiveness and sustainability. The research focused on exploring the importance of carefully choosing plants for rain gardens, aiming to help in selecting the most suitable flora and creating visually appealing, resilient, and ecologically important landscapes. For this purpose, Izmir Katip Celebi University was selected as a study area. The first step was to locate an appropriate space for a rain garden and evaluate its potential for a rain garden implementation. Next, plants suitable for a rain garden in a temperate climate were listed. Among these plants, those that can be found in Izmir were selected after contacting nurseries. Only fourteen of them were available. Utilizing the plants listed that align with the project requirements and the plant design criteria such as diverse color, high density, and proportion outlined in the literature review, a proposal for a rain garden design was recommended. Since the rain garden consists of three different zones (dry, wet, and moderate), the plants were arranged accordingly. This design was tailored to suit existing conditions, such as a temperate climate and proximity to the building. Factors like varying climate conditions or alternative rain garden placements were not accounted for in this design. Given the necessity for diverse plant selections in varying climates, research carried out across different regions holds significant value. This study, conducted in Izmir province, will enrich existing literature and provide municipalities with crucial guidance in plant selection in a rain garden project, offering valuable insights.
This study offers a critical evaluation and an alternative urban reading method for public spaces in the contemporary architectural environment by examining the presence of different identities in different spaces through the concept of heterotopia and its expansions. The exploration of heterotopia as an instrument and its methodological application in the analysis of public spaces highlights the pursuit of culturally resilient urban environments that are adaptable and meaningful for all users. Therefore, the study formulates a systematic evaluation method for public spaces by incorporating a comprehensive methodology that integrates both theoretical exploration and practical observations. The concept of heterotopia, which unfolds through parallel text–space readings, has provided the opportunity for a comparative analysis based on the differences between its definitions and the user profiles and usage practices of public spaces. This study establishes a consistent analytical framework through a meticulously crafted "seven-step view lens" derived from an extensive review of architectural discussions on heterotopias. This innovative lens categorizes heterotopias into three distinct groups according to specific criteria and contexts, facilitating a detailed examination of public spaces' diverse aspects. By systematically categorizing the identified heterotopias, the study not only deconstructs their existing narratives but also proposes transformative strategies for future design interventions. Such categorization allows for a nuanced critique and interpretation of public spaces, potentially guiding the design of urban areas that are more inclusive and reflective of societal needs. These classifications offer a fresh perspective on public spaces, revealing their potential as platforms for vibrant social interaction and cultural expression, thereby contributing to the dialogue on urban resilience. Hence, the multifaceted nature of heterotopia offers a powerful lens for understanding urban complexity, informing a shift towards inclusive, sustainable, and resilient design. Ultimately, the study highlights the role of heterotopia as a method that interrogates the production of spaces coexisting with the 'other,' unravels its dynamics, and proposes an approach for creating dynamic, inclusive, and adaptive public spaces. This study will contribute to architectural discourse by offering a new perspective on how public spaces can be designed or reimagined to accommodate and reflect the diversity and dynamism inherent in contemporary urban life and offers a pathway for crafting public spaces that are resilient to social and cultural flux while serving as platforms for diverse community engagement.
Disasters and crisis situations are unforeseen events. When a disaster occurs, the most critical step after the intervention at the scene is the health and treatment services provided in hospitals. Since it is of vital importance that hospitals, where health services are provided, are accessible and operational when faced with natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes, fires, epidemics, CBRN events, wars, and crises such as cyber-attacks, economic problems, hospitals must protect themselves against a disaster hazard and plan what to do during and after the disaster. This review was written to emphasize the importance of hospitals and their resilience in times of crisis and disaster.Hospitals can enhance their resilience by strengthening both their physical and social aspects. It is essential to create resistance in hospitals not against specific dangers such as fire and earthquake, but against all crises that may occur in the system. A hospital must first identify its structural and non-structural risks to enhance its physical resilience. To enhance social resilience, a hospital should plan its organisations and human resources, establish accurate information communication, and engage in logistics and financial planning. It is crucial to guarantee uninterrupted patient care and all supportive services. Measures should be taken for decontamination and evacuation of patients when necessary while also ensuring the overall security of the hospital. As a result, hospital resilience plays a critical role in maintaining healthcare services, effectively managing emergencies, and generally protecting public health. Further studies are needed to strengthen this resistance.
Urbanization is increasing all around the world due to population growth and big cities receive a high volume of migrants due to economic and social reasons. However, rapid population growth should be prevented in big cities in order to provide comfortable living conditions to the population. When urban planning practices do not catch the speed of urbanization; the tendency towards vertical architecture increases, the amount of green space decreases and problems related to unplanned urbanization come to the fore. These important problems, which have considerably increased recently in Türkiye, may lead greater problems in many respects. The parallel and self-sufficient development of urban and rural areas, which is defined as urban sustainability, is considered as the best-case scenario in urban planning practices. This aim is adopted nowadays by most of the countries in the world as it prevents rapid population growth in cities and depopulation in rural areas. Decisions which are taken to ensure urban sustainability are important for all countries. However, these decisions become even more important in regions with disaster risk. As the majority of Türkiye’s land area is under seismic risk, the problems which may arise due to rapid urbanization during an earthquake should be prevented. The damage and losses which could occur during an earthquake and the security, health, education problems which will arise after the earthquake can be solved by preventing dense housing and uncontrolled migration in urban areas. The connection between urban and rural areas should be strengthened. Besides, the social and economic sustainability of the rural area should be ensured. Settlements should be designed away from fault lines with a holistic approach as “living spaces” which consist components such as; transportation, infrastructure, green spaces and educational spaces. Additionally; the use of appropriate construction techniques and materials should be accepted as a priority. In this context, it can be mentioned that traditional building techniques, which have been developed over centuries and whose deficiencies have been improved during this period, should be preferred especially in rural areas. In this study, the criteria that gain importance in the construction of earthquake resistant and sustainable settlements are evaluated on Türkiye case. The precautions which should be taken to ensure rural sustainability and to prevent the depopulation of rural areas are emphasized. Within this scope, the importance of protecting the architectural texture and regenerating traditional building culture was discussed in constructing earthquake resistant settlements.
Crises that occur after natural disasters are real and serious issues that can cause serious depression. A crisis is a situation in which a smooth process suddenly turns into a depression with negative, dangerous consequences. Since our country is in an earthquake-prone region and has experienced earthquakes with great losses, it has a very traumatic history. The concept of crisis, which spreads over a wide area, is a phenomenon that needs to be talked about by drawing boundaries. Natural disasters cause crises, and crises cause trauma. Resilience is the most effective way to deal with natural disasters and the traumas that follow. Resilience can be considered as the ability to adapt to the adverse conditions caused by external factors causing the crisis for disaster management. Psychological resilience is defined as the ability to cope with the negative consequences that may follow a natural disaster and adaptation to a negative situation. The phenomenon of resilience is important for both the individual and the society in societies where major natural disasters such as earthquakes are experienced. This definition of psychological resilience points to an approach that leaves the individual on his/her own in the face of disaster, crisis, and trauma by placing a great responsibility on the individual. However, individuals who have been exposed to natural disasters should not be left on their own and all opportunities should be mobilised to help them. Passive exposure to the wounds caused by natural disasters decays both the individual and the society. Instead, engaging in emotional, mental, social, and artistic investments and taking part in new and multiple fields will benefit the individual and the society in order to tackle the wounds.
Along with other causes of migration, earthquakes have displaced millions of people worldwide over the last few decades, forcing them to move to other settlements within the country. As an "earthquake country", Turkey, where approximately 70% of its territory is located in the seismic zone, has faced a variety of environmentally forced migration that refers to a variety of demographic movements like evacuation, flight, displacement, resettlement, as well as forced migration. Disasters and disaster-related forced migrations as an aspect of survival anxiety have severe and irreversible consequences for the existence of physical security, human dignity, health, livelihoods, shelter, and social, economic, and cultural structures and processes of societies or their subunits. Therefore, disasters and disaster-induced migration, which can be defined as a process of significant vulnerability, are considered widespread and severe threats to the enjoyment and realisation of fundamental rights. Earthquake-related forced migration phenomenon is a widespread and high-risk factor, and this risk corresponds to a closer and more destructive possibility for the province of Istanbul. Therefore becomes vital to take preventive measures to mitigate the possible destructive effects as well as to eliminate the risks as much as possible. This study aims to determine whether relevant legislation is adequate to provide an effective and sufficient protection mechanism for environmental displacement that may occur in Istanbul after a significant earthquake for the purpose of “building resilience in crisis” in the view of international standards. Thus, it also emphasises the importance of the human rights approach and legal mechanisms in establishing resilience during crises. This study has been prepared by content analysing the disaster and emergency preparedness plans, policy texts, and relevant legal and regulatory provisions related to understanding and managing the earthquake-induced migration scenario in Istanbul.
Extreme heat represents one of the most challenging climate change impacts of the Anthropocene, exerting influence not only on the economy and built environment but also on daily human life, posing threats to health. Within the existing literature, heatwaves and extreme heat phenomena have predominantly been examined at the urban scale, emphasizing the vulnerabilities inherent in urban areas. Conversely, rural areas are often highlighted for their advantages related to the natural environment. However, a broader perspective reveals that rural areas have their unique vulnerabilities that warrant careful consideration. This paper seeks to comparatively assess the vulnerabilities of urban and rural areas. Through an extensive literature review, the paper explores the divergent resilience of urban and rural areas across economic, social, environmental, structural, and governmental factors. The study concludes that both rural and urban areas exhibit distinct advantages and disadvantages, influencing their levels of vulnerability and resilience. This research is instrumental in providing a comprehensive outlook on resilience studies related to extreme heat.
In the past three years, there has been no crisis more "unexpected" than the COVID-19 epidemic, which was deemed as pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Indeed, urban planning must play a significant role in resolving the pandemic dilemma. So, given that pandemics are natural disasters and environmental factors are their primary cause, how is it possible we are still experiencing this outbreak even though “resilience” and “sustainability” principles are ingrained in urban planning paradigms? Accordingly, it is essential to grasp how to incorporate “sustainability” and “resilience” ideas into urban planning processes and to develop the institutional capability to manage and monitor these procedures. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to clarify how sustainability and resilience principles might help to define the essential elements of the "post-pandemic" urban planning paradigm through conceptual analysis and a thorough assessment as the methodology. The first section discusses the necessity of the two most relevant concepts of urban planning paradigms; “sustainability” and “resilience” to tackle with pandemics, followed by the discussion of the “pandemic city” and “post-pandemic city” concepts. Finally, the last chapter explores how the attributes of resilience and sustainability can contribute to “post-pandemic urban planning” paradigm.
Resilience in the face of crises is crucial for minimizing the impact of disasters and enabling rapid recovery. This study delves into the interlinked consequences of two seismic events that significantly impacted Türkiye in 1999 and 2023. Using an impact chain analysis, the aim is to provide a thorough understanding of the extensive effects on structures, infrastructure, and socio-economic dynamics. The research also examines the evolution of disaster management practices from the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake to the more recent seismic events in 2023, highlighting advancements in risk management and resilience. Structurally, both seismic events revealed vulnerabilities in building design, emphasizing seismic shortcomings that led to widespread damage. Earthquakes exert a profound impact on critical infrastructure, affecting transportation, communication, and energy systems, with cascading effects that extend to the broader socio-economic landscape. The effectiveness of the methodology, particularly, the Impact Chain analysis, is emphasized as it reveals complex causal relationships. Visual representations support effective communication and collaboration among stakeholders, offering a holistic perspective on systemic risks. In conclusion, this study contributes to understanding disaster resilience and provides a foundation for subsequent research, policy formulation, and pragmatic strategies for disaster preparedness and response.
Within the Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector we see movements toward greater use of industrial robots, machine learning, algorithms, and other artificial intelligence (AI) tools. Yet, the AEC industry, despite being one of the largest fields on a global scale, is known for being the slowest to digitalize and innovate. Factors such as unrecognizing the value of digitalization by the decision-makers and making safety-related decisions under high levels of uncertainty, appear to be critical in preventing successful large-scale digitalization. This situation raises multiple questions from a risk science perspective. How, among other things, might the expansion of AI and more specifically AI algorithms usage in the AEC field affect uncertainties, and could AI be considered a tool for preventing crises? To obtain responses to these questions, we conducted 21 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with AEC employees who are currently using AI and AI algorithms or will soon be doing so in their everyday work. Our findings show potential for wider use within the AEC field, subject to overcoming knowledge gaps. Moreover, although having the potential to reduce some uncertainties, the increased use of AI and AI algorithms appears to be introducing an entirely new set of uncertainties. As a result, although AI may effectively prevent certain crises and be regarded as crisis prevention tool, its inadequate implementation could potentially create new risks.
This study explores the collective learning process that evolved in the cities, towns, and districts damaged in the February 6, 2023, Kahramanmaraş earthquakes in Türkiye. Employing a multi-methods approach and a dataset comprising a review of relevant documents, semi-structured interviews, and field observations, we examine four fundamental stages of collective learning – knowledge acquisition, information distribution, interpretation, and organizational memory – in assessing the learning process in communities exposed to the devastation and trauma of the earthquakes. The study highlights the importance of adaptation, change, and collective growth as communities struggle to cope with the demands incurred by the disaster, and identifies factors that inhibit such growth in practice. In the aftermath of the Kahramanmaraş earthquakes, individuals and organizations sought to adapt their existing knowledge and practices to meet the challenges posed by recovery from this disaster and to build a consensual understanding of changes needed to achieve sustainable reduction of continuing seismic risk. The study underscores the vital Importance of timely and accurate Information In enabling Individuals and organizations to make informed decisions during and after the chaos engendered by the earthquakes. It highlights the pivotal role of technology in bridging communication gaps and facilitating the flow of critical information. The study concludes by identifying inaccurate information as the most harmful characteristic inhibiting collective learning, and by emphasizing the importance of aligning collective learning processes simultaneously among diverse groups within the community and across jurisdictional levels of operation. This study offers valuable insights into how to translate collective learning from traumatic events into sustained measures to reduce the risk of future disasters, going beyond resilience to achieve sustainable risk reduction. By understanding the factors that drive collective learning and the challenges that can arise, policymakers and practitioners can develop more effective strategies for supporting collective learning in the aftermath of extreme events.
This photo essay and accompanying text visualize and represent the work that was based in London, UK of a collective project called Land Body Ecologies (LBE), a global transdisciplinary network exploring the deep interconnections of mental health and ecosystem health. LBE's research and action work combined science, art, and public engagement to understand and redress the ongoing crisis of land trauma among land-dependent and Indigenous peoples who nonetheless display remarkable resilience. The research and action have been rooted within communities seeking resilience for their interlinked culture, environment, and land rights, so that they could comprehend, document, and overcome the crises and traumas endured when their land suffers. LBE's London-based work is presented through photos of the arts-science-community space that anchored the work around the world.
The study of systems' ability to self-organize, internal structural balance, and space partitioning is the focus of a larger body of theories produced by mathematicians in the second half of the twenty-first century, which includes fractal theory and analysis. These theories focus on how the distribution of forms and urban functions within an urban agglomeration, the sequencing of the settlement system, the choice of a specific style of localization, or the evolution of urban sprawl is influenced by a region with inhomogeneous characteristics. The study's objective is to quantify how urban macro-forms reflect urban space. It is aimed to use fractal analysis, one of the methods that examine the structure of urban areas, as a measurement technique and to increase the recognition of this method in the community. When performing fractal analysis, the study area is generally evaluated holistically. Determining the place of the parts that make up this whole within the analysis is another aim of the study. The most basic method used in the study is the Fractal Analysis method. In order to make a relevant evaluation, Fractalyse 3.0 program was used. Two bases were created for the urban spots to be used in the program. While one of these bases is the parcels of Elazığ city center, the other one is buildings. In order to measure the parts of the whole mentioned as one of the aims of the study, three different regions of the city were identified and fractal analyzes were carried out separately for those regions. The study field covers all the central 42 neighborhoods where Elazığ city develops. According to the results obtained from the analysis, the Fractal dimension value of the city was 1.62. This value is a very interesting result as it is considered a transition criterion for cities to be fringed and compact. Accordingly, Elazığ city is a fringed city in the process of becoming compact. In the analysis of three different sections containing the parts that make up the whole, the fractal value of Doğukent neighborhood, located in the easternmost part of Elazığ city, was calculated as 1.70. This area, which has a compact structure, presents a positive response against the urban sprawl. The sample taken from the central part of the city, called the Center, showed a high value of 1.89 in fractal dimension. The fractal dimension value of the sample selected from the south of the city showed a high fringed result of 1.32.
This paper examines placemaking and the outcomes of urban design issues in a waterfront area. The fine-grained urban fabric has played an important role in waterfront regeneration schemes globally. Acting towards environmental challenges to provide green spaces has increasingly become a favourable approach since the 2010s. An ideas competition was held in 2020 to address the issues on the waterfront of the Haliç area. The seven semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the competing discourses on each project created by the teams who attempted to deal with the unsolved urban fabric. Making use of a series of semi-structured interviews, this research paper investigates the existence of the urban fabric as a place-shaping continuum in the Halic area.
This study aims to illustrate the formation of the urban tissue over the Roman theatre in the walled core of Zaragoza. Within the scope of the study, the typological plan of the city was prepared using the building surveys taken in 1911, and the plan was interpreted as a historical organism. The basic types in the city are determined, and methods of the process-based typology are used to reveal the formation process of a selected urban tissue that is an example of the rebasification of a specialized building. In this example, a Roman theatre was repurposed as a foundation for constructing residential buildings and affected the formation process of the urban block until its discovery.

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