Yıl: 2014 Cilt: 31 Sayı: 1 Sayfa Aralığı: 3 - 10 Metin Dili: İngilizce İndeks Tarihi: 29-07-2022

Epidemiology of Tularemia

Öz:
Tularemia is considered to haveexisted in Anatolia forseveral thou-sandyears. There aresuspicions regarding itsusein biological war-farein theNeshite-Arzawan conflict. Thecausative agent of tularemia mayhavefirstbeenusedasa biological weapon in 1320-1318 BC. Thedisease hasrecently become a significant re-emerging disease globally as wellas in Turkey. In theperiod of 2001-2010, Kosovo had thehighest annual incidence in Europe at a rateof5.2per100,000. Sweden, Finland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Norway, Serbia-Mon-tenegro, Hungary, Bulgaria, andCroatia follow withrates of2.80, 1.19, 1.0,0.81, 0.42, 0.4,0.36, 0.21, and0.15per100,000 people, respectively. Tularemia inTurkey wasfirstreported inthesoldiers living in theregion veryclose to theKaynarca Stream ofThrace in 1936. It hasstarted to gainmore andmore importance, especially in recent decades in Turkey, dueto a veryhighnumber of cases andits spread throughout thecountry. A totalof 431tularemia cases werere-corded in Turkey in 2005, buta significant reduction wasobserved in thenumber of thecases in thenextthreeyears; thenumber of patients decreased to 71in 2008. Thenumber of cases increased again in 2009 andcontinued in subsequent years. Thenumber of cases reached 428, 1531, 2151, and607in 2009, 2010, 2011, and2012, respectively. The number ofcases peaked in2011 inTurkey, andwasinfacthigher thanthetotalnumber ofcases in allEuropean Union countries. The number of cases is higher in females thanmales in Turkey. In Turkey, 52%of cases of tularemia diagnoses occur fromDecember to March andthemostcommon clinical presentation is theoropharyngeal form caused bycontaminated water. Rodents arethemostlikely sources of tularemia outbreaks in Turkey as wellas in Kosovo. Organisms such as ticks, fliesandmosquitoes arevectors of tularemia transmission to mammals. Because tickscancarry thebacteria bybothtransovarial andtransstadial transmission, theyplaya roleinthelifecycle of tularemia as both reservoir and vector.
Anahtar Kelime:

Konular: Cerrahi
Belge Türü: Makale Makale Türü: Derleme Erişim Türü: Erişime Açık
0
0
0
  • 1. Lindquist D, Chu MC, Probert WS. Francisella and Brucella (Translat-ed By: Çetinkaya Z.) In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML, Pfaller MA (Eds.). (Translation Editors: Başustaoğlu A, Kubar A, Yıldıran ŞT, Tanyüksel M.) Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Clini-cal Microbiology). 9.edition. Washington: ASM pres (Ankara Atlas Yayıncılık): 2009. p.815-24.
  • 2. Ellis J, Oyston PC, Green M, Titball RW. Tularemia. Clin Microbiol Rev2002;15:631-46. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Pınar A. Biyolojik Silah Olarak Mikroorganizmalar. Hacettepe Tıp Der-gisi 2010;41:97-104.
  • 4. Hodges L, Penn RL. Tularemia and Bioterrorism. In: Fong and Alibek (Eds.). Bioterrorism and Infectious Agents. New York: Springer Science Business Media; 2005. p.71-98.
  • 5. Gürcan Ş. Francisella tularensis ve Türkiye'de Tularemi. Mikrobiyol Bul2007;41:621-36.
  • 6. Tularemi Hastalığının Kontrolü İçin Saha Rehberi. Temel Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü Zoonotik Hastalıklar Daire Başkanlığı. Ankara: Başak Matbaacılık; 2011. p.1-18.
  • 7. Plevnelioğlu KH. Memleketimizde tularemi. Tedavi Kliniği ve Laboratuvarı Dergisi 1936;6:119-35.
  • 8. Özdemir D. Salgınların Ekonomik ve Sosyal Etkileri. In: Gürcan Ş (Ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri; 2009. p.133-5.
  • 9. Trevisanato SI. The "Hittite plague", an epidemic of tularemia and the first record of biological warfare. Med Hypotheses 2007;69:1371-4. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Trevisanato SI. Did an epidemic of tularemia in Ancient Egypt affect the course of world history? Med Hypotheses 2004;63:905-10. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Eliasson H, Broman T, Forsman M, Bäck E. Tularemia: Current Epidemiologyand Disease Management. Inf Dis Clin N Am 2006;20:289-311. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Sjöstedt A. Tularemia: history, epidemiology, pathogen physiology, and clinical manifestations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007;1105:1-29. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Keim P, Johansson A, Wagner DM. Molecular Epidemiology, Evolution,and Ecology of Francisella. Ann N Y Acad Sci2007;1105:30-66. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Kılıç S. A General Overview of Francisella tularensis and the Epidemi-ology of Tularemia in Turkey. Flora 2010;15:37-58.
  • 15. Francisella. In: Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS (Eds.) Bailey&Scott'sDiagnostic Microbiology. 12th ed. Missouri: Mosby Elsevier; 2007. p.440-3.
  • 16. Mikalsen J, Olsen AB, Tengs T, Colquhoun DJ. Francisella philomiragiasubsp. noatunensis subsp. nov. , Isolated From Farmed Atlantic Cod (Go-dus morhua L.) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007;57:1960-5. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Ottem KF, Nylund A, Karlsbakk E, Friss- Moller A, Krossoy B, Knappsk-og D. New Species in the Genus Francisella sp. nov. Isolated from Cod (Gadus morhua) Arch Microbiol 2007;188:547-50. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Colquhoun DJ, Duodu S. Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms. Vet Res 2011;42:47. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Huber B, Escudero R, Busse HJ, Seibold E, Scholz HC, Anda P, et al. Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolated from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsu-fiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Francisella. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol2010;60:1887-96. [CrossRef]
  • 20. Qu PH, Chen SY, Scholz HG, Busse HG, Gu Q, Kämpfer P, et al. Fran-cisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. isolated from air conditioning systems. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013;63:3628-35. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Splettstoesser W. Microbiological Characteristics and Genetic Structure of Francisella tularensis. International Symposium on Francisella Tu-larensis and Tularemia Abstract Book p.8-9, 19-22 June 2013, Ürgüp-Nevşehir.
  • 22. Geyik MF, Akalın H. Dünyada Tularemi. In: Gürcan Ş (Ed.). Francisellatularensis ve Tularemi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri; 2009. p.99-106.
  • 23. Helvaci S, Gedikoglu S, Akalin H, Oral HB. Tularemia in Bursa, Tur-key: 205 cases in ten years. Eur J Epidemiol 2000;16:271-6. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Gürcan Ş, Eskiocak M, Varol G, Uzun C, Tatman Otkun M, Şakru N, et al. Tularemia re-emerging in European Part of Turkey after 60 years. Jpn J Infect Dis 2006;59:391-3.
  • 25. Gürcan Ş, Otkun MT, Otkun M, Arikan OK, Ozer B. An outbreak of tula-remia in Western Black Sea region of Turkey. Yonsei Med J 2004;45:17-22.
  • 26. Özel TV. Dr. Talat Vasfi Özel'in 1937 yılı yazında Trakya tularemi tetkikatı. Türk Hij Tec Biol Der 1938;1:1-30
  • 27. Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, et al. Tularemia as a Biological Weapon Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA 2001;285:2763-73. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Gürcan Ş, Varol Saraçoğlu G, Karadenizli A, Özkayın EN, Öztürk ŞZ, Çiçek C, et al. Tularemia as a result of outdoor activities for children in the countryside. Turk J Med Sci 2012;42:1044-9.
  • 29. Gotschlich E, Berkin T. 1936 yılında Trakya'da tularemiye ait yapılan epidemiyolojik ve bakteriyolojik araştırmalar. Turk Hij Tecr Biyol Derg1938;1:115-23.
  • 30. Dirik K. Van Gölü havzasında Tularémie. Turk Hij Tecr Biyol Derg1939;2:193-5.
  • 31. Golem SB. Lüleburgaz'da yeni bir tularemi epidemisi. Turk Hij Tecr Biyol Derg 1945;5:27-40.
  • 32. Utku İE. Antalya'da tularemi epidemisi ve hususiyetleri. Turk Hij Tecr Biyol Derg 1954;14:288-93.
  • 33. Erbay A, Dokuzoğuz B, Baykam N, Güvener E, Diker S, Yıldırmak T. Ankara yöresinde tularemi. İnfeksiyon Dergisi 2000;14:453-8.
  • 34. Ozdemir D, Sencan I, Annakkaya AN, Karadenizli A, Guclu E, Sert E, et al. Comparison of the 2000 and 2005 outbreaks of tularemia in the Duzce region of Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis 2007;60:51-2
  • 35. Leblebicioğlu H, Esen S, Turan D, Tanyeri Y, Karadenizli A, Ziyagil F, et al. Outbreak of tularemia: a case-control study and environmental investigation in Turkey. Int J Infect Dis 2008;12:265-9. [CrossRef]
  • 36. Celebi G, Baruonu F, Ayoglu F, Cinar F, Karadenizli A, Uğur MB, et al. Tula-remia, a reemerging disease in northwest Turkey: epidemiological investiga-tion and evaluation of treatment responses. Jpn J Infect Dis2006;59:229-34.
  • 37. Sahin M, Atabay HI, Bıcakcı Z, Unver A, Otlu S. Outbreaks of tularemia in Turkey. Kobe J Med Sci 2007;53:37-42.
  • 38. Meric M, Willke A, Finke EJ, Grunow R, Sayan M, Erdogan S, et al. Evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic features of 145 tula-remia cases: the role of quinolones in oropharyngeal tularemia. APMIS 2008;116:66-73. [CrossRef]
  • 39. Meriç M, Sayan M, Willke A, Gedikoğlu S. Su kaynaklı küçük bir tula-remi salgını. Mikrobiyol Bul 2008;42:49-59.
  • 40. Acicbe Ö, Aydın H, Doğancı L. Havza/Samsun Bölgesi'nde tularemi ende-misi: İzlenen olguların retrospektif yorumu. İnfeksiyon Dergisi 2007;21:55-8.
  • 41. Meriç M, Sayan M, Dündar D, Willke A. Tularaemia outbreaks in Sa-karya, Turkey: case-control and environmental studies. Singapore Med J 2010;51:655-9.
  • 42. Karabay O, Gürcan Ş, Karadenizli A, Vahaboglu H. Second tularemia out-break within 5 years in same village of Bolu, Turkey. The First Interna-tional Congress of Central Asia Infectious Diseases. Program and AbstractsBook, p.80. October 30- November 2, 2006. Bishkek, Kyrgy Republic.
  • 43. Barut S, Cetin I. A tularemia outbreak in an extended family in Tokat Province,Turkey: observing the attack rate of tularemia. Int J Infect Dis2009;13:745-8.[CrossRef]
  • 44. Gönena İ. A small outbreak of tularemia in a rural area. Turk J Med Sci2013;43:75-8.
  • 45. Engin A, Altuntaş EE, Cankorkmaz L, Kaya A, Elaldı N, Şimşek H, et al. Sivas İlinde Saptanan İlk Tularemi Salgını: 29 Olgunun Değerlendirilmesi. Klimik Dergisi 2011;24:17-23. [CrossRef]
  • 46. Tatman Otkun M, Akçalı A, Karadenizli A, Ozbey N, Gazel D, Sener A, et al. Çanakkale'de Hızla Önlenen Bir Tularemi Salgınının Epidemiy-olojik Olarak Değerlendirilmesi. Mikrobiyol Bul 2011;45:48-57.
  • 47. Ulu Kılıç A, Kılıç S, Sencan I, Ciçek Şentürk G, Gürbüz Y, Tütüncü EE, et al. 2011. İç Anadolu Bölgesinde Francisella tularensis alt tür halorctica'ya Bağlı Su Kaynaklı Bir Tularemi Salgını. Mikrobiyol Bul2011;45:234-47.
  • 48. Dikici N, Ural O, Sümer S, Öztürk K, Albayrak Yiğit O, Katlanır E, et al. Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey. Mikrobiyol Bul2012;46:225-35.
  • 49. Ulu-Kilic A, Gulen G, Sezen F, Kilic S, Sencan I. Tularemia in Central Anatolia. Infection 2013;41:391-9. [CrossRef]
  • 50. Şahin M. Francisella tularensis'in Vektörleri ve Doğal Rezervuarları. In: Gürcan Ş (Ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri; 2009. p.139-60.
  • 51. Telford SR, Goethert HK. Toward an understanding of the perpetuation of the agent of tularemia. Front Microbiol 2011;150:1-7.
  • 52. Chen W, Shen H, Webb A, KuoLee R, Conlan JW. Tularemia in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with Francisella tularensis LVS and chal-lenged intradermally, or by aerosol with virulent isolates of the pathogen: protection varies depending on pathogenvirulence, route of exposure, and host genetic background. Vaccine 2003;21:3690-700. [CrossRef]
  • 53. Wobeser G, Campbell GD, Dallaire A, McBurney S. Tularemia, plague, yersiniosis and Tyzzer's disease in wild rodents and lagomorphs in Can-ada: A review. Can Vet J 2009;50:1251-6.
  • 54. Christova I, Gladnishka T. Prevalence of Infection With Francısella tula-rensis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Rodents From an Endemic Focus of Tularemia In Bulgaria. Ann Agric Environ Med 2005;12:149-52.
  • 55. Reintjes R, Dedushaj I, Gjini A, Jorgensen TR, Cotter B, Lieftucht A, et al. Tularemia outbreak investigation in Kosovo: case control and envi-ronmental studies. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:69-73. [CrossRef]
  • 56. Otlu S. Hayvanlarda Tularemi Araştırmaları ve Dünyada Durum. In: Gürcan Ş (Ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri; 2009. p.161-8.
  • 57. Kaygusuz S, Arikan O, Azkur K, Simsek H, Gazyagci S, Muluk N, et al. Epidemia of tularemia in Central Anatolia. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2010;9:1702-6. [CrossRef]
  • 58. Kılıçturgay K, Gökırmak F, Gedikoğlu S, Helvacı S, Töre O, Tolunay Ş. Bursa'da tularemi epidemisi. İnfeksiyon Dergisi 1989;3:149-56.
  • 59. Özsan K, Fazh A, Aktan M, Beyoğlu K. Brucellosis, tularemia and bor-reliosis isolated from wild animals captured in Ankara, Konya, Urfa and Nevsehir provinces in Turkey. Mikrobiyol Bul 1976;10:413-21.
  • 60. Ünal-Yılmaz G, Gürcan Ş, Özkan B, Karadenizli A. Investigation of Francisella tularensis by using culture, serology and molecular methods in rats of Thrace Region, Turkey. International Symposium on Francisel-la tularensis and Tularemia. Abstract Book, p.51-52. 19-22 June 2013, Ürgüp, Nevşehir.
  • 61. Abd H, Johansson T, Golovliov I, Sandström G, Forsman M. Survival and growth of Francisella tularensis in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003;69:600-6. [CrossRef]
  • 62. Petersen JM, Schriefer ME. Tularemia: emergence/re-emergence. Vet Res 2005;36:455-67. [CrossRef]
  • 63. Cbelli VJ, Hodapp FA, Ferguson EW, et al. Tularemia: Potential for transmission by birds. Zoonoses Res 1964;3:99-124.
  • 64. Padeshki PI, Ivanov IN, Popov B, Kantardjiev TV. The role of birds in dis-semination of Francisella tularensis: first direct molecular evidence for bird-to-human transmission. Epidemiol Infect 2010;138:376-9. [CrossRef]
  • 65. Petersen JM, Mead PS, Schriefer ME. Francisella tularensis: an arthro-pod-borne pathogen. Vet Res 2009;40:1-9. [CrossRef]66. Olin G. The occurence and mode of transmission of tularemia in Swe-den. Acta Pathol 1941;29:220-47.
  • 67. Yeşilyurt M, Kılıç S, Çağaşar Ö, Çelebi B, Gül S. Yozgat İlinde Kene Kaynaklı İki Tularemi Olgusu. Mikrobiyol Bul 2011;45:746-54.
  • 68. Şencan İ, Şahin İ, Kaya D, Öksüz Ş, Özdemir D, Karabay O. An out-break of oropharyngeal tularemia with cervical adenopathy predomi-nantly in the left side. Yonsei Med J 2009;50:50-4. [CrossRef]
  • 69. Miller AA. Tularemia and new data on its epidemiology. Sov Vrach Gaz1935;39:187-98.
  • 70. Şahin İ. Tulareminin Genel Epidemiyolojik Özellikleri. In: Gürcan Ş (Ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabev-leri; 2009. p.89-93.
  • 71. Grunow R, Kalaveshi A, Kühn A, Mulliqi-Osmani G, Ramadani N. Surveillance of tularaemia in Kosovo, 2001 to 2010. Euro Surveill2012;17:20217.
  • 72. Gürcan Ş. Francisella tularensis ve tularemi hastalığının epidemiyolo-jisi. XXXV. Türk Mikrobiyoloji Kongresi Özet Kitabı s.149-50. 3-7 No-vember 2012, Kuşadası-Aydın.
  • 73. Jackson J, McGregor A, Cooley L, Ng J, Brown M, Ong CW, et al. Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica, Tasmania, Australia, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis 2012;18:1484-6. [CrossRef]
  • 74. Whipp MJ, Davis JM, Lum G, et al. Characterization of a novicida-like subspecies of Francisella tularensis isolated in Australia. J Med Micro-biol 2003;52:839-42. [CrossRef]
  • 75. Gedikoğlu S, Göral G, Helvacı S. Bursa'daki tularemi epidemisinin özellikleri. İnfeksiyon Dergisi 1990;4:9-15.
  • 76. Willke-Topçu A. Bursa ve Kocaeli Yöresi Salgınları. In: Gürcan, Ş. (Ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabev-leri; 2009. p.115-6.
  • 77. Gedikoğlu S. 2004. Bakteriyel Zoonozlar: Tularemi. XXXI. Türk Mi-krobiyoloji Kongresi. XXXI.Türk Mikrobiyoloji Kongresi Kongre Kitabı, p.123-12419-23 September 2013, Kuşadası, Aydın.
  • 78. Turhan V, Ardıç N, Şahinoğlu L, Beşirbellioğlu BA, Gedikoğlu S. A General View to Tularemia Cases in Turkey: On to a Pure Oropharyn-geal Type Outbreak. AJCI 2007;1:71-7.
  • 79. Karabay O, Kılıç S, Gürcan Ş, Pelitli T, Karadenizli A, Bozkurt H, et al. Cervical lymphadenitis: tuberculosis or tularaemia? Clin Microbiol Infect 2013;19:113-7. [CrossRef]
  • 80. Torunoğlu MA. Tularemi Epidemiyolojisi Tularemi Vakalarının Coğrafik Dağılımı. 4. Türkiye EKMUD Kongresi Kongre Kitabı p.100-3. 9-12 May 2012, Pendik-İstanbul. Int J Infect Dis 2009;13:745-8.
  • 81. Rydén P, Sjöstedt A, Johansson A. Effects of climate change on tularae-mia disease activity in Sweden. Glob Health Action 2009;2:1-7.
APA GÜRCAN Ş (2014). Epidemiology of Tularemia. , 3 - 10.
Chicago GÜRCAN Şaban Epidemiology of Tularemia. (2014): 3 - 10.
MLA GÜRCAN Şaban Epidemiology of Tularemia. , 2014, ss.3 - 10.
AMA GÜRCAN Ş Epidemiology of Tularemia. . 2014; 3 - 10.
Vancouver GÜRCAN Ş Epidemiology of Tularemia. . 2014; 3 - 10.
IEEE GÜRCAN Ş "Epidemiology of Tularemia." , ss.3 - 10, 2014.
ISNAD GÜRCAN, Şaban. "Epidemiology of Tularemia". (2014), 3-10.
APA GÜRCAN Ş (2014). Epidemiology of Tularemia. Balkan Medical Journal, 31(1), 3 - 10.
Chicago GÜRCAN Şaban Epidemiology of Tularemia. Balkan Medical Journal 31, no.1 (2014): 3 - 10.
MLA GÜRCAN Şaban Epidemiology of Tularemia. Balkan Medical Journal, vol.31, no.1, 2014, ss.3 - 10.
AMA GÜRCAN Ş Epidemiology of Tularemia. Balkan Medical Journal. 2014; 31(1): 3 - 10.
Vancouver GÜRCAN Ş Epidemiology of Tularemia. Balkan Medical Journal. 2014; 31(1): 3 - 10.
IEEE GÜRCAN Ş "Epidemiology of Tularemia." Balkan Medical Journal, 31, ss.3 - 10, 2014.
ISNAD GÜRCAN, Şaban. "Epidemiology of Tularemia". Balkan Medical Journal 31/1 (2014), 3-10.